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Comprehensive Lecture Notes
MISS AMBREEN BILAL MBA (Finance) MSC (Eeconamics)
For Questions: 0333-5885711
By keeping in mind the outline for Organizational behavior MBA III of university of Azad Kashmir, I put my knowledge and research into work to compile these comprehensive notes. These will prove a good source of knowledge and preparation of exam. Please support & appreciate my effort by not trying to reproduce my work without any prior permission.
Ms Ambreen Bilal MBA Finance, University of AJK
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CONTENTS Out line 01 introduction
Q1.1 Q1.2 Q1.3 Q1.4
what is organization? --------------------------------------------------------------------------07 Organizational behavior / challenges and opportunities-------------------------------10 Why to study O.B / challenges / opportunities of O.B? --------------------------------12 Contributing disciplines to OB field----------------------------------------------------------15
Outline 02 Values and attitudes Q2.1 Q2.2 Q2.3 Q2.4 Values----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 Types of values-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Attitude---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25 Implication of performance and satisfaction----------------------------------------------32
Outline 03 personality
Q3.1 Q3.2 Q3.3 Q3.4
Personality---------------------------------------------------------------------------------37 Major Determents of personality-----------------------------------------------------38 Personality characteristics in organization ----------------------------------------41 Defensive behavior-------------------------------------------------------------------------50
Outline 03 Perception Q4.1 Q4.2 Q4.3 Perception and its importance in OB -------------------------------------------------------53 Factors influencing perception---------------------------------------------------------------54 Personal perception making judgment about others-----------------------------------59
Motivation Outline 05 Q5.1 Q5.2 What is motivation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------65 Individual needs----------------------------------------------------------------------------------66
Theories of motivation---------------------------------------------------------------- 67
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Outline 06 Learning
Learning--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94 Relevance of learning---------------------------------------------------------------------------97
Outline 07 Groups and groups
Q7.1 Q7.2 Q7.3 Q7.4 Q7.5 Q7.6
Definition-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100 Classification of groups-------------------------------------------------------------------------100 why people join groups-------------------------------------------------------------------------103 Stages of group development------------------------------------------------------------------104 Key group concepts-----------------------------------------------------------------------------105 Foundation of group behavior----------------------------------------------------------------108
Outline 08 Power Q8.1 Q8.2 Q8.3 Q8.4 Q8.4 Power definition---------------------------------------------------------------------------------111 Types of power-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------111 Sources of power---------------------------------------------------------------------------------111 Power tactics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------113 Political implications of power----------------------------------------------------------------104
Outline 09 leadership Q9.1 Q9.2 what is leadership--------------------------------------------------------------------------------119 Theories of leadership--------------------------------------------------------------------------120
Outline 10 Communication Q10.1 Communication process------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Q10.2 Barriers to effective communication--------------------------------------------------------128 Q10.3 Non verbal communication--------------------------------------------------------------------132 Q10.4 Communication network-----------------------------------------------------------------------136 4|P a ge
Outline 01 Introduction Q1.1...What is organization? The basics of management Management roles
Q1.2…. Organizational behavior / challenges and opportunities Organizational behavior Defination Importance of O.B
Q1.3…Why to study O.B / challenges / opportunities of O.B? Responding to Globalization Managing Workforce diversity Improving quality and productivity. Responding to the labor shortage Improving customer services Improving people skills.. Empowering people Coping with ‘’’Temporariness’’’ Stimulating innovation and changes Helping employees balance work / life conflict Improving ethical behavior
Q1.4…Contributing disciplines to OB field Political science Anthropology Social psychology Sociology Psychology
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1.1...What is organization? Organization Organization involves division of work among people whose efforts must be co-ordinate to achieve specific objectives and to implement pre-determined strategies. Organization is the foundation upon which the whole structure of management is built? It is the backbone of management. After the objectives of an enterprise are determined and the plan is Prepared, the next step in the management process is to organize the activities of the Enterprise to execute the plan and to attain the objectives of the enterprise. Definition It is a consciously co-ordinate social unit, composed of two or more people, that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. The basics of management Management typically requires the condition of several vital components that will call function. The main /basic function of management is...
Strategic HRM planning Recruiting Selection
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1-Planning A management functions focusing on setting organizational goals establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities. 2-Organizaing A management function that deals with determining what job are to be done, by whom, where decisions are to be made, and how to group employees 3-Leading Function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels and resolving conflicts. 4-Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviation. Management roles In the late 1960s a graduate student at MIT, Henry Mintzberg , undertook a careful study of five executives to determine what these managers did on their jobs. On the biases of his observation of these managers, Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different , highly interrelated roles or set of behaviors attributes to their jobs.
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ROLE Interpersonal Figurehead
Symbolic head required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature.
Responsible for the motivation and direction of employees Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information.
Informational Monitor Receives wide verity of information, serves as nerve centre of internal and external information of the organization. Disseminator Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to member of organization spokesperson Transmits information to outsiders on org. plans, polices, action and results serves as expert on organizations industry
Decisional Entrepreneur Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change. Disturbance handler Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances Resources allocator Negotiator Make or approves significant organizational decision. Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiation.
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Management skills Still another way of considering what managers do is to look at skills or competencies they need to achieve their goals. Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills, technical skills, and human skills. Technical skills Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. When you think of the skills held by professionals such as civil engineers or oral surgeons, you typically focus on their technical skills, through extensive formal education, they have learned the special knowledge and practices of their field. Human skills The ability to work wit , understand and motivate other people both individually and in groups describes human skills. Many people are technically proficient but personally incompetent. They might be poor listeners, unable to understand these needs of others, or have difficulty managing conflicts. Because managers get thing done through other people, they must have good human skills to communicate, motivate and delegate. Conceptual skills Managers must have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. These takes require conceptual skills. Decision making for instances require managers to identify problems, develop alternative solution to correct those problems, evaluate those alternatives and select the best one.
Q1.2…Organizational behavior / challenges and opportunities Organizational behavior O.B is the study and application of knowledge about how people , individuals and groups act in organizations. It does this by talking a system approach. That is , it interprets
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people- organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole groups, whole organization , and social system. Its purpose to be build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
Defination Fred Luthens defines organizational behavior as ‘’’The understanding, predication, and management of human behavior in organization’’’
Another definition is given by Stephen P. Robbins is that? ‘’’Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure has a behavior with in organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness’’
“According to this definition, organizational behavior Is a field of study with a common body of knowledge It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations. They are individuals, groups and structures. It applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively.
Importance of O.B The new work place, environmental changes such as advanced information technology, globalization and management of diversity and ethics represent a paradigm shift. This shift is characterized by new rules, new boundaries and importantly, new behavior that are essential for organizations and managers to be successful or even survive. This new paradigm facing management requires a new prospective and an application of the human behavior side of management. Thus the field of organizational behavior becomes important and in future. The study of O.B provides guidelines and then both managers and employees can use to understand appreciate the many forces that affect behavior in organizations and to make
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correct decisions about how to motivate and coordinate people and other resources to achieve organizational goals. O.B replaces intuition and gets feeling with a well-researched body of theories and systematic guidelines for managing behavior in organizations. The study of organizational behavior provides set of tools concepts and theories that help to understand , analyze and describe what goes on in organizations and why. A second thing to learn how to use and apply these concepts behavior so that individuals, groups and the whole organization can better achieve their goals.
Q1.3…Why to study O.B / challenges / opportunities of O.B? Understanding organizational behavior has never been more important for managers. A quick look at a few of the dramatic changes now taking place in organizations supports this claim. In short there are a lot of challenges and opportunities today for managers to use O.B concepts.
1-Responding to Globalization Organization is no longer constrained by national borders. The world has a global village. In turn managers have to become capable of working with people from different cultures. Skills in at least two ways. First If you are a manager, your are increasingly likely to field yourself in foreign assignment. You may be transferred to your employers operating division or subsidiary in another country. Once there you will have to manage a workforce that is likely to be very different in needs and attitude from those you were used to back home
Secondly Even in your own country you are going to field yourself working with bosses, peers, and other employees who were born and raised in different culture. What motivates you will not motivate them. Or your style of communication may be straight forward and open, but they
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may find this approach uncomfortable and threatening. To work effectively with those people, you will need to understand their culture.
The issues include: The creation of a global village Work force diversity Improving quality and productivity to match global standards Improving people skills Moving towards employee empowerment Improving ethical behavior Multiculturalism and diversity.
2-Managing Workforce diversity One of the most important and broad based challenges currently facing organizations is adapting to people who are different. The term we use for describing this challenge is workforce diversity. While globalization focuses on differences between people from different countries, workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given countries. Work force diversity definition It means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race etc. The challenge of organizations therefore, is to make themselves more accommodating to diverse groups of people by addressing their different lifestyles, family needs and work styles. The melting pot assumption is being replaced by one that recognizes and value difference.
3-Improving quality and productivity They are having to improve their organizations productively and the quality of the product and services they offer. To improve quality and productivity they are implementing programs such as quality management and process reengineering programs that require extensive employee’s involvemen
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a) Quality management (Q.M) It is driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational process.
b) Process reengineering To reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured it they were starting over.
4-Responding to the labor shortage Labor shortage is a function of two factors Birth rates Labor participation rates
5-Improving customer services Many organizations have failed because its employees failed to please the customer. So management needs to create a customer- responsive culture and O.B can provide considerable guidance in helping managers create such cultures- cultures in which employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable , prompt in respond to customer needs and willing to do what’s necessary to please the customer.
6-Improving people skills Managerial effectiveness is important to people skills. In this subject explain the behavior of people at work. In addition we also gain insight into specific people skills that you can use on the job , for instances you will learn way to design motivating jobs, techniques for improving your listening skills and how to create more effective teams
7-Empowering people We will find managers being called coaches, advices, sponsors or facilitators. In some organizations employees are how called associates.
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Some question arises What’s going on? What’s going on is that managers are empowering employees. They are putting employees in charge of what the do.
8-Coping with ‘’’Temporariness’’’ Most managers and employees face today in on of the permanent temporariness. The actual job that workers perform are in a permanent state of flux, so workers needs to update their knowledge and skills continually to perform new job requirements.
9-Stimulating innovation and changes Today’s successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change victory will go to the organizations that maintain their flexibility , continually improve their quality and their competition to the market place with a constant steam of innovative products and services
10-Helping employees balance work / life conflict Employees are increasingly complaining that the line between work and non work time become blurred, creating personal conflicts and stress. A number of force have contributed to blurring the lines between employees work life and personal life.
11-Improving ethical behavior Number of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical dilemmas situation‘s in which they are required to define right and wrong conduct.
Q1.4…CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO OB FIELD Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contribution from number of behavioral disciplines. The most common areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, Anthropology, and political science. The psychology’s contribution have been
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mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis, the other four disciplines have contributed to group or macro concepts in an organization, 1-Psychology It is the science that is used to measure, explain and some time change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychologist study about the individual behavior. The persons who continue to add the knowledge of OB are learning theorists, personality theorists, consisting psychologists and most important industrial and organizational psychologists concern with learning, perception, personality , training, leadership , effectiveness needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction , decision making process, performance appraisal , attitude measurement, employee selection techniques, working design and job stress. 2-Socialogy Psychology Sociology is the study of people in relation to their fellow’s human beings. Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their rules. Sociologists have made their greatest contribution to OB through their study of group behavior in organizations. Especially in formal and complex organizations. Sociologists contributes or concern with the group dynamics design of work teams , organizational culture, formal organizational theory and structure , organizational technology, communications, power , conflict and inter group behavior. 3-Socail psychology It is area with in psychology , but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology and focus on the influence of people and other social psychologists are making significant contribution in the areas of measuring, Understanding and changing attitudes , communication group process , group decision making. 4-Anthropology It is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists work on cultures and environments and help us to understand differences in
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fundamental values, attitudes and behavior between people in different countries and with in different organizations. 5-Political science It is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Political scientist explains the behavior of individuals and group in organizations. They concern with areas like conflict, organizational politics and power. Political scientists study the behavior of individual and groups within a political environment. Political scientists have become increasingly aware that organizations are political entities and if we are able to accurately explain and predict the behavior of people in organizations, we need to bring a political perspective to our analysis
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Toward on O.B Discipline
BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTION Learning Motivation personality Training Leadership effectiveness Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude measurement Employees selection Work design Work stress Group dynamics Work team Communication Power conflict inter-group behavior UNITS OF ANALYSIS OUTPUT
Formal organization theory Organizational technology Organization change Organizational culture Behavioral change Attitude change Communication group process Group decision making Comparative value Comparative attitudes Cross cultural analysis
Study of OB
Organizational culture Organizational environment Conflict Intra-organizational politics
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Outline 02 Values and attitudes Q2.1 Values Attributes of values Importance of values Sources of values
Q2.2…Types of values
Q2.3… Attitude Meaning of attitude Components of attitude Sources of attitude Types of attitude Attitude and consistency Attitude formation
Q2.4...Implication of performance and satisfaction
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Q2.1…VALUES ‘’basic convections that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence’’
Attributes of values Values have two types of attributes. Content Intensity
1-content It means a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important.
2-Intensity The intensity attributes specifies how’ ‘’important’’ is a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence.
Values system Definition ‘’a hierarchy of values based on ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity’’ This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to values such as freedom, pleasure, self respect, honesty, obedience and equality. Importance of values Values are important to the study of organizational behavior because they help to, 1. Understand attributes of the employees 2. Understand how to motivate employees for better performance. 3. Influence our perception in positive way.
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4. Influence on our behavior, Behavior is the total number of ways how individual act and react. Values help us to make ones behavior positive.
Sources of values Values may come from following sources like,
1-socital influence Our culture and language provide us with the experiences and boundaries for our initial attributes. We are bought at a very early age that that certain attitudes and beliefs are more acceptable then others. For example the attitudes of Americans concerning personal hygiene (‘’cleanliness is next godliness’’) is quite different from those prevalent in many other cultures. In area of international management and multinational organizational exchanges it is important to understand the value system attitude framework of society or culture one is in before making judgments or taking action. What seems appropriate in ones own culture nay be totally unacceptable in other culture. For example in South America, attitudes toward punctuality are not nearly as intense as they usually are in Urban America.
2-Major group membership Within our own society, each of us is strongly influence by the major groups to which we belongs. Our geographic region, religion, educational background, race, sex, age, and income class all strongly influence how we view the world. Students familiar with marketing surveys learn that target markets are generally based on these categories. Playboy. For example one claimed to be the magazine of highest readership among males between the ages of 18 and 30 with annual incomes over $15000. If one were interested in influencing attitude of young adult males toward a new product, and if playboy’s claim were valid, then playboy might be a good place to advertise the product.
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3-The family The family is the major influence on a person’s initial core attitude system. Obviously the family influence early learning patterns and controls groups and media to which a person is initially exposed. 4-Peer group As we approach adulthood, we rely increasingly on our peer group for approval initially other children, acquaintances, playmates and friends influence our attitudes. As we enter the world of work our coworkers and other influence what we say , how we react etc
5-parent and teachers Initial values come from patents and then we learn values and gain to our teacher. So parents and teachers are main source of values.
Q2.2…Types of values Values are of two approaches 1. Rokeach values survey 2. Contemporary work cohorts
Rokeach value survey Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach value survey (RVS). The RVS consist of two sets of values. 1. Terminal values 2. Instrumental values
1-Terminal values Describe en-state of existence the goals that persons would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
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Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values For example, self respect (S.T) Honest (I.V) freedom (T.V) capable (I.V). Several studies confirm that RVS values vary among groups one study compared corporate executives. Union member, and activists so this study clear each group terminal values are some but instrumental values are differ from different groups.
EXECUTIVES Terminal 1)Self respect 2)Family security 3) Freedom Capable
UNION MEMBER Instrumental Terminal Honest Responsible Self respect Family security Freedom Mature love Honest Independent Instrumental Independent Responsible Terminal Self respect Family security Freedom A word
ACTIVISTS Instrumental Responsible Courageous
Capable of Helpful
4) A sense of Ambitious accomplishment 5)Happiness Independent
peace Happiness Freedom Equality honest
2-Contemprary work cohorts In this approach the American work force has divided into four generation cohorts. These four cohorts/ generation are explained behavior along with their dominate work values. COHORTS ENTERED WORK FORCE 1) Veterans 1950s 1960s 2) Boomers 1965-1985 40-60 or THE APPROXIMATE CURRENT AGE early 60 + Hard working, conservative, loyalty to org. Success, events, ambition, authority, loyalty to career. 3) Xers 1985-2000 25-40 Work/life balance. Team oriented loyalty to relationship 4) Nexters 2000 to present Under 25 Conflict, financial services, team DOMINATE WORK VALUES
oriented, loyalty to both self and
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relationships. Types of values 1- Veterans The work force through 1950s and early 1960s we called them veterans.
2- Boomers Entered the work force from 1960s through the mid 1980s. They place a great emphasis an achievement and mental success. Boomers see the organizations that employ them merely as vehicle for their success.
3- Xers Lives have been shaped by globalization two career parents. MTV and aids. They value flexibility, life options, and achievement of job satisfaction. Money in important an indicator of career performance, but Xers are willing to trade off salary increases, titles, security and promotions.
4-Nexters The most recent entrants to the work force the Nexters grow up during prosperous times. They tend to have high expectations, believe in themselves, and are confident about their ability to succeed. They have lived most of their lives with CD players, VCR, cell phones and internet. This generation is very money oriented and desirous of the things that money can buy.
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Introduction Attitudes are individuals' general affective, cognitive and intentional responses toward objects, other people, themselves, or social issues. Attitudes are evaluative statements - either favorable or unfavorable - concerning objects, people or events. They reflect how one feels about something. As individuals, we respond favorably or unfavorably towards many things: coworkers, bosses, our own appearances etc. The importance of attitudes lies in their link to behavior. When an employee says, "I like my job" he or she is expressing their attitude about work.
Meaning of attitude Attitude is defined as a more or less stable set of predisposition of opinion, interest or purpose involving expectancy of a certain kind of experience and readiness with an appropriate response. Attitudes are also known as "frames of reference". They provide the background against which facts and events are viewed. It becomes necessary to know the attitudes of members of an organization because they have to perceive specific aspects like pay, hours of work, promotion etc., of their job life in the wider context of their generalized attitudes. An attitude is also a cognitive element; it always remains inside a person. Everyone's psychological world is limited and thus everyone has a limited number of attitudes. In business organization, employees have attitudes relating to world environment, job security etc. The individual's attitudes towards these factors are indicative of his apathy o enthusiasm towards the activities and objectives of the organization. ‘’’Attitude are evaluated statements either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects people or events’’’
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Characteristics of attitude An attitude is the predisposition of the individual to evaluate some objects in a favorable or an unfavourable manner. The most pervasive phenomenon is "attitude". People at work place have attitudes about lots of topics that are related to them. These attitudes are firmly embedded in a complex psychological structure of beliefs. Attitudes are different from values. Values are the ideals, whereas attitudes are narrow, they are our feelings, thoughts and behavioral tendencies toward a specific object or situation. Attitude is a predisposition to respond to a certain set of facts. Attitudes are evaluative statements - either favorable or unfavorable concerning the objects, people or events.
Components of attitude The three components of attitudes are: 1. Cognitive component; 2. Affective component; and 3. Behavioral component.
Cognitive Component This component includes the beliefs an individual has about a certain person, object, or situation. The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is a value statement. Such an opinion is the cognitive component of an attitude. Learned beliefs, such as "you need to work long hours to get ahead in this job", lead to attitudes that have an impact on behavior in the workplace. The cognition component of an attitude reflects a person’s perceptions or beliefs. Cognitive elements are evaluative beliefs and are measured by attitude scales or by asking about thoughts. The statement "I believe Japanese workers are industrious," reflect the cognitive
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component of an attitude. The cognitive component sets the stage for the more critical part of attitude - its affective component. Affective Component This component refers to the person's feelings that result from his or her beliefs about a person, object or situation. A person who believes hard work earns promotions may feel anger or frustration when he or she works hard but is not promoted. The affective component becomes stronger as an individual has more frequent and direct experience with a focal object, person or situation. Affect is the emotional component of an attitude. It refers to an individual's feeling about something or someone. Statements such as "I like this" or "I prefer that" reflect the affective component of an attitude. Affect is measured by physiological indicators such as galvanic skin response (changes in electrical resistance of skin which indicate emotional arousal) and blood pressure. These indicators show changes in emotions by measuring physiological arousal. If an individual is trying to hide his or her feelings, this might be shown by a change in arousal. Behavioral Component This component refers to the individual's behavior that occurs as a result of his or her feeling about the focal person, object or situation. An individual may complain, request a transfer, or be less productive because he or she feels dissatisfied with work. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. For example, our attitudes towards women in management may be inferred from an observation of the way we behave toward a female supervisor. We may be supportive, passive or hostile depending on our attitude. The behavioral component of an attitude is measured by observing behavior or by asking a person about behavior or intentions. Component A) Affect Measured by Physiological indicators Verbal Statements about Feelings B) Behavioral intentions Observed Behavior Verbal Statements about Intentions
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Attitude scales Verbal Statements about Beliefs
Viewing attitudes as made up of three components - cognition, affect and behavior – is helpful toward understanding their complexity and the potential relationship between attitude and behavior. The object of an attitude is represented as a prototype in a person's memory. Then an individual uses an attitude as a schema for evaluating an object. The person may assess the object as good or bad, positive or negative, favored or not; then the person determines the strategy to take toward it. The accessibility of an attitude, or ease with which it is activated, affects its implementation. Personal experience with the object and the repeated expression of the attitude increases it accessibility. In this way, attitude-related information helps process complex information
Sources of attitude
Attitudes are acquired from parents, teachers, and peer group members. We model our attitudes after those we admire, respect or fear. We observe the way family and friends behave, and we shape our attitudes and behavior to align with theirs. People also imitate the attitudes of popular individuals and those they admire and respect. Attitudes are an integral part of the world of work. It is important for managers to understand the antecedents to attitudes as well as their consequences. Managers also need to understand the different components of attitudes, how attitudes are formed, and the major attitudes that affect work behavior and how to use persuasion to change attitudes
Types of attitude A person can have thousands of attitudes, but most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: Job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.
1. Job Satisfaction
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Satisfaction results when a job fulfils or facilitates the attainment of individual values and standards and dissatisfaction occurs when the job is seen as blocking such attainment. This attitude has received extensive attention by researchers and practitioners because it was at one time believed to be the cause of improved job performance. The term "job satisfaction" refers to an individual's general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job; a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. Now, because of managers' concern for creating a humane and high performance workplace, researchers continue to search for definite answers about the causes and consequences of job satisfaction.
2. Job Involvement: Job involvement is the degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it and considers his or her performance important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. High levels of job involvement have been found to be related to fewer absences and lower resignation rates. The term job involvement is a most recent addition to the OB literature. The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, activity participates in it and considers his her performance important to self-worth
3. Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment is the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. High organizational commitment means identifying with one's employing organization. A state in which employee indentifies with a particular organization and its goals and whishes to maintain membership in the organization. So high job involvement means identifying with ones specific job, while high organizational commitment means identifying which ones employing organization.
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The research evidence demonstrates negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover.
Attitude and consistency People change what they so it doesn’t contribute what they do. Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their behavior. When there is an inconsistency forces are initiated to return the individual to equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent.
Attitude formation Attitudes are learned. Individuals acquire attitudes from several sources but the point to be stressed is that the attitudes are acquired but not inherited. Our responses to people and issues evolve over time. Two major influences on attitudes are direct experience and social learning.
1. Direct Experience: Attitudes can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with an object. Direct experience with an object or person is a powerful influence on attitudes. Research has shown that attitudes that are derived from direct experience are stronger, are held more confidently and are more resistant to change than are attitudes formed through indirect experience. One reason that attitudes derived from direct experience are so powerful is because of their availability. This means that the attitudes are easily accessed and are active in our cognitive processes. When attitudes are available, we can call them quickly into consciousness. Attitudes that are not learned from direct experience are not as available, and therefore we do not recall them easily.
(a) Classical Conditioning:
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One of the basic processes underlying attitude formation can be explained on the basis of learning principles. People develop associations between various objects and the emotional reactions that accompany them.
(b) Operant Conditioning: Attitudes that are reinforced, either verbally or nonverbally, tends to be maintained. Conversely, a person who states an attitude that elicits ridicule from others may modify or abandon the attitude.
(c) Vicarious Learning: In which a person learns something through the observance of others can also account for attitude development particularly when the individual has no direct experience with the object about which the attitude is held. It is through vicarious learning processes that children pick up the prejudices of their parents.
2. Social Learning: In social learning, the family, peer groups and culture shape an individual's attitudes in an indirect manner. Substantial social learning occurs through modeling, in which individuals acquire attitudes by merely observing others. For an individual to learn from observing a model,
Four processes must take place: (i) The learner must focus attention on the model. (ii) The learner must retain what was observed from the model. (iii) Behavioral reproduction must occur; that is, the learner must practice the behavior. (iv) The learner must be motivated to learn from the model.
Social learning can take place through the following ways:
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(a) The Family: A person may learn attitudes through imitation of parents. If parents have a positive attitude towards an object and the child admires his parents, he is likely to adopt a similar attitude, even without being told about the object, and even without having direct experience. Children also learn to adopt certain attitudes by the reinforcement they are given by their parents when they display behaviors that reflect an appropriate attitude.
(b) Peer Groups: Peer pressure moulds attitudes through group acceptance of individuals who express popular attitudes and through sanctions, such as exclusion from the group, placed on individuals who espouse (promote) unpopular attitudes.
(c) Modeling: Substantial social learning occurs through modeling, in which individuals acquire attitudes by merely observing others. The observer overhears other individuals expressing an opinion or watches them engaging in a behavior that reflects an attitude, and the observer adopts this attitude.
Q2.4...Implication of performance and satisfaction Job satisfaction What is job satisfaction? The term job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. High job satisfaction-------------------------------positive attitude Low job satisfaction -------------------------------negative attitude
Measuring job satisfaction
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The employee’s assessment is necessary of how satisfied or dis-satisfied with his or her job is complex elements. So then measure this concept in two approaches of job satisfaction 1. Single global rating 2. Summation score Single global rating Single global rating method is nothing more then asking individuals to respond to one question such as ‘’all things considered how satisfied are you with your job?’’ Responding then reply individual selects one option like that. 1. Dis-satisfied 2. Just satisfied 3. Highly satisfied Summation score It identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employees feelings about each. Job fads are more sophisticated. Key elements / factors / included. a) The work itself The extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning and the chance to accept responsibility. b) Pay The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which satisfied the human needs. c) Promotional opportunities The chances for advancement in the organization. d) Supervision
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The abilities of the supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavioral support.
e) Coworkers relationship Example Factors 1. Work itself 2. Pay 3. Promotion 4. Supervision 5. coworkers × × × × × × × Satisfied Just satisfied × Highly satisfied × × × × × Dis-satisfied × ×
What determines job satisfaction Following four factors determine job satisfaction 1- Mentally challenging work If the job will be mentally challenging for worker he will be more satisfied. 2- Equitable rewards If rewards are being paid equally / promptly to employee on the basis of their performance this will increase job satisfaction. 3- Supportive working conditions Supportive working conditions will add to job satisfaction. 4- Supportive colleagues
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If a person has supportive colleagues at his work place he will be more satisfied with his job.
Job satisfaction and employee performance Managers insert in job satisfaction tends to center on its effect on employees performance. Researchers have recognized this interest, so find a large number of studies that have been designed to assess the impact of job satisfaction on employee productivity, absenteeism and turnover. 1-Satisfaction and productivity Satisfaction and productivity is directly proportional means satisfaction increase productivity. 3-Satisfaction and absenteeism Satisfaction and absenteeism is proportional means. Satisfaction of job reduces absenteeism. 3-Satisfaction and turnover Satisfaction and turnover is directly proportional which means a satisfied employee work more Than a dissatisfied one
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Outline 03 Personality Q3.1...Personality
Q3.2...Major determents of personality Biological Factors Environment Situational Factors
Personality characterstics in organization OR Major personality attributes influencing Locus of control Machiavellianism Self esteem Self monitoring Risk taking Type a personality Diffensive behavior
Q3.4Defensive behavior Avoiding action Avoiding change Emotions
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Q3.1...Personality Introduction The word personality has been derived from Latin words “per sonare” which translate as “to speak through”. The Latin term was used to denote the masks worn by actors in ancient Greece and Rome. Personality traditionally refers to how people influence others through their external appearances and actions.
Definition Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior.
According to Floyd L. Ruch; The human personality includes; External appearances and behavior or social stimulus values Inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force The particular pattern or organization of measureable traits, both inner and outer.
Gordon Allport Gave the most frequently used definition of personality nearly 70 years ago. He said personality is “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”.
According to Gluck; “Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behavior towards goal achievement. Each person has unique ways of protecting these states”.
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According to Fred Luthens; Personality can be defined as “the internal and external characteristics of a person is known as personality”
According to Stephen p. Robbins; “The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others”
Explaination From the above definitions we can say that personality is very diverse and complex psychological concept. It is concerned with external appearance and behavior, self, measurable traits, and situational interactions.
Q3.2 1- Biological Factors
Major Determents of personality
The study of the biological contributions to personality may be studied under three heads:
(a) Heredity: Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are considered to be inherent from one’s parents. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Research on animals has showed that both physical and psychological characteristics can be transmitted through heredity. But research on human beings is inadequate to support this viewpoint. However, psychologists and geneticists have accepted the fact that heredity plays an important role in one's personality.
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(b) Brain: The second biological approach is to concentrate on the role that the brain plays in personality. Though researchers make some promising inroads, the psychologists are unable to prove empirically the contribution of human brain in influencing personality. The most recent and exciting possibilities come from the work done with electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) and split-brain psychology. Preliminary results from the electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) research give indications that better understanding of human personality and behavior might come from the study of the brain. Work with ESB on human subjects is just beginning. There seem to be definite pleasurable and painful areas in the human brain. This being true, it may be possible physically to manipulate personality through ESB.
(c) Biofeedback: Until recently, physiologists and psychologists felt that certain biological functions such as brainwave patterns, gastric secretions, and fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature were beyond conscious control. Now some scientists believe that these involuntary functions can be consciously controlled through biofeedback. In BFT the individual learns the internal rhythm of a particular body process through electronic signals feedback from equipment that is wired to the body area. From this biofeedback the person can learn to control the body process in question. More research is needed on biofeedback before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. But its potential impact could be extremely interesting for the future.
(d) Physical features: A vital ingredient of the personality, an individual's external appearance, is biologically determined. The fact that a person is tall or short, fat or skinny, black or white will influence the person's effect on others and this in turn, will affect the self-concept. Practically all would agree that physical characteristics have at least some influence on the personality. According to Paul
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H Mussen "a child's physical characteristics may be related to his approach to the social environment, to the expectancies of others, and to their reactions to him. These, in turn, may have impacts on personality development". If personality characteristics were completely dictated by heredity, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. But personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. There are other factors, which also influence personality.
2-Enviornment Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raise our early conditioning, the norms coming our family, friends and social groups, other experiences.
I-Culture Culture is a complex and symbols and artifacts that created by society and handed down from generation to generation, determinants and regulators of the human behavior. Culture establishes the norms, attitude and values that are passed from one generation to next and create consistencies our time. Early training and the culture in which we are raised are important environmental factors that shapes our personality. Culture is very important in the environment because it
A-Idealogy System Ideas, beliefs, attitude and concepts.
B-Technological System What kind of technology is used and what kind of skill people posses.
C-Organizational System Family and social class system; these are the things that are subject to change by man.
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D-Culture is learned Child begins to learn his culture when he copies these acts and things according to the behavior of their elders.
E-Culture is socially shared Culture is not individually held it is shared by all person of society. When the numbers share the values, customs, beliefs, ideas with other members of the society.
Culture is adoptive Culture is generally changing with passage of time. But the rate of change in some society is low and in some society is high by careful consideration of heredity and environment it is cleared that both are important. Heredity set the parameters or outer limits, but an individuals full potential will be determent by how well he or she adjust to the demands and requirements of the environments.
3-Family Factors Whereas the culture generally prescribes and limits what a person can be taught, it is the family, and later the social group, which selects, interprets and dispenses the culture. Thus, the family probably has the most significant impact on early personality development. A substantial amount of empirical evidence indicates that the overall home environment created by the parents, in addition to their direct influence, is critical to personality development. For example, children reared in a cold, unstimulating home are much more likely to be socially and emotionally maladjusted than children rose by parents in a warm, loving and stimulating environment. The parents play an especially important part in the identification process, which is important to the person's early development. According to Mischel, the process can be examined from three different perspectives.
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Identification can be viewed as the similarity of behavior including feelings and attitudes between child and model.
Identification can be looked at as the child's motives or desires to be like the model. It can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model.
From all three perspectives, the identification process is fundamental to the understanding of personality development. The home environment also influences the personality of an individual. Siblings (brothers and sisters) also contribute to personality.
4- Social Factors There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons, groups and especially organizations, which greatly influence an individual's personality. This is commonly called the socialization process. Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioral potentialities that are open to him or her. Socialization starts with the initial contact between a mother and her new infant. After infancy, other members of the immediate family – father, brothers, sisters and close relatives or friends, then the social group – peers, school friends and members of the work group, play influential roles. Socialization process is especially relevant to organizational behavior because the process is not confined to early childhood, taking place rather throughout one's life. In particular, evidence is accumulating that socialization may be one of the best explanations for why employees behave the way they do in today's organizations.
Situational Factors Human personality is also influenced by situational factors. The effect of environment is quite strong. Knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behavior. An individual's personality, while generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one's personality. According to Milgram "Situation exerts an important
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press on the individual. It exercises constraints and may provide push. In certain circumstances it is not so much the kind of person a man is, as the kind of situation in which he is placed that determines his actions". We should therefore not look at personality patterns in isolation.
Personality Traits ”Enduring means characteristics that describes an individuals behavior” Popular personality characteristics includes shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, loyal and ambitious. The more consistent the characteristics and the more frequently it occurs and diverse situations. The more important that trait is in describing the individual.
Early Search for Primary Traits In early times many researches search for primary traits. But the result was identification of sixteen personality factors which are known as sources of primary traits. These traits give prediction of individual behavior in some specific situation.
Sixteen Primary Traits 1. Reserved Vs Outgoing 2. Less Intelligent Vs More Intelligent 3. Affected by Feelings Vs Emotionally Stable 4. Submissive Vs Dominant 5. Serious Vs Happy 6. Expedient Vs Conscientious 7. Timid Vs Venture Some 8. Tough Mind Vs Sensitive 9. Trusting Vs Suspicious 10. Practical Vs Imaginative 11. Forthright Vs Shrewd 12. Self Assured Vs Apprehensive 13. Conservative Vs Experimenting
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14. Group Dependent Vs Self Sufficient 15. Uncontrolled Vs Controlled 16. Relaxed Vs Tense
Myers-Brigs type indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps characterstics and classifies people in to one of sixteen personality types. It is essentially a `100-question Personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. On the bases of the answers they are classified as (E or I ) Extroverted or introverted, (T or F) Thinking or feeling. The classifications then combined in 16 personality types. These types are different from the 16 primary.
For example INTIS are visionaries They usually have originate minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes
ESTIs Are organized they are realistic, logical and analytical.
ENTP Types is a conceptualize. He or she is innovative, individualistic, verstyle, and attracted to the interpersonal ideas
Organizations using the MBIT include Apple Computer, AT & T , hospital, educational institutions and armed forces.
The big five model
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In recent years an impressive body research supports that five basic dimensions under lie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. The five factors are, 1-Extroversion Personality dimension describing some one who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
2-Agreeableness A personality dimension that describes some one who is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting
3-Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes some one who is responsible, dependable, persistent and organized.
4-Emotional stability A personality dimension that characterized some one as calm, self sufficient, depressed and insecure.
5-Openness to experience A personality dimension that characterized some one in terms of imagination, sensitivity and curiosity.
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Personality characterstics in organization
Major personality attributes influencing 1. Locus of control 2. Machiavellianism 3. Self esteem 4. Self monitoring 5. Risk taking 6. Type a personality 7. Diffensive behavior
1-locus of control Some people believe that they are masters of their own fate. Other people see themselves as pawns of fate, believing that what happens to them in their lives is clue to luck or chance. The first type is ‘’Internals’’ and the second type id ‘’Externals’’
I) Internals Individuals who believe that they con troll what happens to them.
ii) Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by out side forces such as luck or chance. Now ‘’ the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate is called locus of control’’ Therefore, ‘’Internals’’ do well on sophisticated tasks which include most managerial and professional jobs that require complex information processing and lecturing. In addition internals are more skilled to jobs. On the other hand externals should do well on jobs that are well structured and in which success depends on complying with others.
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2-Machiavellianism A ‘’ degree to which an individual is pragmatic maintains emotional distance, and believe that end can justify means’’ The personality characteristic of Machiavellianism is named after Niccolo Machiavelli who wrote on to the sixteen century on how to gain and use power. A considerable amount of research has been directed toward relating high and low mach. Personalities to certain behavioral out comes. High mach’s manipulate more win, more persuaded less. These high mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors. It has been found that high mach’s flourish. 1. When they interact face to face with others 2. When the situation has a minimum number or rules and regulations. 3. When emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low mach’s.
In jobs that require bargaining skills such as labor that offer substantial rewards for winning, high mach’s will be productive. But if ends can not justify the means, if there are absolute standard of behavior or if these are situational factors our ability to predict a high mach’s performance will be curtailed
3- Self esteem ‘’ Individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves’’ Self esteem is directly related to expectations for success. Individuals with high self esteem will take more risks in jobs selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs their people with low self esteem. In managerial positions, low self esteem will tends to be concerned with pleasing others and therefore less likely to take unpopular stands then are high self esteem, Sot surprisingly, self esteem has also been found to be related to fob satisfaction. A number of studies confirm that high esteem are more satisfied with their jobs then are low self esteem.
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4-Self monitoring ‘’A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors’’ Individuals high in self monitoring show considerable adoptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external eves and can behave differently in different situations. Low self monitors can not disguise themselves in that way. They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation. In contrast, high self monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers, receives more promotions and likely to occupy central positions in an organization.
5-Risk taking High risk taking managers made more rapid decisions and used less information in making their choices then did the low risk taking managers. Interestingly, the decision accuracy was the same for both groups. There are also differences in risk personality. As a result, it makes sense to recognize differences and even to consider risk taking personality with specific job demands. High risk taking personality may lead to more effective performance. Because that type of job demands rapid decision making.
6-Type a personality Type A behavior pattern is a complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility and a quest for achievements. Type A personality individual is "aggressively involved in a chronic, struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons".
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Type A’s 1. Are always moving , walking, and eating 2. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. 3. Strive to think or do two or more thing at once 4. Can not cope with leisure time. 5. Measuring their success.
The alternative to the Type A behavior pattern is the Type B behavior pattern. People with Type B personalities are relatively free of the Type A behaviors and characteristics. Type B personalities are "rarely harried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever decreasing amount of time".
Type B’s 1. Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience 2. Feel no need to display their achievements or accomplishments. 3. Play for fun and relaxation. 4. Can relax with out guilt.
Organizations can also be characterized as Type A or Type B organizations. Type A individuals in Type B organizations and Type B individuals in Type A organizations experience stress related to a misfit between their personality type and the predominant type of the organization.
7-Diffensive behavior Ehen people perceive politics as threat rather then as an opportunity they often respond with defensive behavior. ‘’Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame or change’’
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People who consistently rely on defensiveness find that it is the only way of behaving. At that point, they lose the trust and support of their peers, bosses, employees and clients Q3.4 Defensive behavior
When people receive politics as a threat rather then as an opportunity they often respond with defensive behavior Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action blame or change People who consistently rely on defensiveness find that it is the only way of behaving. At that point they loose the trust and support of their peers, bosses, employees and clients. 1-Avoiding action a- Over confirming: Strictly interpreting your responsibility by saying this ‘’ this is the way we’ve always done it’’ b- Buck Passing: transferring responsibility for the education of a task or decision to some one else. c- Playing dumb: Avoiding an unwanted task by falsely pleading ignorance or inability. d- Stretching: Prolonging tasks so that one appears to be occupied for example turning a two week job in to a four month job. 2- Avoiding Blame
a- Buffing: It describe the practice of rigorously documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness b- Playing safe: Evading situation that may reflect unfavorably. c- Justifying: Developing explanation that lessons one’s responsibility for a negative outcome. d- Scapegoating: Picking the blame for a negative outcome on external factors.
3 Avoiding change:
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a- Prevention: Trying to prevent a treating change from occurring. b- Self protection: Acting in ways to protect one’s self interest. Emotions “Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something” Dimension 1. Variety: - Negative -Positive 2. Intensity Felt Emotions: An individual’s actual emotions. Displayed Emotions: “Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.” Can People Be Emotionless: “Some people have severe difficultly in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others.” Psychologists can this alexithymia, which is Greek word used for “Lack of emotions” OB Applications (emotions) Decision making Motivation Leadership
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Outline 04 Perception Q4.1…Perception and its importance in OB Definition Importance
Q4.2.. Factors influencing perception Factors in the perceiver Factors in the situation Factors in the target
Q4.3..Personal perception making judgment about others
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Q4.1…Perception and its importance in OB……..
Introduction Perception involves the way we view the world around us. It adds, meaning to information gathered via the five senses of touch, smell, hearing, vision and taste. Perception is the primary vehicle through which we come to understand our surroundings and ourselves. Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Definition ‘’Perception is the process by which people select, organize and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the word’’
‘’A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment’’
Importance 1. The perceptual word of the manager is quite different from the perceptual word of the associates, and both may be very different reality. 2. One of the biggest problems that new organizational leaders must overcome are the sometimes faulty or negative perceptions of them. Faulty perception can be removed by developing the understanding of concepts involved in it. 3. Direct appreciations and techniques should logically follow complete understanding. Perception is an important cognitive process. Through this complex process, persons make interpretations of the stimulus or situation, they are forced with both selectivity and organization goes into perceptual interpretations. Externally selectivity is affected
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by intensity, size, contrast and motion and familiarity. Internally, perpetual selectivity is influenced by the individual’s motivation, learning and personality. 4. After the stimulus or situation is filtered by selective process, the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole. 5. Figure ground is the most basic form of the perceptual organization. Another basic form is the grouping of incoming stimuli by the closure continuity and similarity.
Q4.2..Factors influencing perception
1- The perceiver Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of individual perceiver.
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Characteristics of perceiver The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are:
(A) Attitudes: The perceiver's attitudes affect perception. For example, Suppose Mr. is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization – a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews.
(B) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impression of others. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavorably.
(C) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be transferred into the perception that others are out to "get my job", regardless of the intention of the subordinates.
(D) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers' self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In
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contrast, a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others.
(E) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive.
For example For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class.
(F) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure, an individual's pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Others tend to focus more on central traits, or personality dispositions. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. (G) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill.
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These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation.
2- The target It means object that is being observed. It can be a person, group, thing., etc
Characteristics of the target Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived.
a) Physical appearance Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others. The perceiver will notice the target's physical features like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Physical attractiveness often colors our entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favorably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries.
b) Verbal communication Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. We listen to the topics they speak about, their voice tone, and their accent and make judgments based on this input.
c) Non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in an attempt to form an impression of the target.
d) Target’s behavior, The perceiver, who observes the target's behavior, infers the intentions of the target.
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For example, if our manager comes to our office doorway, we think "oh no! he is going to give me more work to do". Or we may perceive that his intention is to congratulate us on a recent success. In any case, the perceiver's interpretation of the target's intentions affects the way the perceiver views the target.
e) Background influences Targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to its background influences perception because of our tendency to group close things and similar things together.
f) The people object Objects that are close to each other will tend to be perceived together rather than separately. As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated. For examples, employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If two employees of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated. People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. The greater the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group.
3- The situation The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target.
Characteristics of the situation
The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. In these situations, we assume that the individual's behavior can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. This is the discounting principle in social perception. For example, you
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may encounter an automobile sales person who has a warm and personable manner, asks you about your work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars. Can you assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson's personality? You probably cannot, because of the influence of the situation. This person is trying to sell you a car, and in this particular situation he probably treats all customers in this manner
Example For example, a professor may not notice his 20-year-old female student in a bikini at the swimming pool. Yet the professor will notice the same girl if she comes to his organizational behavior class in a bikini. In the same way, meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would form had you met the manager in a restaurant.
Q4.3..Personal perception making judgment about others
Attribution theory ‘’ When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused’’
The determination depends largely on three factors 1. Distinctiveness 2. Consensus 3. Consistency
Internal behavior Internal caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual.
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External behavior External caused behavior is seen as resulting from out side causes that are the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.
Example One of your employees is late for the work, you might attribute his lateness to his oversleeping. This would be an internal attribution. But if you attribute his late arriving to an automobile accident, then you would make an external attribution.
Distinctiveness Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations.
Consensus If every one who is forced with a similar situation responds in the some way, we can say that the behavior shows census.
Consistency Finally an observer looks for the consistency in persons actions. The more consistent the behavior, the more the observer in inclined to attribute it to internal causes. Fundamental attribution error One of the more interesting findings from attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distort attributions. For instance, there is substantial evidence what we make judgment about the behavior of other people we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of internal or personal factors this is called attribution error. Self serving bias There is also a tendency for individuals to attribute their own success to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck. This is called self serving bias.
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Frequently used shortcuts in the judging others These techniques are frequently valuable. They allow us to make accurate perceptions rapidly and provide valid data for making predications. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful in recognizing.
1- Selective perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. A group perception of organizational activities is selectively altered to align with the rested interests they represent. In other words, when stimuli are ambiguous, perception tends to be influenced more by an individual base of interpretation then by stimuli itself.
2- Halo-effects ‘’drawing a general impression about an individual on the biases of a single characteristics’’
Research suggest that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms , when the traits have moral overtones and when the perceiver is judging traits with he or she has limited experience. For Example If instructor has valuable skill, knowledge but his style lakes, studies would rate him too.
3- Contrast effect Evaluation of a person characteristics that are affected by comparisons with others people recently encountered who make higher or lower on the same characteristics. e.g.( pool of candidates)
4- Projection Attributing ones own characteristics to other people. For instance, if you want challenge and ability in your job assume that others want me
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5-Strerotyping Judging some one on the bases of ones perception of the group to which that person belongs. Generalization of course is not without advantages. It is a mean of simplifying a complex word, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem arises when we inaccurately stereo type their being wide spread may mean only that may people are making the some inaccurate perception on the bases of false premise about a group.
Specific applications in organization People in organizations are always judging each other. Managers must appraise their subordinate's performance. In many cases, these judgments have important consequences for the organizations. Let us look at the more obvious applications of perceptions in organization.
Employment Interview A major input into who is hired and who is rejected in any organization is the employment interview. Evidence indicated that interviewers often make inaccurate perceptual judgments. Interviews generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. If negative information is exposed early in the interview, it tends to be more heavily weighted than if that same information comes out later. As a result, information elicited early in the interview carries greater weight than doe’s information elicited later. A "good applicant" is probably characterized more by the absence of unfavorable characteristics than by the presence of favorable characteristics. The employment interview is an important input into the hiring decision and a manager must recognize that perceptual factors influence who is hired. Therefore, eventually the quality of an organization's labor force depends on the perception of the interviewers.
Performance Evaluation An employee's performance appraisal very much depends on the perceptual process. The performance appraisal represents an assessment of an employee's work. While this can be
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objective, many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are, by definition, judgmental. The evaluator forms a general impression of an employee's work. What the evaluator perceives to be "good" or "bad" employee characteristics will, significantly influences the appraisal outcome. An employee's future is closely tied to his or her appraisal - promotions, pay raises and continuation of employment are among the most obvious outcomes
Performance application This is an impressive amount of evidence that demonstrates that people will attempt to validate their perceptions of reality, even when those expectations are faulty. This characteristic is particularly relevant even we consider performance, expectation on the job.
Employment effort An individual’s future in an organization is usually not dependent on performance alone. The level of an employee’s effort is also important. An assessment of an individual susceptible to perceptual distortion and bias.
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Motivation Outline 05 Q5.1 Q5.2 Q5.3 Q5.4 What is motivation and individual needs The foundation of motivation and self interest The ultimate motivation force Theories of motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory X and Y Herzberg two factor theory Alderfer’s E.R.G theory Equity theory Goal setting theory Re-enforcement theory
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5.1…What is motivation? Introduction "Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalized goals Within individuals. Motivation is the process of channeling a person's inner drives so that he wants to accomplish the goals of the organization. Motivation concern itself with the will to work. It seeks to know the incentives for work and tries to find out the ways and means whereby their realization can be helped and encouraged. Managers, by definition, are required to work with and through people, so they must gain at least some understanding of the forces that will motivate the people they are to manage Defination Motivation has been defined by Michael J Juicus as "the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action".
In the words of Lewis Allen, "Motivation is the work a manager performs to inspire, Encourage and impel people to take required action".
According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Motivation is a general term applying to the entire Class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces".
Explanation Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desire needs similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desire and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.
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Q5.2 The need want satisfaction chain
Motivation can be explain by a chain reaction: Felt needs give rise to want or goal sought which cause tensions (that is unfulfilled desired), which give rise to action toward achieving goals which finally result in satisfaction. This chain can be explained by figure. Needs want- satisfaction chain
Needs Give Rise to Wants Which cause Tension
Give Rise to
Which result in
The chain explanation is complex. In the first place, except for physiological needs, such as food, need are not independent of person's environment. Many physiological needs are stimulated by environmental factors the small of food may cause hunger, a lower thermometer reaching may cause chills. Environment has a major influence on our perception of secondary needs. The promotion of a colleague may arouse one's desire for higher position. In second place, the need want satisfaction chain does not always operate as simply as portrayed. Needs do cause behavior but needs also may result from behavior. Satisfying one deed may lead to a desire to satisfy more needs. Complexity,of,motivations In individuals motives maybe quite complex and often conflicting. A person maybe motivated by a desire for economy goods and services (a better house, a new car or a trip and these desires may be complex and conflicting. Should one buy a new house or a new car?)
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Motivators are things that induce an individual to perform motivators sharpen the drive or need to satisfy wants. Motivators are also the means by which conflicting needs may be reconciled. A manager can do much to sharpen motive by establishing an environment. So the motivator is some thing that influences an individual’s behavior. In any organization are any enterprise, managers must be concerned about motivators, and also inventive in their use. People can often satisfy their wants in a variety of
5.3…Theories of motivation Introduction Motivation to work is very complex. There are many internal and environmental variables that affect the motivation to work. Behavioral scientists started to search new facts and techniques for motivation. These theories are termed as theories of motivation. The most important theories are explained below.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y Different styles of management have a different bearing on the motivation of workers in the organization. The style adopted by a manager in managing his subordinates is basically dependent upon his assumption about human behavior. Theory X is negative, traditional and autocratic style while Theory Y is positive, participatory and democratic. Thus, these labels describe contrasting set of assumptions about human nature. Douglas McGregor has classified the basic assumption regarding human nature into two parts and has designated them as 'theory X’ and 'theory Y'.
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Theory X: This is the traditional theory of human behavior, which makes the following Assumptions about human nature: 1. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprises money, material, equipment, and people - in the interest of economic ends. 2. With reference to people it is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behavior in order to be in conformity with the needs of the organization. 3. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive – even resistant to organizational needs. Hence they must be persuaded, rewarded, punished and properly directed. 4. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. 5. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility and prefers to be led. 6. He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. 7. He is by nature resistant to change. 8. He is gullible, not very bright. Theory Y: Definition The assumption that employees like work are creative seeks responsibility, and can exercise self direction. Theory Y is an optimistic, dynamic and flexible.
The assumption of theory Y, according to McGregor is as follows:1. Work is as natural as play or rest, provided the conditions are favorable; the average human being does not inherently dislike work. 2. External control and the thrust of punishment are not the only means for bringing about efforts towards organizational objectives. Man can exercise self-control and self-direction in the service of objectives to which he is committed.
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3. Commitment to objectives is a result of the rewards associated with their achievement. People select goals for themselves if they see the possibilities of some kind of reward that may be material or even psychological. 4. The average human being, under proper conditions does not shirk responsibility, but learn not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it. 5. He has capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and Creativity in the solution of organizational problems in widely, not narrowly distributed in the population. 6. Under conditions of modern industrial life the intellectual potentialities of people are only partially utilized. As a matter of fact, men, have unlimited potential.
THEORY X 1. Theory X assumes human beings inherently Dislike work and are distasteful towards work.
THEORY Y 1.Theory Y assumes that work is as natural as play or rest
2. Theory X emphasizes that people do not 2. Theory Y assumes just the reverse. have ambitions and they shrink responsibility Given proper conditions, people have ambitions and accept responsibility 3. Theory X assumes that people in general 3. According to Theory Y the creativity is have little capacity for creativity 4. According to Theory X, people lack self Motivation and require be widely distributed in the population 4. While in Theory Y people are self-directed
externally and creative and prefer Self-control
controlling and closely supervising in order to get maximum Output. 5. Theory X emphasize upon centralization of authority in decision-making process 5. Theory Y emphasizes decentralization and greater process participation in decision-making
Comparison of Theory X and Theory Y
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Use of theory X and Y in O.B. Theory x assumes that low order needs dominated individuals. Theory Y assumes that high order needs dominated individuals. So we use theory x, y in O.B. Clarification of the theories 1. Theory X and Y are assumption only, they are not managerial strategies 2. Theory X and Y do not mean ‘’’hard’’ and ‘’’soft’’ approach to management. 3. Theory X and Y can not be used together, they are opposite extremes. 4. Theory Y is not against the use of authority.
The hierarchy of need theory Introduction The hierarchy of need theory was presented by Maslow. Abraham Maslow saw human needs in the form of hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the hi hghest He concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases t, o be motivators Definition There is a hierarchy of five needs, and as each needs substantially satisfy, the next need becomes dominated. Explaination a) Types of needs The needs placed by Maslow in an ascending order are these.
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1- Psychological needs These are the basic need necessary for human life. Such as food, water, warmth, shelter and sleep Maslow said that until these needs are satisfied to the degree necessary to maintain life their needs, will not motivate people 2- Security or safety needs These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing of job, property, food and shelter 3- Affiliation or acceptance needs Since people are social beings, they need to belong to be accepted by other 4- Esteem needs According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. Esteem need produces such satisfactions as power, prestige, status and self confidence. 5- Needs for self actualization Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is desire to become what one is capable of becoming
Self- actualization needs Esteem needs Affiliation or acceptance needs Security and safety needs Physiological needs
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs B) Satisfaction of needs one by one Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is follow in sequence if one need is satisfied then next need is dominated C) Classification of above five needs Maslow’s further seprated five needs into higher or lower order needs. 1- lower order needs Needs that are satisfy externally, physiological, and satfey needs 2- Higher order needs Needs that are satisfied internally, social esteem and self actualization needs. Criticism The main criticism on maslow’s herierchy of needs theory is , a man normally do not follow the sequence mention by maslow’s
Hygiene approach to motivation Frederick Herzberg theory of motivation Introduction Needs theory of Maslow’s has been considering modified by Frederick Herzberg and his associates. Herzberg two factors theory are also called ‘’’ motivation hygien theory’’. Defination of theory According to Herzberg’’ intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, exransic factors are associated with job dis-satifaction’’
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Explaination A) Extrinsic factors or hygiene factors or dis-satisfier or mantainence factors or job content factors He grouped the concept into two factor theory of motivation. In one group of needs are such things as company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relation, salary, status, job security and personal life. This group referred to as dis-satisfies, and not motivators. In other words if they exit in a work environment in high quantity and quality they yield no dis-satisfaction. b) Intrinsic factors or motivators or satisfiers In second group, Herzberg listed certain satisfier and therefore motivators all related to job content. They include achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in the job. There existence will yield feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction. As figure indicates the satisfiers and dis-satisfiers identified by Herzberg are similar to the factor suggested by Maslow’s.
Maslow’s theory vs two factor theory
Maslow’s needs Hierarchy Self actualization Herzberg’s Two – factor theory
Challenging work Achievement
Esteem or status
Growth in the job Responsibility Status Interpersonal relations Quality of supervision
Affiliation or Acceptance Security & safety
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Critisizm 1) Limited by methodology for good work people give credit himself and for failure, blam other people or environment 2) Job satisfaction term require more explaination 3) It ignores situational variables Compensation of Maslow and Herzberg’s theories of motivation The first group of factors (the dis-satisfiers) will not motivate people in an organization, dis-satisfaction will arise. The second group or the job content factors by Herzberg is real motivators because they have the potential of yielding a sense of satisfaction. Clearly if this theory of motivation is sound, managers must give considerable attention to upgrading job content. Some researches challenged Herzberg’s theory saying that his investigation method tended to prejudice his result. For example the well known tendency of people to attribute good results to their own efforts and blame others for poor results is thought to have prejudiced. Herzberg’s theory has been criticized. Job enrichment Job enrichment is related to Herzberg’s theory of motivation, in which factors such as challenge, achievement, recognition, and responsibility are seen as real motivators. Even though this theory has not gone unchallenged it has led to widespread interest, both in United States and overseas. Job enrichment aims at making jobs challenging and meaningful. In job enrichment job may be enriched by verity. But they also may be enriched. 1- Giving workers more freedom in deciding about such things as work methods sequences and acceptance or rejection of materials’ 2- Encouraging participation of subordinates and interaction between workers. 3- Taking steps to see and solve problems of workers and the welfare of the enterprise. 4- Giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility for their work. 5- Giving people feedback on their job performance.
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6- Involving workers in the analysis and change of physical aspects of the work environment such as the layout of the office or plant, temperature lighting and cleanliness. Job enlargement Job Enlargement attempt to make a job more varied by removing the dullness associated with performing respective operations. It means enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar task without enchanging responsibility , for example , production line worker may install not only the bumper on a car but also the front hood job enlargement does not increase the workers responsibility. Theory of Clayton P. Alderfer Introduction The ERG Theory of Clayton P. Alderfer is a model that appeared in 1969 in a Psychological Review article entitled "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need". In a reaction to the famous Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow, Alderfer distinguishes three categories of human needs that influence worker's behavior; existence, relatedness and growth.
The ERG categories of human needs are
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Existence Needs Include all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection). Maslow's first two levels. Relatedness Needs Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers. This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family. Maslow's third and fourth levels. Growth Needs Internal esteem and self actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward one's ideal self). Maslow's fourth and fifth levels. This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks. • • • The ERG theory allows for different levels of needs to be pursued simultaneously. The ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people. The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher level need remains unfulfilled, the person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy. This is known as the frustration-regression principle. Thus, while the ERG theory presents a model of progressive needs, the hierarchical aspect is not rigid. This flexibility allows the ERG theory to account for a wider range of observed behaviors. For example, it can explain the “starving artist” who may place growth needs above existence ones. Implications of ERG Theory for Management If the ERG theory holds, then, managers must recognize that an employee has multiple needs to satisfy simultaneously. Furthermore, if growth opportunities are not provided to employees, they may regress to relatedness needs. If the manager is able to recognize this
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situation, then steps can be taken to concentrate on relatedness needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again Differences between ERG theory and Maslow's model Alderfer ERG motivation theory differs from Maslow's theory in three ways: 7. A lower level need does not have to be gratified (i.e., a person may satisfy a need at hand, whether or not a previous need has been satisfied); 8. If a relatively more significant need is not gratified, the desire to gratify a lesser need will be increased (i.e., the frustration in meeting high-order needs might lead a person to regress to a more concrete need category); 9. Alderfer ERG theory allows the order of the needs to differ for different people (e.g., it accounts for the "starving artist" who may place growth needs above existence ones). Adam's Equity Theory of Motivation Introduction to Equity Theory There was a time when employers thought employees to be just another input required for production of output, that is, goods and services. This thinking was changed with the research conducted known as Hawthorne Studies, by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. This study showed that employees are not just motivated by the money, but their attitudes as well. Thus, the Hawthorne Studies initiated the human relations approach to management and the needs and motivation of employees was the primary concenter of managers. Equity Theory Examples As the main focus of the researchers moved towards employees and their motivation factors, following the Hawthorne Study results, there were many theories put forward to understand employee motivation. The following are the five major equity theory examples that have helped in understanding motivation.
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Adam's Equity Theory Model This theory shows that employees strive to achieve equity between themselves and their coworkers. This equity can be achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs. Adam's Equity Theory of Motivation Let us now bring our attention to the main focus of this article, equity theory of motivation. Psychologist John Stacey Adams put forward his equity theory model in 1962. He puts emphasis on the importance of determining motivation as relative and not an absolute factor. The equity theory of motivation deals with one's own perception and not any other objective indicator. You can read more on psychology. Like the other more prevalent theories of motivation mentioned above, the Adam's Equity Theory of Motivation recognizes the variable factors that can affect employee's assessment and perception of their relationship with their work and the employer. This theory was created on the belief that employees are demotivated in relation to their job and employer if their inputs are greater than the outputs. Employees respond their de-motivation in form of reduced effort, increase dissatisfaction and May even become disruptive. Equity Equations Outcomes (Self) / Inputs (self) = Outcomes (other) /Inputs (other) Underpayment Inequity Outcomes (self) / Inputs (self) < Outcomes (other) /Inputs (other)
Overpayment Inequity Outcomes (self) / Inputs (self) > Outcomes (other) /Inputs (other)
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equity dependent on comparing own ratio of input/output with ratios of 'referent' others
Inputs are typically: effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, heart and soul, enthusiasm, trust in our boss and superiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc.
People need to feel that there is a fair balance between inputs and outputs. Crucially fairness is measured by comparing one's own balance or ratio between inputs and outputs, with the ratio enjoyed or endured by relevant ('referent') others.
Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition, reputation, praise and thanks, interest, responsibility, stimulus, travel, training, development, sense of achievement and advancement, promotion, etc.
Application of Equity Theory of Motivation When a manager is striving to achieve employee satisfaction, motivation levels, etc. then he should consider Adam's Equity Theory. Therefore, he should consider the balance and imbalance that is seen in the inputs and outputs of the employee. These inputs include: • • • • • Effort Loyalty Hard work Commitment Skill
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• • • • • • • •
Ability Tolerance Determination Enthusiasm Flexibility Trust in superiors Colleague support Personal sacrifice, etc.
The outputs for an employee include: Financial rewards like increase pay scale, benefits, perks, etc. Intangibles like recognition, reputation, responsibility, sense of achievement, praise, feeling of achievement, job security, etc. How to Inoculate Adam's Equity Theory of Motivation in an Organization a) Inputs and outputs of employees Employees compare themselves with other employees who do not put in the inputs that are equal to the outputs they receive. They tend to compare themselves with other employees to find out if they are being treated fairly. Employees may seek a balance between their inputs and outputs and it is not always possible to provide them with correct balance. To give a fair outcome to all employees, the managers should try and understand the employees better. They should know what the employee are aiming for and try to give them the best possible reward they expect. b) Employees performance & Team building Basically managers should understand what is to be done and the actions taken that will help motivating the employees. Managers should try and tie the rewards to employee performance. It means when the rewards should match the amount of performance put forward by the employee. The managers should hold regular meetings with the employees and
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discuss goal setting and personal development. They should be able to set goals for their team and help them create a personal development plan. A reward and recognition plan will help in increasing good performance that is noticed and shared by employees. c) Rewards It is not possible for the manager to treat each and every employee equally. You need to recognize the rewards that motivate individual employee. You can consider equity theory examples like flexible working hours for working mothers or across the board wage increase or giving responsibility with some amount of authority. In the end, research has shown that 'Equity theory of motivation' works when over-rewarded employees produce more high quality service and under-rewarded employees tend to decrease their input.
Goal setting theory
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Introduction Goal setting is a powerful way of motivating people. The value of goal setting is so well recognized that entire management systems, like Management by Objectives, have goal setting basics incorporated within them. In fact, goal setting theory is generally accepted as among the most valid and useful motivation theories in industrial and organizational psychology, human resource management, and organizational behavior. Locke's research showed that there was a relationship between how difficult and specific a goal was and people's performance of a task. He found that specific and difficult goals led to better task performance than vague or easy goals. Telling someone to "Try hard" or "Do your best" is less effective than "Try to get more than 80% correct" or "Concentrate on beating your best time." Likewise, having a goal that's too easy is not a motivating force. Hard goals are more motivating than easy goals, because it's much more of an accomplishment to achieve something that you have to work for. Five Principles of Goal Setting To motivate, goals must take into consideration the degree to which each of the following exists: • • • • • Clarity. Challenge. Commitment. Feedback. Task complexity.
Let's look at each of these in detail.
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Clarity Clear goals are measurable, unambiguous, and behavioral. When a goal is clear and specific, with a definite time set for completion, there is less misunderstanding about what behaviors will be rewarded. You know what's expected, and you can use the specific result as a source of motivation. When a goal is vague – or when it's expressed as a general instruction, like "Take initiative" – it has limited motivational value. To improve your or your team's performance, set clear goals that use specific and measurable standards. "Reduce job turnover by 15%" or "Respond to employee suggestions within 48 hours" are examples of clear goals. When you use the SMART acronym to help you set goals, you ensure the clarity of the goal by making it Specific, Measurable and Time-bound. Challenge One of the most important characteristics of goals is the level of challenge. People are often motivated by achievement, and they'll judge a goal based on the significance of the anticipated accomplishment. When you know that what you do will be well received, there's a natural motivation to do a good job. Rewards typically increase for more difficult goals. If you believe you'll be well compensated or otherwise rewarded for achieving a challenging goal, that will boost your enthusiasm and your drive to get it done. Setting SMART goals that are Relevant links closely to the rewards given for achieving challenging goals. Relevant goals will further the aims of your organization, and these are the kinds of goals that most employers will be happy to reward. When setting goals, make each goal a challenge. If an assignment is easy and not viewed as very important – and if you or your employee doesn't expect the accomplishment to be significant – then the effort may not be impressive.
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Note: It's important to strike an appropriate balance between a challenging goal and a realistic goal. Setting a goal that you'll fail to achieve is possibly more de-motivating than setting a goal that's too easy. The need for success and achievement is strong, therefore people are best motivated by challenging, but realistic, goals. Ensuring that goals are Achievable or Attainable is one of the elements of SMART Commitment Goals must be understood and agreed upon if they are to be effective. Employees are more likely to "buy into" a goal if they feel they were part of creating that goal. The notion of participative management rests on this idea of involving employees in setting goals and making decisions. One version of SMART - for use when you are working with someone else to set their goals - has A and R stand for Agreed and Realistic instead of Attainable and Relevant. Agreed goals lead to commitment. This doesn't mean that every goal has to be negotiated with and approved by employees. It does mean that goals should be consistent and in line with previous expectations and organizational concerns. As long as the employee believes the goal is consistent with the goals of the company, and believes the person assigning the goal is credible, then the commitment should be there. Interestingly, goal commitment and difficulty often work together. The harder the goal, the more commitment is required. If you have an easy goal, you don't need a lot of motivation to get it done. When you're working on a difficult assignment, you will likely encounter challenges that require a deeper source of inspiration and incentive. As you use goal setting in your workplace, make an appropriate effort to include people in their own goal setting. Encourage employees to develop their own goals, and keep them
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informed about what's happening elsewhere in the organization. This way, they can be sure that their goals are consistent with the overall vision and purpose that the company seeks. Feedback In addition to selecting the right type of goal, an effective goal program must also include feedback. Feedback provides opportunities to clarify expectations, adjust goal difficulty, and gain recognition. It's important to provide benchmark opportunities or targets, so individuals can determine for themselves how they're doing. These regular progress reports, which measure specific success along the way, are particularly important where it's going to take a long time to reach a goal. In these cases, break down the goals into smaller chunks, and link feedback to these intermediate milestones. SMART goals are Measurable, and this ensures that clear feedback is possible. With all your goal setting efforts, make sure that you build in time for providing formal feedback. Certainly, informal check-ins are important, and they provide a means of giving regular encouragement and recognition. However, taking the time to sit down and discuss goal performance is a necessary factor in long-term performance improvement. See our article on Delegation for more on this. Task Complexity The last factor in goal setting theory introduces two more requirements for success. For goals or assignments that are highly complex, take special care to ensure that the work doesn't become too overwhelming. People who work in complicated and demanding roles probably have a high level of motivation already. However, they can often push themselves too hard if measures aren't built into the goal expectations to account for the complexity of the task. It's therefore important to do the following: • Give the person sufficient time to meet the goal or improve performance.
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Provide enough time for the person to practice or learn what is expected and required for success.
The whole point of goal setting is to facilitate success. Therefore, you want to make sure that the conditions surrounding the goals don't frustrate or inhibit people from accomplishing their objectives. This reinforces the "Attainable" part of SMART. Key points Goal setting is something most of us recognize as necessary for our success. By understanding goal setting theory, you can effectively apply the principles to goals that you or your team members set. Locke and Latham's research emphasizes the usefulness of SMART goal setting, and their theory continues to influence the way we set and measure performance today. Use clear, challenging goals, and commit yourself to achieving them. Provide feedback on goal performance. Take into consideration the complexity of the task. If you follow these simple rules, your goal setting process will be much more successful. And your overall performance will improve.
What are reinforcement theories, and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior. Principles of re inforcement There are three basic principles of this theory. These are the Rules of Consequences. The three Rules describe the logical outcomes which typically occur after consequences.
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1. Consequences which give Rewards increase a behavior. 2. Consequences which give Punishments decrease a behavior. 3. Consequences which give neither Rewards nor Punishments extinguish a behavior. Classical conditioning A form of leaning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior. Involves an initial stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) and a conditioned stimulus in the learning of behavior. The classical conditioning process Behavior is caused by an unconditioned stimulus. A conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is able to evoke the behavior.
Operant conditioning The process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Focuses on the interplay of antecedents, behavior, and consequences.
Antecedents The condition leading up to or cueing behavior. Behavior The action taken by the person. Consequences The outcome received by the person. Law of effect Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences.
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Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated.
Reinforcement emphasizes consequences that can be manipulated. Extrinsic rewards: Positively valued work outcomes that are give to the individual by some other person. Contrived rewards have direct costs and budgetary implications. Natural rewards have costs only in terms of the manager’s time and efforts.
Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior. Uses four basic strategies: Positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement. Punishment. Extinction.
Positive reinforcement The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers. A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves.
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Principles governing reinforcement Law of contingent reinforcement The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited. Law of immediate reinforcement The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited. Shaping behavior The creation of a new behavior by the positive reinforcement of successive approximations leading to the desired behavior. Behavior is shaped gradually rather than changed all at once.
Scheduling reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs.
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Intermittent,reinforcement Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited. Schedules of intermittent reinforcement Variable schedules typically result in more consistent patterns of behavior than do fixed schedules. Types of intermittent schedules Fixed interval. Fixed ratio. Variable interval. Variable ratio. Nature of Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced every time it occurs. Behavior is reinforced according to some predetermined constant schedule based on time. Variable-Interval Behavior is reinforced after periods of time, but the time span varies from one time to the next Fixed-Ratio Behavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, with the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement held constant.
Schedule of Reinforcement Continuous Fixed-Interval
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Behavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain
reinforcement varies from one time to the next.
Negative reinforcement Also known as avoidance. The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. Punishment The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings. Implications of using punishment Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction. Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and dissatisfaction. Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source.
Extinction The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. The behavior is not “unlearned”; it simply is not exhibited. The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again.
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Summary of OB Mod strategies Positive and negative reinforcement Used for strengthening desirable behavior. Punishment and extinction Used to weaken undesirable behavior. Extinction may inadvertently weaken desirable behavior.
Ethical issues with reinforcement usage Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion
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OUTLINE 06 Learning
Learning Components of learning Theories of learning
Relevance of learning Well pay vs sick pay Employee discipline Devloping training programes Self management
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Q6.1 Defination of learning
‘’Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience ironically’’ we can say that changes in behavior indicates that learning has taken place and that learning is a change in behavior. Components of learning Our defination has sevral components 1. Learning involve change, change may be good or bad from organizational point of view. 2. The change must be reletively permenent. Temprary changes may only be reflexive and fails to represent any learning 3. Sour defination is concerned with behavior. Learning take place when there is cahnge in actions. 4. Some form of ecperiance is necessary for learning. Experience may be acquired directly through observation or practice or it may be acquired indirectly as through reading. Theories of learning Three theories have been offered to explain the process through which we acquire pattern of behavior These are classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning. 1-Classical conditioning Classical conditional theory grew out of experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to ringing of bell, conducted at the turn of century by a Russian physiologist L van Pavlov
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Pavlov followed a simple procedure to measure accurately the amount of saliva secreted by a dog. When he presented a meat of piece to dog the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in aslivation when Pavlov with held the presentation of meat and mearly rang a bell, the dog did not salivate. After repeatedly learning the bell before getting the food, the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. After a while, the dog would salivate merely at the sound of bell. Infact the dog had learned to responsed that is to salivate to the bell. The meat was unditioned stimulus, it indirectly caused the dog to react in a specific way. The bell was an artifical stimulus what we call conditioned stimulus. Conclusion Calssaical conditioning is passive something happens and we react in a specific way. 2- Operant conditioning theory Operant behavior means valintary or learned behavior incontrast to reflexible or unlearned behavior. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of behavior. What Pavlov did for classical conditioning the Harvard psychologist B.F. skinner did for operant conditioning. Building on earlier work in field, skinners research extinsively expended our knowledge of operant conditioning. Skinner argued that creating pleasing consequences to follow specific form of behavior would increase the frequency of that behavior. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired respons. We see examples of operant conditioning every where…… For example, your instructure say that if you want high grade incourse, you must supply correct answer on test. Another example is that if your boss tells you that if you will work overtime during the next three week busy season, you will be compensated for it at next performance. Apprasial
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time comes, you are not given any positive response for your overtime work. The next time your boss asks you to work overtime, what will you do? You will probably decline. Your behavior can be explained by opreant conditionig. 3- Social learning Individual can also learn by observing what happens to other people as well as by direct experiances. This view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience has been called social learning. For example, much of what we have learned comes from watching models, parents, teachers, televisions and bosses etc. The influence of modles is central to the social learning view point. For proceses have been found to determine the influence that a model will have an individual. i) Attentional processes People learn from a model when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. ii) Retention process A model influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model action after the model is no longer readily available. iii) Motor reproduction process After a person has seen a new behavior by observing a model, the watching must be converted to doing. iii) Reenforcement processes Individual will be moticvated to exhibt the modeled behavior, if positive or rewards are provided. Behaviors that are positively reinforced will be given more attention, learned better and performed more often.
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Relevance of learning to organizational behavior
As we know in organizational behavior, we study the behavior of individual and groups and it is also an open fact that all ‘’’behaviors are learned’’’ Inorder explain an predict any behavior we have to understand, ‘’ how this behavior has been learned’’ Relevance of learning to O.B can be further determined by knowing its applications in O.B some of important application of learning in O.B are as follows. 1- Well pay vs sick pay Sick pay If organizations allow 10 paid sick leaves in a year to its employees, its employees will avail 10 paid sick leaves, whether, they are ill or not. Such employee promotion activity ( 10 paid sick leaves a year) will encourage absenteeism in organization. Well pay In contrast to above ‘’ sick pay’’ there should be a ‘’ well pay ‘’ performance. In which bonus should be paid to an employee who has not availed any leave in a month. Such step will reduce absenteeism and increase productivity and will improve employee satisfaction 2- Employee discipline Every manager has to deal with employee, who drinks at the work place, steel organization assets, and for somes late. Every organization has a descipline policy to deal with such disciplinary issues by punishing indisciplined employees Learning teaches us that we should reward thoe employees who are highly disciplined.
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3- Devloping training programes Learning helps in devloping training programes for an organizations employee. Learning teaches us which training mode is effective and which is less effective. 4- Self management Self management is kearning techniques that allow individual to manage their own behavior, so that less external management control is necessary.
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Outline 07 Groups and groups Q7.1 Q7.2 Q7.3 Q7.4 Q7.5 Q7.6 Definition Classification of groups Formal Informal Why people join groups Self esteem Affilation Power Goal acheivement Stages of group devlopment Key group concepts Cohesiveness Group’s norms Inter-group conflects Foundation of group behavior Group decision making Communication
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Q7.1 Definition Groups ‘’’two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular goals’’ A comprehensive definition If a group exists in an organization, its members 1. Are motivated to join 2. Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people 3. Contribute in various amounts to the group processes ( that is some people contribute more time or energy to the group then do other) 4. Reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction. Q7.2 Classification of groups
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Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objective. Groups can be classified in two types 1. Formal groups 2. Informal groups
1-Formal group ‘’ a designed work group defined by the organization structure’’ Structure
President a v.President
Formal group divided in two groups 1- Command group 2- Task group 1-Command group ‘’ a group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager’’ A manager and his or her immediate subordinates is called command group. 2-Task group
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Those working together to complete a job task 2-Informal group ‘’’A group that is neither formally structured nor organizational determined appears in response to the need for social contact’’
Structure President v.President
Informal group can be divided in two types 1. Interest group 2. Friendship group 1-Interest group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned 2-Friendship group Those working together because they share one or more common characteristics
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why people join group
People join groups due to some reasons 1-Security By joining a group individuals can reduce the in security of ‘’’standing alone’’ people feel stranger, have fever self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. 2-Status Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others recognition and status for its members. 3-Self esteem Groups can provide people with feelings of self worth. That is in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. 4-Affilation Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people these on job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. 5-Power What can not be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in members
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6-Goal achievement There are times when it takes more then one person to accomplish a particular task there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to accomplish a job. In such instances, management will rely on the use of a formal group.
Stages of group development
Groups go through five distinct stages 1. Forming stage 2. Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning 1-Forming stage The first stage in development characterized by which uncertainty about the groups purpose, structure and leadership. 2-Stroming stage The second stage in group development characterized by intergroup conflict. There is conflict over who will control the group. 3-Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 4-performing stage
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The 4th stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. 5-Adjourning stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up abilities rather then task performance.
Q7.5 Key group concepts Cohesiveness group Group norms Inter-group conflicts
Group and group dynamics
Key group concepts are, Cohesiveness Means the degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. For instance, some groups are cohesive because the members have spent a great deal of time together, or the group small size facilitates high interaction, or the group has experienced external threats that have brought members close together. Cohesiveness is important it has been found to be related to the group productivity. Studies consistently show that the relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance related norms established by the group. If performance related norms are high for example, high output quality work co operation with individual out side the group. A cohesive group will be more productive then will a less cohesive group. But if cohesiveness is high performance norms are low, productivity will be low if cohesiveness is low
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and performance norms are high, productivity increases, but less then in the high cohesiveness / high norms solution. How to make group cohesiveness When we encourage group cohesiveness the follow one or more suggestions. 1. Make the group smaller 2. Encourage agreement with group goals 3. Increase the time members spend together 4. Increase the status of the group and the perceive difficulty of attaining membership in the group 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members 7. Physically isolate the groups
Norm’s group Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by group members Types of norms There are two types of norms Formal norms Formal norms are written up in organization manual setting out rules and procedures for employees to follow. For example do not misuse any property of organization. Informal norms Informal norms are not written or told to employees. For example you do not need to tell employees not to smoke in air-conditioned office.
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Common classes of norms Some common classes of norms that appears in most work groups a) Performance norms Performance norms tells members how hard they should work, how to get the job done and their level of output b) Appearance norms A second category encompasses appearance norms. This include things like appropriate dress, loyalty to the work group or organization, when to look busy, and when its acceptable to gordoff c) Social arrangement norms These norms come from informal work group and primarily regulate social intersections within the group. With whom group members eat lunch, friendships and of the job social games and the like are influenced by these norms. d) Allocation of resource norms These norms can originate in the organization and cover things like they, assignment of difficult jobs, and allocation of new tools and equipment e) Inter group conflicts Means difference of opinions of members of a group These differences can be over Distribution of resources Allocation of authority Recognition of services
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Foundation of group behavior
1- Group decision making ---towards improved group decision making 2- Communication Foundation of group behavior In foundation of group behavior include two main things 1- Group decision making 2- Communication Group decision making ‘’two heads are better then one’’ Know today many decisions in organization are made by groups, teams, or committees. Because two heads are better then one. Strength of group decision making 1- Group generate more complete information and knowledge 2- Increased diversity of views. 3- Higher quality decision making 4- Increased acceptance of a solutions Weakness of group decision making 1- Time consuming 2- Conformity pressures in groups 3- Dominated by one or few members 4- Ambiguous responsibility
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Group discussion making techniques When we improve group discussion making then we use some techniques 1-Interacting groups Typically groups, in which members interact with each other face to face 2-Brainstroming An idea generation process that specifically encourage any and all alternatives, while with holding any criticism of those alternatives. 3-Nominal group technique A group discussion making methods in which individuals members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. 4-Electronic meeting A meeting in which member interact on computers, allowing for anoemity of comments and aggregation of votes
‘’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’see out line communication on page 126‘’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’
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Outline 08 Power Q8.1 Q8.2 Q8.3 Q8.4 Q8.4 Power defination Types of power Sources of power Power tactis Political implications of power Definition The reality of politics Factors contributing to political behavior Political strategies Avoiding politics
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Power Q8.1 Definition
‘’Power is the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the benefits or actions of other persons or groups’’ Q8.2 1-Formal power ‘’Formal power is based on individuals position in an organization’’ Formal power can come from the ability to coerce or reward from formal authority or from control of information 2-Coercive Power The coercive power base is dependent on fear. At the organizational level supervise has coercive power over subordinate if he can dismiss, suspend or demote his subordinate coercive power is closely related to reward power and normally arising from legitimate power. 3-Reward power Power arise from the ability of some people to grant reward The opposite of coercive power is reward. The rewards can either financial such as controlling pay rates, bonuses or non financial such as promotions, interesting work assignment, friendly colleague. 4- Legitimate power Types and sources of power
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The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources. Legitimate power is broader then the power to coercive and reward. 5-Information power The fourth source of formal power comes from access to and control over information. People in an organization who have data or knowledge that others need can make these others dependent on them. Managers because of their access to privileged sales, cost, salary, profit, can use this information to control and shape subordinates power. 2-personal power Personal power comes from individual unique characteristics. Three bases of personal power are expert power, referent power and charismatic power. i- Expert Power: Power comes from the expertness of a person or group is caused expert power. This is the power of knowledge. Expertise has become one of the most. A powerful source of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented. Physician, lowers nay have considerable Uninfluenced on others because they are respected for their special knowledge.
ii- Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resource or personal traits. Referent Power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. A movie star or a military herd might possess considerable referent power.
iii- Charismatic Power
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An extension of referent power stemming for an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. Charismatic leaders get others to follow them because they can circulate attractive vision take personal risks and are mainly engage in behavior that most others consider, unconventional.
Power tactics are the “ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions.” The seven tactical dimensions or strategies are: i- Reason: Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas. ii- Friendliness Use of flattery, creation of good reiw, and being friendly prior to making a reviest. iii- Bargaining Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits. iv- Assertiveness Use of direct and forceful approach such demanding compliance with reavuest and pay out that rules reavuire compliance. v- Higher Authority Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to backup request. vi- Sanction Use of organizationally derived reward and punishments such as promising in salary increase, threaten to give an unsatisfactory performance evaluation or with holding a promotion.
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Q8.4 Political behavior
Politics: Power in Action Definition
Those activities that are not required as part of ones formal role in the organization, but that influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages within the organization. Political behavior is outside one, specific job requirement. Additionally, our definition encompasses effort to influence the goals, criteria or processes used for decision making when we state that politic is concerned with the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. i- Legitimate Political Behaviors: Normal everyday politics complaining to superiors by passing the chain of command. ii- Illegitimate Political Behavior: Extreme political behavior that rotates the implied rules of the game. The extreme illegitimate forms of political behavior pose a very real risk of poses of organizational membership or extreme sanctions against those who use them and than fall short in having enough power to ensure that they work. The Reality of Politics: Organizations are made up of individual and groups with different values, goals and interests. This sets up the potential for conflict over resources Whether true or not, gain by one individual or group is often perceived as being at the expense of others within the organization. Most of the facts that are used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. What, for instance is good performance.
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Finally, because most decision have to be mad in a climate of ambiguity where facts are rarely fully objective, and thus are open to interpretation- people within organization will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. We can say that politics free organization is possible is all member of that organization hold the same goals and interests if organizational resources are not scare and if performance outcomes are completely clean objective.
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Not all groups or organizations are equally political, same are individual characteristics, derived from the unique qualities if the people the organization employs; others are a result of the organizations culture or internal environment Factors influencing Political Behavior:
Individual factor High self monitors High mach Ogranizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectation of success
Favorable outcomes Political behavior Low---high Reward Averted Punishment
Organizational factors Reallocation of resources Promotion apportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance Evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision making High performance pressure Self-serving senior
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Individual Factors More organizational investment, less likely to use illegitimate means. More perceived job alternatives, more is to risk illegitimate political behavior. More expectations of success in using illegitimate means, more likely attempt to do so. Organizational factors When organization downside to improve efficiency, reductions in resources have to be made. Any change especially those that imply significant reallocation of resources within the organization are likely to stimulate conflicts and increase politically Less trust, higher the levels of political behavior and more likely will be of the illegitimate kind. Role ambiguity means prescribe of behavior of the employee are not clear greater the role ambiguity, greater will the political activity with fettle chance of it being visible. The more that organizations use subjective criteria in the appraisal, emphasize a single outcome measure or allow significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal the greater the likelihood that an employ can get away with the politically. The zero-sum approach treats the “reward of pie” as fixed so that any gain one person or group achieves has to come at the expense of another person or group. The more pressure that employees feel to perform well the more likely they are to engage in politically. Finally, when employees see the people on top engaging in political behavior, especially when they do so successfully and are rewarded for it, a climate is created that supports politically.
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Political Strategies 1- Align with powerful group. 2- Divide and rule. (Top Level) 3- Manipulate. (Scale) 4- Making a quick show. 5- Attacking and blaming others. 6- Progress one step at one time. 7- Wait for the crises. 8- Stimulating the subordinates. 9- Developing expertise.
Avoiding Politics: 1. Keep the line of communication. 2. Develop rules model. 3. Captain leads from the front. 4. Individual protection 5. Political free culture.
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Outline 09 Leadership
what is leadership Introduction Defination
Theories of leadership Trait approach Behavioral theory Contegency theory
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9.1…What is leadership? Introduction The problem of leadership has been one of man's major concerns since the days of antiquity. Leadership was a matter of concern even in biblical times. The children of Israel needed someone to guide them out of their bondage in Egypt, and Moses stepped forward to lead them in their journey to the promised holy land of Israel. In the 20th century, Great Britain needed the leadership of Winston Churchill to successfully combat her enemies in the 2nd World War. In the same way Franklin D Roosevelt provided leadership to the American people, Adolph Hitler in Germany, Stalin in USSR and M.K. Gandhi in India. Coming to the business enterprises, people working there need leaders, who could be instrumental in guiding the efforts of groups of workers to achieve the goals of both individuals and the organization. Leadership is a process of influence on a group. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. Peter F Drucker considers "leadership" as a human characteristic which lifts a man's vision to higher sights, raises a man's performance to higher standards and builds man's personality beyond its normal limitations.
Defination According to Chester I Barnard, "It (leadership) refers to the quality of the behavior of the individual whereby they guide people on their activities in organized efforts".
According to Terry, "a leader shows the way by his own example. He is not a pusher, he pulls rather than pushes".
According to Peter Drucker - Leadership "is not making friends and influencing people i.e., salesmanship. Leadership is the lifting of man's vision to higher sights, the raising of man's performance to higher standards, the building of man's personality beyond its normal limitations".
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9.2 Theories of leadership Introduction Three main theoretical frameworks have dominated leadership research at different points in time. These included 1. The trait approach (1930s and 1940s), 2. The behavioral approach (1940s and 1950s) 3. The contingency or situational approach (1960s and 1970s). 1-Trait Theories 1930s Individual characteristics of leaders are different than those of non leaders.
2-Behavioral Theories 1940s and 1950s The behaviors of effective leaders are different than the behaviors of ineffective leaders. Two major classes of leader behavior are task-oriented behavior and relationship-oriented behavior.
3-Contingency Theories 1960s and 1970s Factors unique to each situation determine whether specific leader characteristics and behaviors will be effective. 1-Trait approach The scientific study of leadership began with a focus on the traits of effective leaders. The basic premise behind trait theory was that effective leaders are born, not made, thus the name sometimes applied to early versions of this idea, the "great man" theory. Many leadership studies based on this theoretical framework were conducted in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.
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Leader trait research It examined the physical, mental, and social characteristics of individuals. In general, these studies simply looked for significant associations between individual traits and measures of leadership effectiveness. Physical traits such as height, mental traits such as intelligence, and social traits such as personality attributes were all subjects of empirical research. The initial conclusion The initial conclusion from studies of leader traits was that there were no universal traits that consistently separated effective leaders from other individuals. In an important review of the leadership literature published in 1948, Ralph Stogdill concluded that the existing research had not demonstrated the utility of the trait approach. Situational variables Finally, early trait research did not consider the impact of situational variables that might moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of leader effectiveness. As a result of the lack of consistent findings linking individual traits to leadership effectiveness, empirical studies of leader traits were largely abandoned in the 1950s. Several problems Several problems with early trait research might explain the perceived lack of significant findings. First, measurement theory at the time was not highly sophisticated. Little was known about the psychometric properties of the measures used to operationalize traits. As a result, different studies were likely to use different measures to assess the same construct, which made it very difficult to replicate findings. In addition, many of the trait studies relied on samples of teenagers or lower-level managers. Early trait research was largely a theoretical, offering no explanations for the proposed relationship between individual characteristics and leadership.
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2-Contingency (situational) approach The situational leadership theory was initially introduced in 1969 and revised in 1977 by Hersey and Blanchard. The theory suggests that the key contingency factor affecting leaders' choice of leadership style is the task-related maturity of the subordinates. Subordinate maturity is defined in terms of the ability of subordinates to accept responsibility for their own taskrelated behavior. The theory classifies leader behaviors into the two broad classes of taskoriented and relationship-oriented behaviors. The major proposition of situational leadership theory is that the effectiveness of task and relationship-oriented leadership depends upon the maturity of a leader's subordinates. Contingency or situational theories of leadership propose that the organizational or work group context affects the extent to which given leader traits and behaviors will be effective. Contingency theories gained prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s. Favorability is determined by The respect and trust that followers have for the leader; The extent to which subordinates' responsibilities can be structured and performance measured The control the leader has over subordinates' rewards. The situation is most favorable when followers respect and trust the leader, the task is highly structured, and the leader has control over rewards and punishments. Person-oriented leaders Fiedler's research indicated that task-oriented leaders were more effective when the situation was either highly favorable or highly unfavorable, but that person-oriented leaders were more effective in the moderately favorable or unfavorable situations. The theory did not necessarily propose that leaders could adapt their leadership styles to different situations, but that leaders with different leadership styles would be more effective when placed in situations that matched their preferred style.
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Reduce barriers to subordinates' According to the theory, leader behavior should reduce barriers to subordinates' goal attainment, strengthen subordinates' expectancies that improved performance will lead to valued rewards, and provide coaching to make the path to payoffs easier for subordinates. There are five types of leader decision-making styles, which are labeled AI, AII, CI, CII, G.
These styles range from strongly autocratic (AI), to strongly democratic (G). According to the theory, the appropriate style is determined by answers to up to eight diagnostic questions, which relate to such contingency factors as the importance of decision quality, the structure of the problem, whether subordinates have enough information to make a quality decision, and the importance of subordinate commitment to the decision. Criticism Fiedler's contingency theory has been criticized on both conceptual and methodological grounds. However, empirical research has supported many of the specific propositions of the theory, and it remains an important contribution to the understanding of leadership effectiveness. 3-Leader behavioral approach Partially as a result of the disenchantment with the trait approach to leadership that occurred by the beginning of the 1950s, the focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leader behaviors. The premise of this stream of research was that the behaviors exhibited by leaders are more important than their physical, mental, or emotional traits. The
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two most famous behavioral leadership studies took place at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late 1940s and 1950s. These studies sparked hundreds of other leadership studies and are still widely cited. Consideration and initiating structure Two factors, termed consideration and initiating structure, consistently appeared. Initiating structure, sometimes called task-oriented behavior, involves planning, organizing, and coordinating the work of subordinates. Consideration involves showing concern for subordinates, being supportive, recognizing subordinates' accomplishments, and providing for subordinates' welfare. Employee orientation and a production orientation The focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction. The studies resulted in two general leadership behaviors or orientations: an employee orientation and a production orientation. Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations. Those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job. Managerial (or Leadership) Grid One concept based largely on the behavioral approach to leadership effectiveness was the Managerial (or Leadership) Grid, developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The grid combines "concern for production" with "concern for people" and presents five alternative behavioral styles of leadership. An individual who emphasized neither production was practicing "impoverished management" according to the grid. If a person emphasized concern for people and placed little emphasis on production, he was terms a "country-club" manager.
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"Task" manager Conversely, a person who emphasized a concern for production but paid little attention to the concerns of subordinates was a "task" manager. A person who tried to balance concern for production and concern for people was termed a "middle-of-the-road" manager. Team management Finally, an individual who was able to simultaneously exhibit a high concern for production and a high concern for people was practicing "team management." According to the prescriptions of the grid, team management was the best leadership approach. The Managerial Grid became a major consulting tool and was the basis for a considerable amount of leadership training in the corporate world. The assumption of the leader behavior approach The assumption of the leader behavior approach was that there were certain behaviors that would be universally effective for leaders. Unfortunately, empirical research has not demonstrated consistent relationships between task-oriented or person-oriented leader behaviors and leader effectiveness. Like trait research, leader behavior research did not consider situational influences that might moderate the relationship between leader behaviors and leader effectiveness.
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Outline 10 Communication
Q10.1 Communication process Encoding, The message, The channel, Decoding, The receiver, Feedback
Q10.2 Barriers to effective communication Q10.3 Non verbal communication Q10.4 Communication network
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Q10.1…Introduction Communication is the exchange of messages between people for the purpose of achieving common meanings. Unless common meanings are shared, managers find it extremely difficult to influence others. Whenever group of people interact, communication takes place. Communication is the exchange of information using a shared set of symbols. It is the process that links group members and enables them to coordinate their activities. Therefore, when managers foster effective communication, they strengthen the connections between employees and build cooperation. Communication also functions to build and reinforce interdependence between various parts of the organization. As a linking mechanism among the different organizational subsystems, communication is a central feature of the structure of groups and organizations. It helps to coordinate tasks and activities within and between organizations.
Definition of Communication The term "communication" is derived from the Latin word "Communis" which means "common". This stands for the sharing of ideas in common. It Is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. According to Theo Haimann, "Communication, fundamental and vital to all managerial Actions, is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others". In the words of Newman and summer, "Communication is an exchange of fact, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons".
According to Hudson, “Communication in its simplest form is conveying of information from one person to another".
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According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Communication, is an intercourse by words, letters symbols or messages, and is a way that the organization members shares meaning and understanding with another".
According to Ordeay Tead, "Communication is a composite: 1. Of information given and received, 2. Of learning experience in which certain attitudes, knowledge and skills change, carrying with them alternations of behavior, 3. Of a listening effort by all involved, 4. Of a sympathetic fresh examination of issues by communicator himself, 5. Of a sensitive interaction of points of view – leading to a higher level of shared understanding and common intention".
10.2…Communication process Communication is important in building and sustaining human relationships at work. It cannot be replaced by the advances in information technology and data management that have taken place over the past several decades. Communication can be thought of as a process or flow. Before communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed is needed. It passes between the sender and the receiver. The result is transference of meaning from one person to another. The figure below depicts the communication process. This model is made up of seven parts: 1. The communication source, 2. Encoding, 3. The message, 4. The channel, 5. Decoding, 6. The receiver, 7. Feedback.
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The communication process model
Source The source initiates a message. This is the origin of the communication and can be an individual, group or inanimate object. The effectiveness of a communication depends to a considerable degree on the characteristics of the source. Aristotle believed that acceptance of the source's message could be increased by: Pathos – Playing on the emotions of the receiver. Logos – Generating logical arguments or Ethos – Asking for message acceptance because the source is trustworthy.
The person who initiates the communication process is known as sender, source or communicator. In an organization, the sender will be a person who has a need or desire to send a message to others. The sender has some information which he wants to communicate to some other person to achieve some purpose. By initiating the message, the sender attempts to achieve understanding and change in the behavior of the receiver.
Encoding Once the source has decided what message to communicate, the content of the message must be put in a form the receiver can understand. As the background for encoding information, the sender uses his or her own frame of reference. It includes the individual's Communication view of the organization or situation as a function of personal education, interpersonal relationships, attitudes, knowledge and experience. Three conditions are necessary for successful encoding the message.
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1. Skill: Successful communicating depends on the skill you posses. Without the requisite skills, the message of the communicator will not reach the requisite skills; the message of the communicator will not reach the receiver in the desired form. One's total communicative success includes speaking, reading, listening and reasoning skills. 2. Attitudes: Our attitudes influence our behavior. We hold predisposed ideas on a number of topics and our communications are affected by these attitudes. 3. Knowledge: We cannot communicate what we don't know. The amount of knowledge the source holds about his or her subject will affect the message he or she seeks to transfer.
The Message The message is the actual physical product from the source encoding. The message contains the thoughts and feelings that the communicator intends to evoke in the receiver. The message has two primary components:1. The Content: The thought or conceptual component of the message is containing in the words, ideas, symbols and concepts chosen to relay the message. 2. The Affect: The feeling or emotional component of the message is contained in the intensity, force, demeanor (conduct or behavior), and sometimes the gestures of the communicator.
According to D.K Berlo - "when we speak, the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we paint, the picture is the message. When we gesture, the movements of our arms, the expressions on our faces are the message" The Channel The actual means by which the message is transmitted to the receiver (Visual, auditory, written or some combination of these three) is called the channel. The channel is the medium
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through which the message travels. The channel is the observable carrier of the message. Communication in which the sender's voice is used as the channel is called oral communication. When the channel involves written language, the sender is using written communication. The sender's choice of a channel conveys additional information beyond that contained in the message itself. For example, documenting an employee's poor performance in writing conveys that the manager has taken the problem seriously.
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10.2…Barrier to communication Barriers to communication Barriers to communication are factors that block or significantly distort successful communication. Effective managerial communication skills helps overcome some, but not all, barriers to communication in organizations. The more prominent barriers to effective communication which every manager should be aware of is given below:
Filtering Filtering refers to a sender manipulating information so it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. The major determinant of filtering is the number of levels in an organization's structure. The more vertical levels in the organization's hierarchy, the more opportunities for filtering. Sometimes the information is filtered by the sender himself. If the sender is hiding some meaning and disclosing in such a fashion as appealing to the receiver, then he is "filtering" the message deliberately. A manager in the process of altering communication in his favor is attempting to filter the information.
Selective Perception Selective perception means seeing what one wants to see. The receiver, in the communication process, generally resorts to selective perception i.e., he selectively perceives the message based on the organizational requirements, the needs and characteristics, background of the employees etc. Perceptual distortion is one of the distressing barriers to the effective communication. People interpret what they see and call it a reality. In our regular activities, we tend to see those things that please us and to reject or ignore unpleasant things. Selective perception allows us to keep out dissonance (the existence of conflicting elements in our perceptual set) at a tolerable level. If we encounter something that does not fit out current image of reality, we structure the situation to minimize our dissonance. Thus, we manage to overlook many stimuli from the environment that do not fit into out current perception of the
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world. This process has significant implications for managerial activities. For example, the employment interviewer who expects a female job applicant to put her family ahead of her career is likely to see that in female applicants, regardless of whether the applicants feel that way or not.
Emotions How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of information influences effectively how he interprets the information. For example, if the receiver feels that the communicator is in a jovial mood, he interprets that the information being sent by the communicator to be good and interesting. Extreme emotions and jubilation or depression are quite likely to hinder the effectiveness of communication. A person's ability to encode a message can become impaired when the person is feeling strong emotions. For example, when you are angry, it is harder to consider the other person's viewpoint and to choose words carefully. The angrier you are, the harder this task becomes. Extreme emotions – such as jubilation or depression - are most likely to hinder effective communication. In such instances, we are most prone to disregard our rational and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgments.
Language Communicated message must be understandable to the receiver. Words mean different things to different people. Language reflects not only the personality of the individual but also the culture of society in which the individual is living. In organizations, people from different regions, different backgrounds, and speak different languages. People will have different academic backgrounds, different intellectual facilities, and hence the jargon they use varies. Often, communication gap arises because the language the sender is using may be incomprehensible, vague and indigestible. Language is a central element in communication. It may pose a barrier if its use obscures meaning and distorts intent. Words mean different things to different people. Age, education and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words. Therefore, use simple, direct, declarative language.
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Speak in brief sentences and use terms or words you have heard from you audience. As much as possible, speak in the language of the listener. Do not use jargon or technical language except with those who clearly understand it. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the application of selective perception. When we have preconceived ideas about other people and refuse to discriminate between individual behaviors, we are applying selective perception to our relationship with other people. Stereotyping is a barrier to communications because those who stereotype others use selective perception in their communication and tend to hear only those things that confirm their stereotyped images. Consequently, stereotypes become more deeply ingrained as we find more "evidence" to confirm our original opinion. Stereotyping has a convenience function in our interpersonal relations. Since people are all different, ideally we should react and interact with each person differently. To do this, however, requires considerable psychological effort. It is much easier to categorize (stereotype) people so that we can interact with them as members of a particular category. Since the number of categories is small, we end up treating many people the same even though they are quite different. Our communications, then, may be directed at an individual as a member of a category at the sacrifice of the more effective communication on a personal level.
Status Difference The organizational hierarchy poses another barrier to communication within organization, especially when the communication is between employee and manager. This is so because the employee is dependent on the manager as the primary link to the organization and hence more likely to distort upward communication than either horizontal or downward communication. Effective supervisory skills make the supervisor more approachable and help reduce the risk of problems related to status differences. In addition, when employees feel secure, they are more likely to be straightforward in upward communication.
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Use of Conflicting Signals A sender is using conflicting signals when he or she sends inconsistent messages. A vertical message might conflict with a nonverbal one. For example, if a manager says to his employees, "If you have a problem, just come to me. My door is always open", but he looks annoyed whenever an employee knocks on his door". Then we say the manager is sending conflicting messages. When signals conflict, the receivers of the message have to decide which, if any, to believe. Reluctance to Communicate For a variety of reasons, managers are sometimes reluctant to transmit messages. The reasons could be: They may doubt their ability to do so. They may dislike or be weary of writing or talking to others. They may hesitate to deliver bad news because they do not want to face a negative reaction. When someone gives in to these feelings, they become a barrier to effective communications.
Projection Projection has two meanings. (a) Projecting one's own motives into others behavior. For example, managers who are motivated by money may assume their subordinates are also motivated by it. If the subordinate's prime motive is something other than money, serious problems may arise. (b) The use of defense mechanism to avoid placing blame on oneself. As a defense mechanism, the projection phenomenon operates to protect the ego from unpleasant communications. Frequently, individuals who have a particular fault will see the same fault in others, making their own fault seem not so serious.
The "Halo Effect" The term "halo effect" refers to the process of forming opinions based on one element from a group of elements and generalizing that perception to all other elements. For example, in an
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organization, a good attendance record may cause positive judgments about productivity, attitude, or quality of work. In performance evaluation system, the halo effect refers to the practice of singling out one trait of an employee (either good or bad) and using this as a basis for judgment of the total employee (e.g., seeing the well dressed manager as the "good" manager).
10.3 non verbal communications Non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication is communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words. A glance, a star, a smile, a frown, a provocative body movement they all convey meaning. Nonverbal communication includes all elements of communication, such as gestures and the use of space, that does not involve words or do not involve language. Porter has defined four aspects of non-verbal communications:
Physical Pertaining to the personal method, i.e., facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, smell and body motion.
Esthetics Creative expressions such as those found in music, dancing or any of the creative arts.
Symbolic Conveying messages through symbolic representations of reality; includes religious, status or ego-building symbols.
Sign Mechanical means of conveying messages such as bills, buzzers, locks on doors, etc.
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The important categories of non-verbal communication include:-
Proxemics Proxemics refers to the influence of proximity and space on communication. The study of an individual's perception and use of space, including territorial space, is called Proxemics. Territorial space refers to bands of space extending outward from the body. These bands constitute comfort zones. In each comfort zone, different cultures prefer different types of interaction with others. Typically there are four zones of territorial space.
(a) Intimate Zone: (touching to two feet): This space is normally reserved for closest family and friends. In this zone, we interact with spouses, significant others, family members and others with whom we have an intimate relationship.
(b) Personal Zone: (two to four feet) Family and friends may enter this zone without causing discomfort. Friends typically interact with this distance.
(c) Social Zone (four to twelve feet): The person comfortably interacts with others in this zone. Most business transactions take place within the social zone. We prefer that business associates and acquaintances interact with us in this zone.
(d) Public Zone (twelve feet to as far as the person can hear and see): This is the most distant zone at which communication can occur. Most of us prefer that strangers stay at least 12 feet from us, and we become uncomfortable when they move closer. Lectures and other formal presentations take place within this zone. In general, a person who moves into a closer zone of personal space is signaling a desire for greater closeness. When the receiver of this non-verbal message interprets it as a request for
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more closeness than is desirable, the receiver probably will feel uncomfortable and try to move away. Territorial space varies greatly across cultures. People often become uncomfortable when operating in territorial space different from those in which they are familiar.
Kinesics Kinesics is the study of body movements, including posture. Like Proxemics, kinesics is culturally bound; there is no single universal gesture. Kinesics behavior refers to body movements, such as gestures, facial expressions, eye movements and posture. We often draw conclusions regarding people's feelings about an issue, not only from their words but also from their non-verbal behavior, such as their facial expressions.
(a) Facial Expressions: The face is a rich source of nonverbal communication. The face often gives unintended clues to emotions the sender is trying to hide. Although smiles have universal meaning, frowns, raised eyebrows, and wrinkled foreheads must all be interpreted in conjunction with the actors, the situation and the culture.
(b) Eye Behavior: Eye behavior is used to add cues for the receiver. Eye contact can enhance reflective listening, and it varies by culture. In India, a direct gaze indicates honesty and forthrightness. Appropriate use of eye contact signals interest in the other person.
(c) Gestures: Some people use gestures extensively; others communicate little through this channel. In India, the handshake is a widely used gesture. People often use the handshake as a source of information about another person's characteristics. A strong, firm handshake is seen as a sign of confidence and enthusiasm.
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Paralanguage Paralanguage refers to vocal aspects of communication that relate to how something is said rather than to what is said. Voice quality, tone of voice, laughing, and yawning fit in this category. People make attributions about the sender by deciphering (make sense of; interpret or decode) paralanguage cues. Rapid, loud speech may be taken as a sign of nervousness or anger. Vocal tone includes pitch, loudness, rhythm, rate, and clarity of speech. The standards for what is comfortable vary from one culture to another.
Object Language Object language refers to the communicative use of material things, including clothing, cosmetics, furniture and architecture. A work area adorned with expensive objects communicates high status.
Territory Employees' work areas are, in a sense, their territory. The way people arrange themselves and others within their territory also conveys messages. In a meeting or training session, arranging chairs in rows signals that participants will be lectured to and encourages passive behavior. Arranging chairs in a circle signals that active participation is encouraged. When interviewing or meeting with someone in his or her office, a manager sends different messages depending on whether the manager remains behind the desk or joins the other person in comfortable chairs on the same side of the desk.
Physical Appearance Aspects of personal appearance such as clothing, hairstyle, jewellery and makeup communicate people's values and social group. In the workplace, the norms for appropriate physical appearance depend on the industry, job, and organizational culture. People who fail to live up to these norms typically create a bad impression. Their physical appearance is interpreted as meaning they either do not understand their role or do not care about fulfilling it.
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It is important for the receiver to be alert to these nonverbal aspects of communication. You should look for nonverbal cues as well as listen to the literal meaning of a sender's words. You should particularly be aware of contradictions between the messages. Nonverbal communication is important for managers because of its impact on the meaning of the message. However, a manager must consider the total message and all media of communication. A message can only be given meaning in context, and cues are easy to misinterpret. The figure below presents common nonverbal behavior exhibited by managers and how employees may interpret them. Nonverbal cues can give others the wrong signal.
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10.4…Communication network A communication network is the pattern of directions in which information flows in the organization. Channels of communication (networks by which information flows) are either formal networks or informal networks. Formal networks follow the authority chain and are limited to task-related communications. The informal network (grapevine) is free to move in any direction, skip authority levels, and is as likely to satisfy group members' social needs as it is to facilitate task accomplishments. The basic types of communication networks are shown in the figure below:
Chain Network In chain network, communication travels up and down through the hierarchy. Each person communicates with only the person directly above or below in terms of reporting relationships. The chain network rigidly follows the formal chain of command.
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Y Network In the Y network, the flow of communication resembles an upside down Y; information flows upward and downward through the hierarchy, widening to encompass the number of employees reporting to a supervisor.
Wheel Network In a wheel network, information flows to and from a single person. Employees in the group communicate primarily with that person rather than with each other. Such a communication network is a fast means of getting information to employees, since the person at the hub of the wheel can do so directly and efficiently. The wheel network relies on the leader to act as the central conduit (channel) for the entire group's communication. The chain network, the Y network and the wheel network are fairly centralized in that most messages must flow through a pivotal (essential, crucial) person in the network. In the wheel network, the most centralized, all messages must flow through the individual at the centre of the wheel. In the chain network, some members can communicate with more than one member of the network, but the individual in the centre of the chain still tends to emerge as the controller of the messages. In the Y network, the member at the fork of the "Y" usually becomes the central person in the network.
Circle Network In a circle network, employees communicate only with adjoining members of the organization. The circle network is analogous to a group working in a physical arrangement such that workers can communicate with their immediate neighbor but not with others in the group.
The All-Channel Network or the Star Network In an all-channel network, communications flow upward, downward and laterally among all members of the group. This pattern of communication supports an egalitarian, (equal, unrestricted) participative culture and fosters (promote, cultivate) cross-functional efforts.
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The all-channel network is best if you are concerned with having high member satisfaction. The circle network and the all-channel network are more decentralized in that there is freer communication among the various members. In the circle network, each member can communicate with the individual on either side. The all-channel network is the most decentralized of the networks; each member can communicate with any other member.
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