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2.

2MOIST AIR PROPERTIES


1. Humidity Ratio

The humidity ratio of moist air is the ratio of the mass of water vapour mw to
the mass of dry air ma contained in the mixture of the moist air, in lb/lb (kg/kg).

mw 0.622 pv

ma Pat pv

For moist air at saturation:

Ws

0.622 ps
Pat ps

2. Relative Humidity
The relative humidity of moist air, or RH, is defined as the ratio of the mole
fraction of water vapour xv in a moist air sample to the mole fraction of the water
vapour in a saturated moist air sample xs at the same temperature and pressure.

xv
p
v
xs T ,p ps

3. Degree of Saturation
The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of the humidity ratio of moist
air W to the humidity ratio of the saturated moist air Ws, at the same
temperature and pressure.
P p
W

at s
Ws T,p
Pat pv
4. Dew Point
The dew point td is the temperature of saturated moist air at the same pressure
and humidity ratio as the given mixture.

Ws Pat ,td W

5. Enthalpy
The enthalpy h of a mixture of perfect gases is equal to the sum of the
enthalpies of each constituents,

h ha Whv

And for the air-water vapour mixture is usually referenced to the mass of dry air.

cpa 0.240 Btu lbm F cpv 0.444 Btu lbm F


In English units.
Enthalpy of saturated water vapour

ig

,
at 0 F is 1061.2 Btu/lbm.
1

h 0.240t W1061.2 0.444t Btu lbma


cpa 1.0 kJ kg C cpv 1.86 kJ kg C
In SI units.

Enthalpy of saturated water vapour

h 1.0t W 2501.3 1.86t kJ kga

ig
at 0 C is 2501.3 kJ/kg.

6. Moist Volume
The moist volume of moist air v, ft3/lb (m3/kg), is defined as the volume of the
mixture of the dry air and water vapour when the mass of the dry air is exactly
equal to 1 lb (1 kg), that is,

V
ma

Where,
Then,

V = total volume of mixture, ft3 (m3).


ma = mass of dry air, lb (kg).

V RaTR 1 1.6078W

ma
Pat

Ra 53.352 ft lbf lbm R


Ra 287 J kg K
7. Density
The air density a, in lb/ft3 (kg/m3), is defined as the ratio of the mass of dry air to
the total volume of the mixture, i.e., the reciprocal of moist volume.

ma 1

V v

8. Specific Heat of moist air at constant pressure


The specific heat of moist air at constant pressure cpa is defined as the heat
required to raise its temperature 1 F (0.56 C) at constant pressure.

cpa 0.243 Btu lb F


cpa 1020 J kg K

9. Adiabatic Saturation

An adiabatic saturation process is a steady-flow process at total constant


pressure through a control volume, for which there is no heat, and in which a
liquid and the gas flowing through (presumably) arrive at a local equilibrium
state containing saturated vapour before the exit section is reached.

Figure 1. Schematic of adiabatic saturation device.


Consider the device shown in Figure 1. The apparatus is assumed to operate so
that the air leaving at point 2 is saturated. The temperature t2, where the
relative humidity is 100 percent, is then defined as the adiabatic saturation
temperature t*2, or thermodynamic wet bulb temperature. If we assume that the
device operates in a steady-flow-steady-state manner, an energy balance on the
control volume yields,

ha1 W1hv1 Ws*2 W1 hw* Ws*2 hv*2 ha*2

Or

W1 hv1 hw* cpat2* t1 Ws*2 hv*2 hw*

Where the * superscript refers to the adiabatic saturation temperature, and

W1 hv1 hw* cpat2* t1 Ws*2 h*fg2

Solving for W1 yields,

W1

cpat2* t1 Ws*2 h*fg2


hv1 hw*

W1 hv1 hw* cpat2* t1 Ws*2 h*fg2 W1


is a function of t1, t*2, P1,

It can be concluded that


P2, since

Ws*2

0.622 pv2
P2 pv2

pv2 = ps2 at t*2 the enthalpy of vaporization h *fg2 depends only on t*2; the enthalpy
of the vapour hv1 is a function of t1; and h*w is a function of t*2. Therefore, the
humidity ratio of an air-water vapour mixture can be determined from the
entering and leaving temperatures and pressures of the adiabatic saturator.

Example No. 1
The pressure entering and leaving an adiabatic saturator is 14.696 lbf/in. 2, the
entering temperature is 80 F, and the leaving temperature is 64 F. Compute the
humidity ratio W1 and the relative humidity 1.
Given:
Pressure = 14.696 lbf/in2.
Entering temperature = 80 F
Leaving temperature = 64 F
Required:

Humidity ratio W1 and relative humidity


Solution:

t2* 64 F

pv2 ps2

t2*
at

Ws*2

W1

=0.299 lbf/in.2

0.622pv2
0.622 0.299

0.0129 lbmv lbma


P2 pv2 14.696 0.299

cpat2* t1 Ws*2 h*fg2


hv1 hw*

Using Table A-1a, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, 5 th Edition. F.C.
McQuiston et al. (Properties of Water-Steam)

hw* 32 Btu lbm


at 64 F

hv1 1096 Btu lbm

at 80 F
*
fg2

1057.1 Btu lbm

at 64 F
0.24 64 80 0.0129 1057 .1
W1
0.0092 lbmvlbma
1096 32
Then solving for pv1 we have,
4

W1

0.6219 pv1
0.0092 lbmvlbma
14.696 pv1

pv1 0.2142 psia

Finally,
p
0.2142
v1
0.423 42.3%
ps1 0.507
10.Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures
The temperature of an air-vapour mixture read with a dry thermometer is
called the dry-bulb temperature. If the bulb of the thermometer is surrounded by
a wet fabric, liquid is evaporated as air is blown over it causing the temperature
to drop in a process similar to the adiabatic saturation process. This lower
reading when properly taken, is called the wet-bulb temperature. One of the
common instruments is a sling psychrometer, which consists of two
thermometers, one dry bulb and one wet bulb, attached to a handle so that they
may be easily whirl about the axis of the handle. The amount by which the
moisture on the fabric is cooled, td tw, is called the wet bulb depression.
11.Sensible Heat and Latent Heat
Sensible heat is that heat energy associated with the change of air temperature
between two state points. The enthalpy of moist air calculated at a datum state
0 F(-17.8 C) can be divided into two parts:
h cpa WcpvT Whfg
The first term on the right-hand side indicates the sensible heat. It depends on

the temperature above the datum 0 F (-17.8 C).


Latent heat hfg (sometimes called hig) is the heat energy associated with the
change of the state of water vapour. The latent heat of vaporization denotes the
latent heat required to vaporize liquid water into water vapour. Also, the latent
heat of condensation indicated the latent heat to be removed in the
condensation of water vapour into liquid water. When moisture is added to or
removed from a process or a space, a corresponding amount of latent heat is
always involved, to vaporize the water or to condense it.
In the equation, the second term on the right hand side,Whfg, denotes latent
heat. Both sensible and latent heat are expressed in Btu/lb (kJ/kg) of dry air.
12.Atmospheric Air
Atmospheric air is a mixture of many gases plus water vapor and countless
pollutants. Aside from the amount of water vapor and pollutants, which may vary
considerably, the composition of the gases making up dry air is nearly constant,
varying slightly with time, location, and altitude.
The ASHRAE Handbook summarized standard atmospheric data for altitudes
up to 60,000 ft (18,291 m). Atmospheric pressure may be estimated as a
function of elevation by the following relation:

P a bH
5

Where the constants


and
are given in Table 1 and
is the elevation
above sea level in feet or meters. The pressure P in inches of mercury or
kilopascals.

a
Table 1. Constants
Constant

b
and

H 4000 ft or1220 m

H 4000 ft or1220 m

IP
29.92

SI
101.325

IP
29.42

SI
99.436

-0.001025

-0.01153

-0.0009

-0.010

13.SAMPLE PROBLEMS
13.1 Calculate values of humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume for
saturated air at one standard atmosphere using perfect gas relations for
temperatures of (a) 20 C and (b) 20 F .
Given:
Saturated air at standard atmosphere and (a) 20 C and (b) 20 F.
Required:
Humidity ratio
Enthalpy
Specific volume
Solution:
(a) In SI units, t = 20 C
Humidity Ratio:
p
p
Ws 0.622 s 0.622 s
pa
P ps
at t = 20 C, ps = 0.00234 MPa = 2.34 kPa
P = 101.325 kPa
2.34
Ws 0.622
101 .325 2.34
= 0.0147 kgv/kga
h 1.0t W 2501 .3 1.86t
kJ/kga
h 1.0 20 0.0147 2501 .3 1.86 20
= 57.3 kJ/kga
Specific Volume:
Ra = 287 J/kg.K
RT RT
v a a
pa P ps

287 20 273.15
101.325 2.34 1000
= 0.85 m3/kga

(b) In English units, t = 20 F


Humidity Ratio:
p
p
Ws 0.622 s 0.622 s
pa
P ps
at t = 20 F
ps = 0.0505 psia from ASHRAE HANDBOOK
P = 14.696 psia
0.0505
Ws 0.622
14 .696 0.0505
= 0.00215 lbmv/lbma
Enthalpy:
h 0.240t W1061 .2 0.444t
Btu/lbma
h 0.240 20 0.00215 1061 .2 0.444 20
= 7.1 Btu/lbma
Specific Volume:
Ra = 53.352 ft-lbf/lbm-R
RT RT
v a a
pa P ps
v

53.352 20 459 .67


14.696 0.0505 144

= 12.14 ft3/lbma
13.2 Air with a dry bulb temperature of 70 F and wet bulb temperature of 65 F is at
a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg. Without making use of psychrometric
chart, find (a) the relative humidity of the air, (b) the vapor density, (c) the dew
point, (d) the humidity ratio, and (e) the volume occupied by the mixture
associated with a pound mass of dry air.
Given:
Dry bulb = 70 F
Wet bulb = 65 F
Barometric pressure = 29.92 in Hg
Required:
a. Relative humidity
b. Vapour density
c. Dew point
d. Humidity ratio
e. Volume occupied per pound mass of dry air.
Solution:
t1
= 70 F
7

t2
= 65 F

Ws2
Solving for
pv2
ps2
=
at 65 F = 0.3095 psia
P2 P1
= 29.92 in Hg = 14.696 psia
pv2
0.3095

Ws2 0.622
0.622
P2 pv2
14.696 0.3095
= 0.01338 lbmv/lbma
W1

Solving for
, Eq. (3-21c)

cpa t2 t1 Ws2 hfg2


W1
hv1 hw

hfg2

hfg
=
hf

hw

at 65 F = 1056.5 Btu/lbm
at 65 F = 33 Btu/lbm

hg

hv1

at 70 F = 1091.7 Btu/lbm
0.24 65 70 0.01338 1056 .5
W1
1091 .7 33
= 0.012219 lbmv/lbma

pv 1
Solving for

W1 0.622

pv1
P1 pv1

0.012219 0.622

pv1
14.696 pv1

pv1
= 0.2832 psia
ps1
at 70 F,
= 0.363 psia
(a)
Relative Humidity
p
0.2832
v1
ps1 0.363
= 0.78 or 78 %
(b) Vapor Density

pv
0.2832 144

RvT 85.78 70 459 .67


= 0.000898 lbmv/ft3

(c)

Dew Point
pv1
At
= 0.2832 psia
tdp

= 62.54 F
Humidity Ratio

m
W v W1
a
m
= 0.012218 lbmv/lbma
(e)
Volume occupied by mixture per pound of mass of dry air.
R T 53.352 70 459 .67
v a
pa 14.696 0.2832 144
= 13.62 ft3/lbma
(d)

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