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Introduction Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Current chapter introduces two additional methods of analysis. .amF r Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass, = r

mass, velocity, and time. velocity and displacement. solved through the fundamental equation of motion, Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri akademik. peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan 2010. Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New

were dari portal secara gratis bagi Jersey,

/3/. Hibbeler, R.C. Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008. /2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G. Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008 /1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R. seperti tercantum berikut ini: kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS

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Contents Mulyadi Bur Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri A N D A L A S U N I V E R S I T Y S t r u c t u r a l D y n a m i c s L a b o r a t o r y DYNAMICS Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Sample Problem 13.3 Sample Problem 13.2 Sample Problem 13.1 Power and Efficiency Applications of the Principle of Work & Energy Principle of Work & Energy Work of a Force Introduction ENGINEERING MECHANICS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS( ) Work of a force during a finite displacement, Work of a Force

Differential vector is the particle rd r a 1 ( ) zyx t ++= dzFdyFdxF 1 s .zyx ++= dzFdyFdxF displacement.

Work is represented by the area under the 1 == cos dsFdsF A A 2 1 = rdF r r 2 s s A A t curve of F 21 .2 2 s a 6/22 proportional to deflection. Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is Work of a Force plotted against s.

Work is a scalar quantity. it has cos ( ) xFU D= dsF = = rdFdU r a 8/22 negative of area under curve of F plotted against x.. Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to .e.U Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Work of a constant force in rectilinear motion..e. 5/22 Dimensions of work are force. when the spring is returning to Work of the force exerted by spring is positive 2 2 2 1 1 2 21 .356lb1ftm 1N 1 J 1 ==joule magnitude and sign but not direction. i. i. length · Work of a Force ( ) ( )( ) J 1.

. weight W and vertical displacement Dy. ( ) 2 1 1 x -=-= 2 21 kxkxdxkxU x 1 21 2 < x -=-= when x dxkxdxFdU lb/in. Work of the weight is positive when Dy < 0. 2 1 Work of the force exerted by spring. when the weight moves down. .e.( ) xFFU D+-= its undeformed position.or N/mconstant spring = = k kxF Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS 7/22 i.

Work of the weight is equal to product of 12 ( ) D-=--= yWyyW dyW dyW dzFdyFdxFdU Work of the force of gravity. Force acts normal to path and does no Wish to determine velocity of pendulum bob 10/22 Velocity found without determining 2 2 glv . cos r 1 y 2 y zyx -= -= ++= 21 21 U Units are Work of the force is Work of a Force Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS= 0): Work of a Force Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Forces which do not do work (ds = 0 or cos a 12/22 Forces which do no work are eliminated from All quantities are scalars and can be added expression for acceleration and integrating.

0 2211 =+ directly. and moves along surface. weight of a body when its center of gravity moves reaction at a roller moving along its track. reaction at frictionless surface when body in contact reaction at frictionless pin supporting rotating body. 2 at A Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy horizontally. Consider work & kinetic energy. TUT P r work.v 2 g W 2 1 = 2 =+ Wl the problem. Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS 11/22 The work of the force energykineticmvTTTU 9/22 is equal to the change in == JmNm Units of work and kinetic energy are the same: . .

Mm m tt mmaF Gdr dr 2 1 2 . = == == 2 2 r to A Mm t Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by 2 1 Integrating from A .ds dv mv 12 r dt dv Mm G ==-= 1 2 2 mvmvdvvmdsF dvmvdsF dt 2 ds s m kg 2 1 ds dv r kinetic energy of the particle.

Energy r Mm F r G 1 r -=-= 2 v -== 2 = 2 F r 2 1 s m kg v r force -=-= 1221 1 21 GFdrdU t U s 2 2 .

2 == mvT 1 1 2 path shown). occupies fixed position O while particle m follows Work of a gravitational force (assume particle M s Work of a Force Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMSW746 s lbft 550 hp 1or s m N 1 dt rdF r s J r Power and Efficiency Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 1 (watt) W 1 =  .

inputpower outputpower input work koutput wor efficiency === Units for power are Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity. vF r = r dt == dU = = = =h 16/22 .

1 Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri ( )( ) lbft481000882. Determine the distance required for the work to Sample Problem 13.324000 sft88 U 2 s 3600 h mi 2 1 ft 5280 .ft 418=x 14/22 ( ) =- 0lb1151lbft481000 x x 2211 =+ TUT ( ) ( ) ( )( ) xx lb1151 5sinlb4000lb1500 -= +-= 21 equal the kinetic energy change.

1 2 h mi 2 === = 22 == Tv 00 1 60 Evaluate the change in kinetic energy. 1 mvT . SOLUTION: Power = rate at which work is done.

. l gl 2 SOLUTION: g =+= W l 2 2 Sample Problem 13. .1 v Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS 15/22 required for the work to equal 13/22 the kinetic energy change. Determine the distance Evaluate the change in 2 3 W kinetic energy.1 v WP g W =WP nn = amF As the bob passes through A application of Newton s second law.

Determine the distance traveled by the causing a constant total breaking force 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied driven down a 5 o An automobile weighing 4000 lb is Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri = 2 of 1500 lb. glv 2 Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS2 2 ( ) ( )( ) ( ) kg200m2N490m2 vF 2 1 2 AAC 1 ( ) =( ) ( ) m2m20 . be applied to directly determine the incline at a speed of Principle of work and energy cannot Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri automobile as it comes to a stop.of work and energy with an requires supplementing the method Calculating the tension in the cord acceleration of the pendulum bob.

vmFF N490N196225.2 Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri weightless and frictionless. the work of the When the two relations are blocks A and B.25 and that the pulley is m 20/22 unknown in the relation is the and energy for the rebound of compressed and the velocity is and energy between the initial 18/22 2 velocity at the final position.0 2211 ( )( ) 2 : TUT WNF N1962sm81.2 for the velocity. = 0. and energy separately to Apply the principle of work SOLUTION: Sample Problem 13. cable forces cancel. . Solve combined. Apply the principle of work and energy separately SOLUTION: Sample Problem 13.9kg200 C =-+ =+ AkAkA m m ( )( ) ==== == A W to blocks A and B.

The package has . The only Apply the principle of work the relation is the friction zero.3 : 2211 TUT N2940sm81. The only unknown in which the spring is fully position and the point at Apply the principle of work 2 ( ) ( )( ) ( ) kg300m2N2940m2 vF 2 1 2 BBc 1 coefficient. and (b) the velocity of the package as it friction between the package and surface Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic is 40 mm.5 m/s in the position shown compressed 120 mm. SOLUTION: ( ) ( ) m2m20 vmWF 2 Sample Problem 13.the package.9kg300 c =+=+=+ == B W Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri passes again through the position shown. and the maximum deflection of the spring a velocity of 2.

and is held by cables so that it The spring has a constant k = 20 which is sliding on a horizontal A spring is used to stop a 60 kg Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS is initially kN/m surface. the work 17/22 2 2 2 ( ) v 2 kg500J 4900 1 2 kg300kg200m2N490m2N2940 1 2 ( ) ( )( ) ( ) kg300m2N2940m2 vF 1 2 ( ) ( )( ) ( ) kg200m2N490m2 vF 1 = +==- .4=v ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) v When the two relations are combined. package 19/22 2 sm 43.

If the system is released Two blocks are joined by an inextensible Unand LDS 6 210 TMS Unand LDS 6 210 TMS( ) ( ) ( ) J112J377 3 2 ef ( ) 2 1 3 2 2 1 += J36.2 Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri k the plane is coefficient of friction between block A and A after it has moved 2 m.5 k 323232 +-=+= . of the cable forces cancel. Assume that the from rest. Solve for the Sample Problem 13.c =+C velocity. determine the velocity of block cable as shown.

3 ( )( )( ) ( ) kk m 2 ( )( ) 0J5. Apply the principle of work and energy for the Sample Problem 13.UUU m 32 kg600 vmvTT === rebound of the package.0sm81.2kg60 2 2 1 k 1 2 m -=-= J377m640.9kg60 2 .187sm5.

-= m sm103.360 : 1 =+ 3322 =+ TUT k ( ) ( ) ( ) J112J377 ef 212121 --=+= UUU m LDS 20.0= k m .1 3 =v 3 2 ( ) v 2 kg60J5.

112m040.0mkN20 k ( ) m 22/22 Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand 6 210 TMS 21/22 0J112J 377-J5.0N3200N2400 maxmin ( ) ( ) ( )( ) N3200m160.187 : 2211 ( )( ) N2400m120.=( )( ) J0.0mkN20 2 -=+-= 1 2 D+-= 1 =+ 2 1 TUT e ( ) f .

3 Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand LDS 6 210 TMS . position and the point at which spring is fully xPPU xxkP kxP Apply principle of work and energy between initial SOLUTION: Sample Problem 13.( ) xWU 1 21 0max ==D+= 0min === 21 ==== TmvT compressed.