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This chart gives a summary of 3 approaches to teaching. It may help instructors to evaluate their own teaching approach. But we do not recommend that this analysis be given to health workers. Analyzing stories and role plays will work better. So pass by this chart if you want.

CONVENTIONAL Function to CONFORM Resist change. Keep social order stable. Strategy Teach people to accept and 'fit in' to the social situation without changing its unjust aspects. CONTROL themespecially poor working people—farm and city.

PROGRESSIVE to REFORM Change people to meet society's needs. Work for certain improvements without changing the unjust aspects of society. PACIFY or CALM themespecially those whose hardshios drive them to protest or revolt.

L I B E R AT I N G to TRANSFORM Change society to meet people's needs. Actively oppose social injustice, inequality, and corruption. Work for basic change. FREE them from oppression, exploitation, and corruption.

Intention toward people



;hange. General approach Effect or. sacpla and the community How students (and people generally) are viewed A U T H O R I TA R I A N (rigid top-down control) OPPRESSIVE-ng\d centrai Stlfh&£i*u ill-...-- II--:-- . _ or no participation by students and community. Basically passive. Empty containers to be filled with standard knowledge. PAT E R N A L I S T I C (kindly top-down control) DECEPTIVE-prexendi to resists real change. Basically irresponsible. Must be cared for. Need to be watched closely. H U M A N I TA R I A N a n d DEMOCRA TIC (control by the people) S U P P O RT I V E - h e i p s people nno ways to gain more control over their health and their lives. Basically active. Able to take charge and become selfreliant.

Can and must be tamed. What the FEAR-teacher is an students absolute, all-knowing boss feel about who stands apart from the teacher and above the students. Who decides The Ministry of what should Education (or Health) b* learned in the capital. Teacher lectures. Students ask few questions. • Often boring. _.

Able to participate in specific activities when spoon fed. GRA TITUDE-Teacher is a friendly, parent-like authority who knows what is best for the students. The Ministry, but with some local decisions. • Teacher educates and entertains students. Dialogue and group discussions, but the teacher"decides which are the 'right' answers. More or less active. Memorization still

Responsible when treated with respect and as equals. r/?t/Sr-Teacher is a 'facilitator' who helps everyone look for answers together. The students and instructors together with the community. • Open-ended dialogue, in which many answers come from people's experience. • Everyone educates each other. ACTIVE—everyono contributes. Learning through doing and rii«:u«ino

PA S S I V E - s i u d e m s receive knowledge. Memorization of facts.