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59 views9 pagesShows the properties of moist Air. This document will help all students taking up science related courses.

Jun 12, 2015

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Shows the properties of moist Air. This document will help all students taking up science related courses.

© All Rights Reserved

59 views

Shows the properties of moist Air. This document will help all students taking up science related courses.

© All Rights Reserved

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1. Humidity Ratio

The humidity ratio of moist air is the ratio of the mass of water vapour mw to

the mass of dry air ma contained in the mixture of the moist air, in lb/lb (kg/kg).

mw 0.622 pv

ma Pat pv

Ws

0.622 ps

Pat ps

2. Relative Humidity

The relative humidity of moist air, or RH, is defined as the ratio of the mole

fraction of water vapour xv in a moist air sample to the mole fraction of the water

vapour in a saturated moist air sample xs at the same temperature and pressure.

xv

p

v

xs T ,p ps

3. Degree of Saturation

The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of the humidity ratio of moist

air W to the humidity ratio of the saturated moist air Ws, at the same

temperature and pressure.

P p

W

at s

Ws T,p

Pat pv

4. Dew Point

The dew point td is the temperature of saturated moist air at the same pressure

and humidity ratio as the given mixture.

Ws Pat ,td W

5. Enthalpy

The enthalpy h of a mixture of perfect gases is equal to the sum of the

enthalpies of each constituents,

h ha Whv

And for the air-water vapour mixture is usually referenced to the mass of dry air.

In English units.

Enthalpy of saturated water vapour

ig

,

at 0 F is 1061.2 Btu/lbm.

1

cpa 1.0 kJ kg C cpv 1.86 kJ kg C

In SI units.

ig

at 0 C is 2501.3 kJ/kg.

6. Moist Volume

The moist volume of moist air v, ft3/lb (m3/kg), is defined as the volume of the

mixture of the dry air and water vapour when the mass of the dry air is exactly

equal to 1 lb (1 kg), that is,

V

ma

Where,

Then,

ma = mass of dry air, lb (kg).

V RaTR 1 1.6078W

ma

Pat

Ra 287 J kg K

7. Density

The air density a, in lb/ft3 (kg/m3), is defined as the ratio of the mass of dry air to

the total volume of the mixture, i.e., the reciprocal of moist volume.

ma 1

V v

The specific heat of moist air at constant pressure cpa is defined as the heat

required to raise its temperature 1 F (0.56 C) at constant pressure.

cpa 1020 J kg K

9. Adiabatic Saturation

pressure through a control volume, for which there is no heat, and in which a

liquid and the gas flowing through (presumably) arrive at a local equilibrium

state containing saturated vapour before the exit section is reached.

Consider the device shown in Figure 1. The apparatus is assumed to operate so

that the air leaving at point 2 is saturated. The temperature t2, where the

relative humidity is 100 percent, is then defined as the adiabatic saturation

temperature t*2, or thermodynamic wet bulb temperature. If we assume that the

device operates in a steady-flow-steady-state manner, an energy balance on the

control volume yields,

Or

W1

hv1 hw*

is a function of t1, t*2, P1,

P2, since

Ws*2

0.622 pv2

P2 pv2

pv2 = ps2 at t*2 the enthalpy of vaporization h *fg2 depends only on t*2; the enthalpy

of the vapour hv1 is a function of t1; and h*w is a function of t*2. Therefore, the

humidity ratio of an air-water vapour mixture can be determined from the

entering and leaving temperatures and pressures of the adiabatic saturator.

Example No. 1

The pressure entering and leaving an adiabatic saturator is 14.696 lbf/in. 2, the

entering temperature is 80 F, and the leaving temperature is 64 F. Compute the

humidity ratio W1 and the relative humidity 1.

Given:

Pressure = 14.696 lbf/in2.

Entering temperature = 80 F

Leaving temperature = 64 F

Required:

Solution:

t2* 64 F

pv2 ps2

t2*

at

Ws*2

W1

=0.299 lbf/in.2

0.622pv2

0.622 0.299

P2 pv2 14.696 0.299

hv1 hw*

Using Table A-1a, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, 5 th Edition. F.C.

McQuiston et al. (Properties of Water-Steam)

at 64 F

at 80 F

*

fg2

at 64 F

0.24 64 80 0.0129 1057 .1

W1

0.0092 lbmvlbma

1096 32

Then solving for pv1 we have,

4

W1

0.6219 pv1

0.0092 lbmvlbma

14.696 pv1

Finally,

p

0.2142

v1

0.423 42.3%

ps1 0.507

10.Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

The temperature of an air-vapour mixture read with a dry thermometer is

called the dry-bulb temperature. If the bulb of the thermometer is surrounded by

a wet fabric, liquid is evaporated as air is blown over it causing the temperature

to drop in a process similar to the adiabatic saturation process. This lower

reading when properly taken, is called the wet-bulb temperature. One of the

common instruments is a sling psychrometer, which consists of two

thermometers, one dry bulb and one wet bulb, attached to a handle so that they

may be easily whirl about the axis of the handle. The amount by which the

moisture on the fabric is cooled, td tw, is called the wet bulb depression.

11.Sensible Heat and Latent Heat

Sensible heat is that heat energy associated with the change of air temperature

between two state points. The enthalpy of moist air calculated at a datum state

0 F(-17.8 C) can be divided into two parts:

h cpa WcpvT Whfg

The first term on the right-hand side indicates the sensible heat. It depends on

Latent heat hfg (sometimes called hig) is the heat energy associated with the

change of the state of water vapour. The latent heat of vaporization denotes the

latent heat required to vaporize liquid water into water vapour. Also, the latent

heat of condensation indicated the latent heat to be removed in the

condensation of water vapour into liquid water. When moisture is added to or

removed from a process or a space, a corresponding amount of latent heat is

always involved, to vaporize the water or to condense it.

In the equation, the second term on the right hand side,Whfg, denotes latent

heat. Both sensible and latent heat are expressed in Btu/lb (kJ/kg) of dry air.

12.Atmospheric Air

Atmospheric air is a mixture of many gases plus water vapor and countless

pollutants. Aside from the amount of water vapor and pollutants, which may vary

considerably, the composition of the gases making up dry air is nearly constant,

varying slightly with time, location, and altitude.

The ASHRAE Handbook summarized standard atmospheric data for altitudes

up to 60,000 ft (18,291 m). Atmospheric pressure may be estimated as a

function of elevation by the following relation:

P a bH

5

and

are given in Table 1 and

is the elevation

above sea level in feet or meters. The pressure P in inches of mercury or

kilopascals.

a

Table 1. Constants

Constant

b

and

H 4000 ft or1220 m

H 4000 ft or1220 m

IP

29.92

SI

101.325

IP

29.42

SI

99.436

-0.001025

-0.01153

-0.0009

-0.010

13.SAMPLE PROBLEMS

13.1 Calculate values of humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume for

saturated air at one standard atmosphere using perfect gas relations for

temperatures of (a) 20 C and (b) 20 F .

Given:

Saturated air at standard atmosphere and (a) 20 C and (b) 20 F.

Required:

Humidity ratio

Enthalpy

Specific volume

Solution:

(a) In SI units, t = 20 C

Humidity Ratio:

p

p

Ws 0.622 s 0.622 s

pa

P ps

at t = 20 C, ps = 0.00234 MPa = 2.34 kPa

P = 101.325 kPa

2.34

Ws 0.622

101 .325 2.34

= 0.0147 kgv/kga

h 1.0t W 2501 .3 1.86t

kJ/kga

h 1.0 20 0.0147 2501 .3 1.86 20

= 57.3 kJ/kga

Specific Volume:

Ra = 287 J/kg.K

RT RT

v a a

pa P ps

287 20 273.15

101.325 2.34 1000

= 0.85 m3/kga

Humidity Ratio:

p

p

Ws 0.622 s 0.622 s

pa

P ps

at t = 20 F

ps = 0.0505 psia from ASHRAE HANDBOOK

P = 14.696 psia

0.0505

Ws 0.622

14 .696 0.0505

= 0.00215 lbmv/lbma

Enthalpy:

h 0.240t W1061 .2 0.444t

Btu/lbma

h 0.240 20 0.00215 1061 .2 0.444 20

= 7.1 Btu/lbma

Specific Volume:

Ra = 53.352 ft-lbf/lbm-R

RT RT

v a a

pa P ps

v

14.696 0.0505 144

= 12.14 ft3/lbma

13.2 Air with a dry bulb temperature of 70 F and wet bulb temperature of 65 F is at

a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg. Without making use of psychrometric

chart, find (a) the relative humidity of the air, (b) the vapor density, (c) the dew

point, (d) the humidity ratio, and (e) the volume occupied by the mixture

associated with a pound mass of dry air.

Given:

Dry bulb = 70 F

Wet bulb = 65 F

Barometric pressure = 29.92 in Hg

Required:

a. Relative humidity

b. Vapour density

c. Dew point

d. Humidity ratio

e. Volume occupied per pound mass of dry air.

Solution:

t1

= 70 F

7

t2

= 65 F

Ws2

Solving for

pv2

ps2

=

at 65 F = 0.3095 psia

P2 P1

= 29.92 in Hg = 14.696 psia

pv2

0.3095

Ws2 0.622

0.622

P2 pv2

14.696 0.3095

= 0.01338 lbmv/lbma

W1

Solving for

, Eq. (3-21c)

W1

hv1 hw

hfg2

hfg

=

hf

hw

at 65 F = 1056.5 Btu/lbm

at 65 F = 33 Btu/lbm

hg

hv1

at 70 F = 1091.7 Btu/lbm

0.24 65 70 0.01338 1056 .5

W1

1091 .7 33

= 0.012219 lbmv/lbma

pv 1

Solving for

W1 0.622

pv1

P1 pv1

0.012219 0.622

pv1

14.696 pv1

pv1

= 0.2832 psia

ps1

at 70 F,

= 0.363 psia

(a)

Relative Humidity

p

0.2832

v1

ps1 0.363

= 0.78 or 78 %

(b) Vapor Density

pv

0.2832 144

= 0.000898 lbmv/ft3

(c)

Dew Point

pv1

At

= 0.2832 psia

tdp

= 62.54 F

Humidity Ratio

m

W v W1

a

m

= 0.012218 lbmv/lbma

(e)

Volume occupied by mixture per pound of mass of dry air.

R T 53.352 70 459 .67

v a

pa 14.696 0.2832 144

= 13.62 ft3/lbma

(d)

End -

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