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NGL
FRACTIONATION
OPERATING
MANUAL
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NGL
FRACTIONATION
TRAINING
MANUAL
VOLUME ONE
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NGL
FRACTIONATION
TRAINING
MANUAL
VOLUME TWO
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NORTH SEA PETROLEUM
TEESSIDE OPERATIONS
PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY UK BRANCH, OPERATOR
NGL FRACTIONATION, TREATING AND STORAGE OPERATING MANUAL
Copy Number 17 Loaned to
Department
N O T I C E
This manual is the sole property of Phillips Petroleum Company. It is loaned to the recipient for
his personal and confidential use during the course of his employment. Moreover, the recipient
agrees to return it upon request, and to see to it that it shall not be reproduced, copied, loaned
or otherwise disposed of, directly or indirectly, without written consent of Phillips Petroleum
Company. He must also ensure that it shall not be used in any way detrimental to the interests
of Phillips Petroleum Company and its associates now or in the future.
Signed:
Date:
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PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY UK
NATURAL RESOURCES GROUP
TEESSIDE OPERATIONS
SEAL SANDS
To: OPERATING PERSONNEL - NGL SECTION
The success of everyone engaged in the petroleum industry, employees and companies alike,
is based on safe, efficient and economical operation of all plant processing equipment. A
thorough knowledge of the process, the processing equipment and how the equipment functions
is the major factor in obtaining safe, efficient operation of the equipment. The purpose of this
operating manual is to aid you, NGL personnel, by furnishing essential operating information,
operating procedures, and other information relative to your job. It is hoped that this assembled
information will increase your knowledge of the job and make your job easier.
Carelessness benefits no one. The best safety device is a careful Operator with a thorough
knowledge of his equipment, what it does, and how it does it. Good housekeeping is an air to
efficiency. In nearly all cases, a clean plant is an efficient, well operated plant - a good place in
which to work.
We hope this manual will help you in your work and make your job more interesting.

OPERATIONS MANAGER MANUFACTURING SUPT.
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NGL FRACTIONATION, TREATING & STORAGE
OPERATING MANUAL
I. INTRODUCTION
II. GENERAL FLOW AND NORMAL CONTROL FACTORS, FRACTIONATORS
AND TREATERS
A. De-ethaniser Fractionators Feed Preparation
1. Feed Surge Drums
2. De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Hydrators and Regeneration System
B. De-ethaniser Columns, 5-T-05/06
1. Purpose and Service
2. Separation
3. Process Equipment
4. Operating Conditions
5. Flexibility
6. Control Systems
7. Alarms and Shutdowns
8. Start-up
9. Shutdown
10. Refluxing the Column
11. Technical Data
12. Instrument Schedules - No. 1
13. Instrument Schedules - No. 2
14. Safety Valves - No. 1
15. Safety Valves - No. 2
16. Alarms and Shutdowns
C. De-ethaniser Overhead Product Amine Treaters
1. Purpose and Service
2. Extent of System
3. Process Equipment
4. Start-up Procedure, Contractor and Still
5. Start-up Procedure, Common Equipment
6. Technical Data
7. Common Equipment
a) No. 1 Stream
b) No. 2 Stream
c) No. 3 Stream
D. De-ethaniser Overhead Product Dehydrator/Treaters
1. Flow Description
2. Regeneration
3. Instrument Air Failure
4. Electrical Failure
5. Automatic valve switching sequence control
a) Taking a Bed out of Service
b) Returning a Bed to Service
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E. Demethaniser Tower
1. Purpose and Service
2. Separation
3. Process Flow and Equipment
4. Operating Conditions
5. Control System
6. Alarms and Safety Features
7. Operating Procedures
a) Start-up Procedure
b) Line up
c) Shutdown
d) Refluxing
e) Electrical failure
f) Instrument Air Failure
8. Fractionating Equipment
9. Instruments
10. Alarms and Shutdowns
11. Pressure and Safety Valves
F. Depropaniser Tower
1. Purpose and Service
2. Separation
3. Process Equipment and Flow Arrangements
4. Operating Conditions
5. Control Systems
6. Alarms and Safety Features
7. Operating Procedure
a) Start-up (Purge)
b) Starting the Column
c) Shutdown
d) Refluxing the Column
8. Power Failure
9. Instrument Air Failure
10. Fractionating Equipment Data
11. Instruments - No. 1
12. Pressure Safety Valves - No. 1
13. Fractionating Equipment - No. 2
14. Instrumentation - No. 2
15. Pressure Safety Valves - No. 2
G. Butane Splitter
1. Purpose and Service
2. Process Equipment
3. Operating Conditions
4. Control Systems
5. Alarms and Safety Features
6. Operating Procedure
a) Purge (Air)
b) Start-up
c) Shutdown
d) Purge (Hydrocarbon)
e) Refluxing the Column
f) Power Failure
g) Air Failure
h) Technical data
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III. REFRIGERATION, PRODUCT CHILLING, STORAGE AND LOADING
A. Introduction
B. Propane Refrigeration System
1. Description
2. Equipment Data
3. Instruments
4. Alarms and Shutdowns
5. Pressure Safety Valves
6. Electrical Failure
7. Instrument Air Failure
C. Ethane Refrigeration System
1. Description
2. Equipment Data
3. Instruments
4. Pressure Safety Valve
5. Alarms and Shutdowns
6. Electrical Failure
7. Instrument Air Failure
D. Ethane Product Chilling Storage
1. Introduction
2. Extent of System
3. Description
4. Ethane Product Refrigerated Storage Tank
5. Ethane Tank Vapour Blowers and Compressors
6. Ethane Tank Blowers
a) Description
b) Technical Data
c) Seal Gas
d) Lubrication System Data
e) Blower Seal System
f) Lubrication System
g) Alarms and Shutdowns
7. Ethane Tank Vapour Compressors
a) General Description
b) Commissioning Preparations
i) Oil Systems
ii) Compressor
c) Supervision During Operation
d) Fault Finding During Operation
e) Shutting Down
f) Shutting Down in Event of Alarm
g) Lengthy Periods of Non-Operation
h) Technical Data
i) Lube Oil System
j) Seal Oil System
k) Flushing - Lube and Seal Oil Systems
8. Ethane Product Loading
a) Cool Down Pumps
b) Loading Pumps
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E. Propane Product Chilling, Storage and Loading
1. Description
2. Extent of System
3. Flow Description and Control
4. Propane Refrigerated Storage Tanks
5. Propane Tank Compressors
a) Description
b) Commissioning Runs
c) Operators Instructions
d) Technical Data
e) Capacity Control
f) Lube Oil System
6. Loading Cooldown Pumps
7. Cold Propane Loading
8. Cold Propane Loading Pumps
9. Hot Propane Loading
10. Hot Propane Loading Pumps
F. Isobutane Product Chilling Storage and Loading
1. Description
2. Refrigerated Storage Tank
a) Tank Pressure Maintenance
b) Circulation Pumps
3. Hot Isobutane Loading
4. Cold Isobutane Loading
a) Isobutane Loading Pumps
b) Isobutane Loading Cooldown Pumps
G. Normal Butane Product Chilling, Storage and Loading
(Ref. Drawings: P & I D 7809 505-D00-007; 706-D00-011 & 012)
1. Introduction
2. Flow and Equipment Description
3. Normal Butane Refrigerated Storage Tank
a) Description
b) Tank Pressure Control
c) Tank Pressure Maintenance
d) Normal Butane Recycle System
4. Refrigerated Normal Butane Loading
a) Introduction
b) Description
c) Loading Pumps
5. Hot Normal Butane Loading
6. Normal Butane Loading Pumps
a) Hot Normal Loading Pumps
b) Normal Butane Circulating Pumps
c) Normal Butane Cooldown
d) Normal Butane Loading Pumps
7. Operating Instructions
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H. Nitrogen System
1. Introduction
2. Distribution (Equipment supplied)
a) H.P. System
b) L.P. System
I. Glycol System
1. Equipment
2. Controls
J. Electrical System
1. Motors and Substations
a) Non Automatic Restart
2. Fans and Motors
a) Single Speed Fans
b) Two Speed Fans
K. Emergency Electrical Power
1. Emergency and Non-Interrupted Instruments and Electrical Power
Supplies
2. Emergency Generator and Turbine
COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM
A. Computer Control
1. Description
2. Operation
3. Computer Set Points
4. Operator Set Points
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I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The incoming crude oil from Ekofisk Centre to Teesside contains natural gas liquids and
impurities that must be removed, or separated from the crude before it can be suitable
for sale. The Stabilisers remove the N.G.L. fraction of the crude. The N.G.L. is
separated into its own various components by fractional distillation, and impurities
removed by special treatment, thereby making several saleable light hydrocarbons. In
addition, an off-gas of methane which is used as utility gas and fuel within the plant, is
produced.
The N.G.L. Fractionators separate the light hydrocarbons into Methane (for fuel gas),
ethane, iso-butane, normal butane and propane. The N.G.L. Treater are used to remove
impurities, such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO
2
), to concentrations
below specified limits in these products. The N.G.L. Dehydrators are used to remove
water to prevent freezing at refrigerated temperatures, both in processing and storage.
The heavier hydrocarbons, such as Pentane, can be recycled back to the stabilised
crude stream to storage.
Briefly, the overall flow scheme for the N.G.L. system is as flows: The overhead vapours
off the stabilisers accumulators are boosted in pressure with compressors, and the liquid
from the accumulators is pumped through air fin fan coolers. The two streams are
combined here where they are cooled and partially condensed. They are then collected
in the two De-ethaniser feed surge tanks at 420 psi (28 bar g) and 80F (26C). The free
water settles to the bottom and is drained off the water leg.
From the De-ethaniser feed tanks, the product needs to be dried before being suitable
as De-ethaniser feed. This is achieved by pumping the liquid through the liquid feed
dehydrators. (The N.G.L. fractionators are split into two trains - each having a De-
ethaniser and Depropaniser. The two trains then combine into a Butane splitter tower,
and a demethaniser Tower.
The De-ethaniser overhead product is a methane-ethane mixture containing most of the
H2S and C0
2
. This stream is contacted with diethanol-amine solution in the De-ethaniser
Overhead AMINE Treater where the H2S and CO
2
are removed, and then is passed
through Dehydrator treaters where the water picked up in the diethanol amine solution,
and remaining traces of H2S are removed. Finally, this stream is sent to the De-
methanise Tower where the methane and ethane hydrocarbons are separated - the
Methane going off overhead to be used as fuel gas, and the Ethane taken off the bottom
as high purity Ethane to refrigerated Ethane storage for sales. Operating pressures
throughout the system are set at the pressure necessary to condense reflux for the De-
methaniser tower using ethane refrigerant at its boiling point (-78C - 108F) just slightly
above atmospheric pressure.
The bottom product from the De-ethanisers is a mixture of propane, butanes and
pentane. This is fed to two Depropanisers, in parallel, where high purity propane is taken
out as the overhead product, and Butanes and heavies is passed out as the bottom
product.
The Depropaniser overhead product is routed to Refrigerated Propane Storage.
The De-propaniser bottom product is a mixture of butanes and a small amount of
Pentane. Which is sent as feed to the Butane Splitter Column for further fractionation.
The Butane Splitter removes iso-butane overhead and is sent to refrigerated Iso-Butane
storage. The Butane Splitter removes Normal Butane out through a side draw line from
the 5th tray level or the bottom of the tower and is sent to refrigerated Normal Butane
Storage.
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As indicated above, the N.G.L. Fractionators and the N.G.L. Treaters and Dehydrators
are closely interlined, and their operation is interdependent.
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Detailed process information on all the fractionators, Treater-Dehydrators, Refrigeration
and Refrigerated storage is given in the following sections of this manual.
All information here-in derived from the P & I-D drawings, Vendor information, and actual
experience along the same lines in other operations of similar design, and the Phillips
Petroleum Company Engineering and Services Fractionation, Treating and Storage
Process Manuals.
2. Vapour Feed Dehydrators and Regeneration System
NGL Treating & Dehydration
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Dehydrator
P & ID Ref: 7809-519-D00-007
Note: The under mentioned vapour feed dehydrators were originally designed to
process 10% of the NGL feedstock (mainly methane). However, due to the low
methane content in the NGL feedstock the vapour dehydrators were inerted and
blinded off for safety precautions.
a) Introduction
This section will remove water from the stabiliser overhead vapour product before
entering the de-ethaniser column. As with the liquid, it must contain less than 10
ppm of water to prevent hydrates forming and plugging downstream equipment.
This section includes the following:
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Demister: 53-D-40
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Demister Pumps: 53-P-27/38
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Dehydrators: 53-D-14/15 16/17
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Dust Filters: 53-F-04/06
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Regen. Heaters: 53-E-04/05
De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Regen. Compressors: 53-C-04/05
b) Flow Description
Stabiliser overhead vapour leaves the top of the surge drum and flows via a 6"
line to the de-ethaniser vapour feed demister at 33.5 Bar G, 13,340 N M
3
/hr and
38C. This line is sloped towards the demister to prevent any liquid pockets in
the line.
The vapour feed is at its 'DEW POINT', that is the temperature at which liquids
will start to condense if further cooled, therefore, any additional cooling in the
lines will result in some condensation. To separate these NGL condensates from
the vapour, a vapour feed demister has been installed. This is a vertically
mounted vessel 17' x 5', with a demister pad fitted near the top section. The
vapour enters the vessel at the side and flows up through the pad; liquids will
adhere to the pad and drop to the bottom of the vessel while the liquid free
vapour will flow out of the top. The liquid will be pumped from the demister
bottom via the demister bottom pumps (2 electric) which will start and stop
automatically with the level switches in the demister. Only one pump will be in
operation and one on stand-by, and they will pump the liquid NGL to the suction
lines of the de-ethaniser feed pumps.
The liquid free vapour flows from the top of the demister into a 6" line which is
manifolded to four 6" line which is manifolded to four 6" lines then enters the
vapour feed dehydrators at the top.
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There are four dehydrators, two in each train. One in each train will be in
operation ad DRYING in parallel, while the other two will be in different stages of
regeneration (or stand-by). The dehydrators are vertically mounted vessels
approximately 16 x 47" and filled with ALCOA-H-151 desiccant. The desiccant
is supported by a layer of 5/16" alumina balls. As the vapour flows through the
desiccant, any moisture will be absorbed in the desiccant. Normal flow is from
top to bottom. The dry vapour exits from the bottom of the dehydrator, and flows
through one of the two dust filters. There is one dust filter situated at the outlet
of each train and the pipework is arranged that both could be in service in
parallel, or both trains can flow through one (or either). It is recommended that
one be IN SERVICE and one on STAND BY during normal running. They are
designed to remove 90% of 50 micron particles with a differential pressure of 138
Bar G (2 psi) when clean. they should be changed or cleaned at 20 psi.
The NGL vapour leaves the dust filter and flows to the back pressure controller,
PCV-51057-C, which maintains the system pressure. Downstream of the PCV
51057-C, a moisture analyser will automatically sample and test the vapour for
water content and will indicate the result in the NGL Control Room. It will also
alarm if the water content rises above the set point (not known at present) or if
the analyser fails. The main flow carries on to a 3-way valve, FPV 51027, which
will divide and control the flow to the de-ethaniser towers. Design flow, pressure
and temperature at this point is 5,665 N M
3
/hr, 29.1 Bar G at 35C.
c) Regeneration
The normal cycle for the dehydrators is controlled automatically by two automatic
sequence controllers, one for each train, which will start and stop the
compressors, establish and maintain flows and temperatures, and change over
the dehydrators at the end of each step or cycle. Normal cycles are as follows:
ON STREAM: 16 hours
HEATING: 4 hours
COOLING: 4 hours
STAND-BY: 8 hours
During normal operation with two trains, the timers can be set so that two
dehydrators are on stream in parallel, one on regeneration (heating or cooling),
and one on stand-by at any time. If one stream is shutdown for any reason, the
timers can be set for an 8 hour cycle (8 hours on stream, no stand-by time). the
system is designed so that one dehydrator can accommodate all the vapour feed
rate to the de-ethanisrs. (A detailed description of the automatic sequence of
valve manipulation follows in this section).
Regeneration Flow
A side stream of the dry vapour is taken from the common outlet, after the dust
filters, and used to regenerate the desiccant in the dehydrators. The dry NGL
vapour supplies suction to two electric driven compressors (5-01-04 and 05),
which will raise the pressure enough to allow re-circulation to the regeneration
separators, 36.2 Bar G. One compressor will be in service and one on stand-by.
Regeneration flow will be controlled by two control valves, FICV-51022 'A' and
'B'. 'A' will control the flow necessary for correct regeneration (2,010 N M
3
/hr)
and the 'B' valve will allow any excess of this flow to return to the main feed line
to the de-ethaniser tower. Regeneration flow then carries on to the regeneration
heaters.
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Heating Step
There are two regeneration heaters, 53-E-04 and 05, one will be in service and
one stand-by. They will raise the temperature of the regeneration to 238C with
55.2 Bar G steam (DESIGN). Design regeneration flow rate is 53,800 N M
3
/D.
If the regeneration flow rate or temperature is too low, the desiccant will not be
completely regenerated which will result in decreased dehydration capacity
during next drying cycle.
The regeneration vapour temperature is controlled by a split range controller,
TRC 51448 'A' and 'B'. The 'A' valve (3-way) is on the main regeneration flow
and situated at the inlet to the regeneration heaters. This will control the relevant
amount of regeneration vapour flowing through, or by-passing the regeneration
heater. When the by-pass is in the closed position (all flow through the heater),
the 'B' valve which controls a flow of steam from the heater to a 5.2 Bar G
system, will open, allowing more steam to pass through the heater, therefore
heating up the vapour quicker. One the temperature is raised to the set point, the
'B' valve will close, and the 'A' valve will then control the temperature by allowing
more or less through the by-pass.
The hot regeneration vapour will flow to the top of the dehydrator and join the
normal inlet line and pass DOWN through the bed, picking up the moisture from
the desiccant. The wet regeneration vapour will exit from the bottom of the
dehydrators and flow to the regeneration separators.
Cooling Step
During the cooling cycle the regeneration vapour will completely by-pass the
heater by means of the 3-way valve (TRC 51448 'A'), and pass direct to the top
of the dehydrator. Design flow is the same as the heating step, 53,800 N M
3
/D,
and is from top to bottom, to the regeneration separators.
If the cooling flow rate is too low, the dehydrator will not be sufficiently cooled.
This would result in poor drying when first placed on the drying cycle.
(Vapour Feed Driers)
d) Instrument Air Failure
In the event of an instrument air failure all switching valves controlled by the
automatic sequence timer (Orbit) will stay in the position they were in at the time
of the failure. The regeneration compressor will have to be shut off since it will
be on full re-cycle and will over heat. All other control valves will close, stopping
the vapour feed flow through the treaters, and the regeneration flow. The
automatic sequence controller should be shut off.
When instrument air is again available, the drying and regeneration cycles will
have to be re-programmed when normal flow is being established to the
stabilisers.
Electrical Failure
Regeneration compressors will stop. All switching valves controlled by the
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automatic sequence controller will stay in the position they were in at the time of
the outage, and will resume its cycle at the resumption of power.
The Regeneration Compressor will have to be restarted manually, as it is not on
the "automatic restart" program.
e) Start-up
When one train has been down for maintenance or bed renewal it is important
that a standard start up procedure be followed. the following is a guide to starting
up one train and placing it "on line" in parallel with the other train already in
service.
When the vessels are handed back from the Maintenance Department all
flanges, manways, etc. should be thoroughly checked for completeness,
tightness and cleanliness. (All maintenance materials cleaned from the area).
Blind lists should be double checked to ensure all are removed. All valves
blocked in.
Before putting the treater on line, however, it must be completely purged of air,
and pressured up to the equal pressure of the train already in service.
PURGE - It is advisable to make the initial purge with nitrogen, followed with a
gas purge.
To nitrogen purge, connect temporary nitrogen from the utility nitrogen supply
system to the bleeder located on the treater outlet line between the tower and
isolating valve. (A check valve should be installed next to the bleeder also).
Pressure the treater up to the nitrogen system pressure, block in the nitrogen
supply, and bleed the treater down through the bleeder on the inlet feed line. Do
this at least three times then check for oxygen content. If the oxygen content is
down to 2%, purge next with either feed vapours, or purge gas.
Gas Purge Slowly crack open the bed outlet valve to get a flow to the bed. Back
vapours slowly into the bed. Have the bleeders on the PSV setting open on the
atmosphere to clear the PSV line to the PSV. Also have the bleeder on the gas
inlet line cracked open to denote when gas vapours are evident here.
When gas is evident at the bleeders, block them in and let the pressure on the
bed equalise with the system pressure. The bed will now have been purged of
air, pressured up to the system pressure, and ready to regenerate.
For detailed instructions on how to put the bed back into operation see under
"Automatic Valve Sequencing" following.
PURGING A TREATER OF FEED VAPOURS
When a treater must be taken out of service for a bed change, or major
maintenance it must be completely freed of vapours. Following is a suggested
procedure for this operation:
1. Take the treater off the line. (See under "Automatic valve sequencing"
the procedure for this). Regenerate the bed, but do not cool.
2. Depressure the tower to the flare by opening the bypass valve around the
PSV, then block in the bypass. (Slowly, at first).
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3. Hook-up the nitrogen hose, as in step 2 in the preceding description of
purging the treater of air.
4. Pressure up the treater about three times, releasing the pressure after
each pressurisation to the flare.
5. Connect the steam purge line to the treater tower, and begin steaming the
vessel from the bottom out the top through all bleeders. It would be
better if the PSV was removed so that it could be steamed out through
the open ended pipe.
6. After gas checks prove the vessel is vapour free, it is then possible to
commence the maintenance work.
f. Shutdown Procedure
During normal running this will be necessary to shut down one train for
maintenance or to renew the desiccant, etc. The following is a guide to shutting
down one train an isolating it from on stream equipment:
Assuming that both trains are in service it will be necessary to wait until the
selected train coming of line is on the regeneration cycle at the HEATING STEP,
(Bed A or B, or whichever comes first).
While the bed is on the heating step the vessel will have no liquid present, only
hot vapours. The regeneration sequence can be interrupted and the train in
which the desired bed is in can be taken off line. the bed in that train can then
be isolated and depressured manually. The PSV to the cold flare can be used
to depressure the vessel.
When the first vessel of the train is isolated, the regeneration sequence can be
advanced to start a regeneration cycle on the second vessel, again, when the
heatings tap of regeneration is in progress stop the action on that bed, and
prepare to bleed the pressure off.
It may be necessary to initiate the regeneration of the second bed manually. If
so, be sure that the on line trains are not on a regeneration cycle at that time.
(For further details pertaining to the operation of the Automatic Valve Sequencing
manipulation that is required to do the steps mentioned above, see under
"automatic Valve Sequencing" following).
After the bed has been depressured, it is then necessary to purge the vessel free
of hydrocarbon vapours before maintenance can be resumed.
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g. Sequence Controller
Sequence Controller for De-ethaniser Vapour Feed Dehydrators - Cabinet
UC 51020
Introduction
The de-ethaniser vapour feed dehydrator system is intended to reduce the
moisture content of the de-ethaniser vapour feed to prevent the hydrates freezing
at the low working temperature of the de-ethaniser condenser.
It comprises four vessels 53-D-14, 53-D-15, 53-D-16, and 53-D-17 which are
referred to as bed 1, bed 2, bed 3 and bed 4 in these instructions. The beds
are arranged in two trains, beds 1 and 2 forming train 1 and beds 3 and 4 forming
train 2. (Refer to logic diagram number 5206 drawing number 7809.552J81.246).
The sequence controller (UC 51020) is designed to switch the beds automatically
through their drying and regeneration sequences. At any one time a bed can be
a) Drying with product inlet and outlet valves open and regeneration valves
closed.
b) Hot regenerating with product inlet and outlet valves closed and
regeneration valves open and the regeneration gas being heated.
c) Cooling with product inlet and outlet valves closed and regeneration
valves open but the regeneration gas by-passing the heater.
d) Idling with the product outlet valve open product inlet valve and
regeneration valves closed. (Vessel is pressurised).
The bed may also be taken out of service with all product and regeneration
valves closed. the process requires that at any one time one bed is drying, the
remaining beds will be idling or regenerating. Only one bed may be regenerated
at a time.
The regeneration of a bed will immediately follow its drying period. The operating
sequence is drying, regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, regeneration, etc. (See
logic drawing number 5207 drawing number 7809.55J811.247). Regeneration
is achieved by compressing, heating and recycling a proportion of the gas from
the bed on drying. Cooling is a continuation of this process without heating.
The drying time for each bed is adjustable by present controls between 16 and
32 hours whilst the regenerating time is fixed at 8 hours (4 hours hot
regeneration and 4 hours cooling). The idling time is dependant on the drying
time and is automatically adjusted.
Provision is made for the removal of either train from service whilst the automatic
sequence remains in operation on the other train.
In this situation the remaining beds will continue with drying the regeneration
periods unchanged but the idling time will be reduced automatically.
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Date:
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th
November 2000
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The cabinet housing the sequence controller is located behind the control room
panel. (See figs, 2.14 to 2.16 inclusive). An operator control unit is mounted
remotely in the control panel. (See figs. 2-17). In the automatic mode, the
controller maintains the correct sequence of operation by opening and closing
the product, regeneration gas and steam valves and stopping and starting the
regeneration gas duty compressor.
The unit monitors the position of all valves to ensure that each step of the
sequence is done correctly. The status of each valve (with the exception of
steam and regeneration gas valves for heating and cooling) is displayed
continuously on the graphic panel in the control room by means of semaphore
indicators.
Any discrepancy between the actual valve position and that required for correct
operation will suspend the sequence and initiate an alarm. The state of each
bed, e.g. drying cooling etc. is also indicated on the graphic panel. The
sequence of operation under normal conditions id given later in this introduction.
The operator control unit permits the operator to change the operation from
automatic to manual, open and close any valve and to remove a train from
service as follows:-
With the manual button depressed
a) Any valve can be opened or closed by selecting the valve number on the
thumbwheel switch an pressing the open or close button as appropriate.
The valve position will be indicated on the graphic panel
b) The duty compressor can be started or stopped.
c) The temperature control valves on the regeneration gas heater can be
closed or controlled by the output of the temperature controller by
pressing the appropriate button.
On start up it is necessary to present and dehydrator control valves in to one of
four operational patterns whilst the unit is in manual control prior to switching to
automatic. These operational patterns are shown on fig, 2.1.
If it is required to remove a train from service the right hand selector switch must
indicate that train and the out button pressed. the effects of removing a train
from service are shown in figs. 2.4 to 2.11 at various times within the sequence.
When removed from service all valves associated with the out of service train
will be closed. They can be operated locally without affecting the Auto sequence.
A train can be returned to service by pressing the on button at any time. The
beds will automatically re-enter the sequence but only at their correctly appointed
time. (See fig. 2.12). This is because the position of each bed within the
sequence relative to the other beds is always the same.
If a valve is operated locally whilst the sequence controller is in the Auto position
the sequence will automatically suspend and an alarm will be initiated.
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
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The sequence control unit is fed from three power sources:-
a) 24v D.C. from the battery system.
b) 110v D.C. from the battery system.
c) 110v AC from the static inverter.
In the event of a failure of either or both of the D.C. supplies the sequence
controller will cease to function. As all the valves fail closed on power failure
which for process consideration is not practicable a separate solenoid valve has
been fitted on to the air header supplying the valves which in the event of power
failure will vent the air out of the header. This will ensure that all valves remain
in the position they enjoyed prior to the power supply failure. In the event of
failure 110 volts AC supply, which is only used to drive the timing mechanism,
then the sequence will stop and hold all the valves in the position they were at
prior to the failure.
On return to normal operation following failure of the D.C. power supplies it is
necessary to follow the start up procedure. However, return of the A.C. supply
will automatically restart the sequence. All the control valves except the
temperature control valves are tight shut off valves (Orbit) powered by a double
acting pneumatic diaphragm actuator. They are each fitted with a 4 port solenoid
valve, open and closed limit switches, restrictor, lock up valve, lever operated and
pneumatic valve and hand wheel.
Before placing the system in automatic operation it is necessary to ensure that
all handwheels are in neutral and that the lever operated valves are in the normal
position.
The temperature control system on the regeneration gas heater has two control
valves each equipped with a solenoid pilot valve. A 3-way control valve by-
passes the regeneration gas heater at all times except during a hot regeneration
period when it is controlled by the output from the gas temperature controller.
The second valve also closed at all times other than during hot regeneration is
installed in the steam/condensate system and will be controlled by the gas
temperature controller and open when the gas temperature required cannot be
achieved by the usual steam supply.
The operation of the sequence controller is described in detail in this section.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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DE-ETHANISER VAPOUR FEED DEHYDRATOR
NORMAL OPERATING SEQUENCE
1. Time 0 Hrs. Open XPV.51040 Vapour Inlet 53-D-14
(264 hours)
2. Step 1. Complete Close XPV.51052 Vapour Inlet 53-D-17
& Step 18 Complete Close XPV.51053 Vapour Outlet 53-D-17
3. Step 2. Complete Open XPV.51054 Regen. Inlet 53-D-17
Open XPV.51055 Regen. Outlet 53-D-17
4. Step 3. Complete Start Regen. Compressor
5. Step 4. Complete TPV 51448 A & B Regen. Gas to Heater
to Controller Steam from Heaters
6. Time 4 Hrs. Close TPV.51448 Regen. Gas by-Passes Heater
A & B Steam from Heaters
7. Time 8 Hrs. Stop Regen. Compressor
8. Step 7. Complete Close XPV.51054 Regen. Inlet 53-D-17
Close XPV.51055 Regen. Outlet 53-D-17
9. Step 8. Complete Open XPV.51053 Vapour Outlet 53-D-17
10. Time 16 Hrs. Open XPV.51044 Vapour Inlet 53-D-15
11. Step 10. Complete Close XPV.51040 Vapour Inlet 53-D-14
& Step 27 Complete Close XPV.51041 Vapour Outlet 53-D-14
12. Step 11. Complete Open XPV.51042 Regen. Inlet 53-D-14
Open XPV.51043 Regen. Outlet 53-D-14
13. Step 12. Complete Start Regen. Compressor
14. Step 13. Complete TPV 51448 A & B Regen. Gas to Heater
to Controller Steam from Heaters
15. Time 20 Hrs. Close TPV.51448 Regen. Gas By-pass Heater
A & B Steam from Heaters
16. Time 24 Hrs. Stop Regen. Compressor
17. Step 16. Complete Close XPV.51042 Regen. Inlet 53-D-14
Close XPV.51043 Regen. Outlet 53-D-14
18. Step 17. Complete Open XPV.51041 Vapour Outlet 53-D-14
19. Time 32 Hrs. Open XPV.51048 Vapour Inlet 53-D-16
20. Step 19. Complete Close XPV.51044 Vapour Inlet 53-D-15
& Step 36. Complete Close XPV.51045 Vapour Outlet 53-D-15
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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21. Step 20. Complete Open XPV.51046 Regen. Inlet 53-D-15
Open XPV.51047 Regen. Outlet 53-D-15
22. Step 21. Complete Start Regen. Compressor
23. Step 22. Complete TPV 51448 A & B Regen. Gas to Heater
to Controller Steam from Heaters
24. Time 36 Hrs. Close TPV.51448 Regen. Gas By-pass Heater
A & B Steam from Heaters
25. Time 40 Hrs Stop Regen. Compressor
26. Step 25. Complete Close XPV.51046 Regen. Inlet 53-D-15
Close XPV.51047 Regen. Outlet 53-D-15
27. Step 26. Complete Open XPV.51045 Vapour Outlet 53-D-15
28. Time 48 Hrs. Open XPV.51052 Vapour Inlet 53-D-17
29. Step 28. Complete Close XPV.51048 Vapour Inlet 53-D-16
& Step 8. Complete Close XPV.51049 Vapour Outlet 53-D-16
30. Step 29. Complete Open XPV.51050 Regen. Inlet 53-D-16
Open XPV.510051 Regen. Outlet 53-D-16
31. Step 30. Complete Start Regen. Compressor
32. Step 31. Complete TPV 51448 A & B Regen. Gas to Heater
to Controller Steam from Heaters
33. Time 52 Hrs. Close TPV.51448 Regen. Gas By-pass Heater
A & B Steam from Heaters
34. Time 56 Hrs. Stop Regen. Compressor
35. Step 34. Complete Close XPV.51050 Regen. Inlet 53-D-16
Close XPV.51051 Regen. Outlet 53-D-16
36. Step 35. Complete Open XPV.51049 Vapour Outlet 53-D-16
37. Time 64 Hrs. Cycle Repeats from Step 1.
(& 0 Hrs.)
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Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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2.1 General Description
The Sequence Controller consists of solid state circuit modules mounted on standard
cards in racks together within a single bay steel enclosure UC 51020, and a separate
control sub-panel.
The racks are mounted on a swing frame which allows access to the rear of the card
sockets and to the rear of the cabinet.
Connection to plant equipment is via screw-clamp terminals situated within the rear of
the enclosure, entry to which is by top and bottom entry gland plates.
The logic circuits are connected to the screw-clamp terminals via plugs and sockets
adjacent to the terminals. This enables the logic to be disconnected from the plant
switches and solenoids, and connected to the simulator for testing and fault-finding.
The enclosure may be electrically isolated by means of a push-button on the front of the
swing frame.
An operational description is given briefly showing the action when beds are taken out
of and returned to service.
2.2 Operational Description - Cabinet UC 51020
2.2.1 Start Up and Normal Operation
Before applying the supply to the cabinet by pressing the START button on the
swing frame, the AUTO/MANUAL switch on the sub-panel should be set to
MANUAL. If this is not done all action will be inhibited when the START BUTTON
is operated.
The start button may now be pressed, but at this point in time all plant solenoids
will remain de-energised. It is now possible to operate the plant manually.
Valves TPV 51448A & B may be opened or closed by operating the appropriate
push-buttons on the sub-panel. Similarly the compressor may be started and
stopped.
Valves XPV 51040 to XPV 51055 inclusive may be operated by selecting the last
two digits of the valve number on the sub-panel thumbwheel switches and then
operating the OPEN or CLOSE push-button tot he left of the thumbwheel
switches. The valve selected will remain in the state chosen even though other
valves are now selected
For example, if it was required to open XPV 51045, the thumbwheel switches
would be set to 45 and the OPEN push-button would be operated. Valve XPV
51045 would then open due to its solenoid being operated and would remain
open even though XPV 51048, say, was then selected.
If it is required to operate the plant in AUTO, it is first necessary to set all valves
manually to one of four points in a normal sequence. These four points are
shown in fig. 2-1. In fig. 2-1 the two trains (or four beds) are shown as drying,
idling or regeneration. During drying the VAPOUR INLET and VAPOUR OUTLET
valves are open and the compressor is running. For the first half of the
regeneration period the HEATER INLET & STEAM valves (TPV 51448A & B) are
on control by TIC 51448.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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The valves are designated as follows (XPV preceeds all valve numbers):-
Duty Column Column Column Column
519-950-14 519-950-15 519-950-16 519-950-17
Vapour Inlet 51040 51044 51048 51052
Vapour Outlet 51041 51045 51049 51053
Regen. Inlet 51042 51046 51050 51054
Regen. Outlet 51043 51047 51051 51055
Having set the valves to one of the four points of entry, the rotary switch on the
sub-panel headed BED to START ON REGENERATION AT START OF AUTO
SEQUENCE should be set to the corresponding position.
The AUTO push-button may now be operated and the plant will continue to
operate automatically, according to the sequence shown in fig. 2-1, and the
manual controls will be rendered ineffective.
Referring to fig. 2-1, it may be noted that a sequence can be broken down into
equal sections (in this case of 8 hours each). This the drying period occupies 2
sections, regeneration one section and idling 5 sections.
During commissioning or other shut-down times the length of the sections may
be set between 8 hours and 16 hours in 30 minute increments, by setting the total
drying time, which is effected by switches within the main enclosures.
The thumbwheels should only be varied between 16 (which gives 16 hours drying
time) and 32 (which gives 32 hours drying time).
Fig. 2-2 shows a sequence with 12 hour sections (that is 24 hours drying time)
and fig. 2-3 shows a sequence with 16 hour sections.
In these figures it will be noted that drying still occupies two sections but
regeneration time remains constant at 8 hours as in fig. 2-1. The remainder of
the section following drying is then taken up as idling.
2.2.2 Taking a Train Out of Service
To take a train out of service the sub-panel rotary switch designated TRAIN TO
BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE is set to the appropriate position. The push-
button to the right of the rotary switch is then operated.
The sequence immediately following the action of taking a train out will depend
on the point at which the train is taken out. Figures 2-4 to 2-11 show the resulting
sequences when train 1 is taken out during each of its sections of operation. For
the purposes of discussion the section immediately following drying will be
referred to as regeneration even though the first 8 hours only are taken up with
regeneration.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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2.3 Returning a Train to Service
This may be accomplished by setting the rotary switch of para. 2.2.2. to the appropriate
position and operating the push-button.
The push-button may be operated at any time, however the train will not be returned to
service until the points indicated in fig. 2-12.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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h. Equipment Data
NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
DE-Ethaniser VAPOUR FEED DEHYDRATORS
DRUMS/VESSELS
Equip. No. Description Op. Temp Op. Press Water Boot Capacity
53-D-40 Vapour Feed 38c 33.5 Bar G Nil 6 M
3
Demister
53-D-14 Vapour Feed 38C to 238C 38.0 Bar G Nil 8.5 M
3
Dehydrator-
53-D-15 Vapour Feed 38C to 238C 38.0 Bar G Nil 8.5 M
3
Dehydrator
53-D-17 Vapour Feed 38C to 238C 38.0 Bar G Nil 8.5 M
3
NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
DE-Ethaniser VAPOUR FEED DEHYDRATORS
EXCHANGERS/COOLERS
Equip No. Description Shell Tube In Out In Out Shell Tube
53-E-04 Vapour Feed 55.2 Bar NGL 427C Cond. 38C 238C 55.2 36.2
Regen. Heater Steam
53-E-05 Vapour Feed 55.2 Bar NGL 427C Cond. 38C 238C 55.2 36.2
Regen. Heater
NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
DE-Ethaniser VAPOUR FEED DEHYDRATORS
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
Equip. No. Description Type Drive Capacity Disch. Press Sub-station
53-P-27 Vapour Feed Cent. Elec. 4.5 M
3
/hr 38.0 Bar G
Demister Pump
53-P-28 Vapour Feed Cent. Elect. 4.5 M
3
/hr 38.0 Bar G
Demister Pump
53-C-04 Vapour Feed Cent. Elect. 93.5 M
3
/hr 35.7 Bar G
Regen. Comp.
53-C-05 Vapour Feed Cent. Elect. 93.5 M
3
/hr 35.7 Bar G
Regen. Comp.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
VAPOUR FEED DEHYDRATORS
ALARM & SHUTDOWNS
NUMBER DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
HLNS 57303 Vapour Feed Demister 1220 mm Starts Pumps
53-D-40 519-950-27 & 28
HLNS 51304 Vapour Feed Demister 300 mm Stops Pumps
53-D-40 519-670-27 & 28
AHLA 51057 Vapour Feed Demister 1525 mm Alarm in NGL
53-D-40 Control Room
HA 51004 High Water Content Alarm in NGL
Dehydrators Out Control Room
HTA 51448 Regen. Heaters Alarm in NGL
Out Control Room
LFA 51022 Regen. Vapour Alarm in NGL
Compressors Out Control Room
and Signal to
AS Controller
NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
DE-ETHANISER VAPOUR FEED
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
NUMBER LOCATION/DESCRIPTION SET PRESS SIZE RELIEF TO
51024 De-ethaniser Vapour Feed 40 Bar G 1"x' Hot Relief
Demister 53-D-40
51017 De-ethaniser Vapour 42 Bar G 3"x2" Hot Relief
Dehydrator 53-D-14
51018 De-ethaniser Vapour 42 Bar G 3"x2" Hot Relief
Dehydrator 53-D-15
51021 De-ethaniser Vapour 42 Bar G 3"x2" Hot Relief
Dehydrator 53-D-16
51022 De-ethaniser Vapour 42 Bar G 3"x2" Hot Relief
Dehydrator 53-D-17
51023 Vapour Feed Regen. 42.1 Bar G 3"x2" Atmosphere
Heater 53-E-05
Tube Out
51019 Vapour Feed Regen. 42.1 Bar G 3"x2" Atmosphere
Heater 53-E-04
Tube Out
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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i. Instrument Schedule
NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
DE-Ethaniser VAPOUR FEED
INSTRUMENTS
NUMBER DESCRIPTION SIGNAL LOCATION FAIL RESETS
FIC-51022A Regen. Vapour 9-15 510-160-04/05 Shut
to Heaters 04/05 Discharge
FIC-51022B Regen. Vapour 3-9 510-160-04/05 Open Split
to Main NGL Flow Discharge Range
Controller
TRC-51448A Regen. Vapour 3-9 Before By-pass (3-Way Valve)
to By-pass 519-410-04/05 Open
Heaters
TRC-51448B 55.2 Bar G 9-15 Shell of Shut Split Range
Steam from 410-04/05 Controller
53-D-04/05
TR-51449 Regen. Vapour Regen. Vapour Recorder Only
Common Out Common Out
AR-51004 Water Content Common Out of Recorder Only
Main NGL Flow 519-950-14/14/
16/17
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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3. NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrators
a) Introduction
The purpose of the de-ethaniser liquid feed dehydrators is to remove water from
the stabiliser overhead liquid product to less than 10ppm before being used as
a feed stock for the de-ethaniser columns. This is necessary to prevent the
formation of "hydrates" which will cause plugging of the tubes in the de-ethaniser
reflux condenser.
Water removal is accomplished by pumping the liquid de-ethaniser feed from the
de-ethaniser feed surge tank through a set of towers containing fixed beds of
molecular sieve desiccant which removes the water from the hydrocarbon by
adsorption. The product is then dry, and suitable for de-ethaniser feed. When
a dryer bed becomes saturated with water to a pre-determined point it is removed
from service, regenerated, cooled, and put on a stand-by condition while another
drier is being used in its place.
This section includes the following equipment:-
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrators - 53-E-05/06/07/08/09/10
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Filters - 53-FF-01/02/03
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Regen. Vaporisers - 53-E-31-32-33
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Regen. Superheaters - 53-E-34-35-36
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Regen. Pumps - 53-P-04/05/06
De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Regen. Separators - 53-D-950-01/02
b) Flow Description
The NGL will be pumped from the stabiliser accumulators at a discharge
pressure of 38.5 Bar G, to the de-ethaniser surge tanks,
53-D-03/04. It is then pumped via the de-ethaniser feed pumps,
53-00-P-01/02/03, at a discharge pressure of 30 Bar G and 26C into the drying
equipment. The NGL is just below boiling point, and if it were fed by gravity to
the dehydrator beds, the pressure drop across the bed could cause "FLASHING"
which would damage the desiccant. The feed pumps are situated before the
dehydrators to prevent this. A high discharge pressure or low surge tank level
will stop the pumps automatically. the differential pressure between the suction
and discharge of the pumps is controlled by DPIC-51060, with a re-cycle back to
the surge tank, which will protect the pumps and prevent over heating due to high
discharge pressure (during dehydrator changeover). The discharged liquid
enters a common 8" header to supply the dehydrators.
There are six dehydrators, and for the purpose of dehydration, are paired off in
two's. Each pair will be termed a "TRAIN", i.e. two vessels in each train. One of
each train will be in operation in parallel, while the other three will be in different
stages of regeneration. Normal flow during the drying step will be from TOP to
BOTTOM, and the normal cycles will be as follows:-
DRYING (on stream) 60 hours
HEATING 8 hours
COOLING 4 hours
STAND-BY 48 hours
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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In the event of one train being "off stream" for maintenance etc., two trains can
handle full flow rate. The regeneration sequence control timer will have to be
changed to a one off, one on basis.
Each dehydrator is a vertical mounted vessel, 15 x 66", and filled with a
molecular sieve desiccant. This desiccant is supported by a layer of " alumina
balls, and that supported by a layer of " alumina balls. This layer is supported
by a stainless steel screen. The NGL flows down through the bed and any
moisture is adsorbed in the desiccant, leaving the NGL "DRY".
Moisture analysers are installed in the product lines from each train, and will
alarm in the NGL Control Room if the water content rises above normal, or if the
analyser fails.
The flow through the dehydrators should be adjusted manually with the control
valves provided, to ensure each vessel has an equal load. Local flow indicators
at the exit of each train are supplied to monitor the flow.
A minimum flow rate of 50.7 M
3
/hr is recommended through each bed to prevent
channelling.
Dried NGL leaves the bottom of the dehydrators and flows through the liquid feed
filters. These filters will remove any "FINES" which may be carried through from
the dehydrators. There is one filter on the exit from each train, which is designed
to remove 95% of 50 micron particles from the NGL. They are FRAM, basket
strainer type filters and maximum differential is 25 psi, but should be cleaned
before this pressure is reached. NGL flow then carries on through the flow
indicators, and hand operated flow control valves, HC 51001/2/3 (to equalise the
flow), and joins a 10" common header, then carrying on to the de-ethaniser
towers, S-T-05/06, for further processing. At this point the pressure is 30 Bar G,
at 26C.
The liquid feed flow rate is controlled by the feed surge tank level control via the
advanced control scheme.
Flows, pressures and temperatures will be monitored in the Control Building.
c. Regeneration
The various cycles for drying and regeneration will be controlled. Different
combinations of heaters and pumps (all interchangeable) can also be used.
A side stream of dried NGL is taken from the common outlet header of the
dehydrators and supplies suction to the regeneration pumps, 53-P-04/05/06.
They are electric driven pumps, one of which will be on stand-by duty, while the
other two are in operation. They will discharge the NGL at 38.6 Bar and 38C,
into a 3" line. Via this line the flow can be directed through the heaters for the
heating step, or direct to the dehydrators for the cooling step. the regeneration
flow rate will be controlled at 15.89 M
3
/Hr. by C-51016/7/8, for both heating and
cooling steps.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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Heating Step
The regen. NGL flow will be routed from the common 3" discharge line, through
the flow controller, to a 3" line which will go direct to the tube side of the regen.
liquid vapouriser 53-E-31/32/33. The regen. NGL temperature will be raised with
3.5 Bar steam. flowing through the shell side. The flow will then exit from the top
of the vapouriser and enter a 3-way control valve, TPV-51442/6A. This control
valve will route the flow either through the superheaters (53-E-35,36) or by-
passing the superheater, depending on the temperature of the common outlet.
The hot NGL will then flow direct to the TOP of the dehydrator on regeneration.
The temperature will be controlled at 238C with TC-51442/6 "A" and "B", which
is a split range controller.
The "A" valve, which is the 3-way control valve on the regen. flow before the
superheaters, will control the relevant amount of NGL flowing through or by-
passing the superheater. When the by-pass port of the "A" valve is fully closed
(all flow through the superheater), the "B" valve, which is controlling a flow of
55.2 Bar steam through the shell side of the superheater to the 5.2 Bar steam
header, can open, allowing more steam to flow through the superheater,
therefore raising the temperature of the regen. NGL quicker. Once the
temperature is raised to the set-point, the "B" valve will close and the "A" valve
will then control the temperature by allowing more or less flow through the
superheater.
The hot regen. NGL enters the TOP of the dehydrators and flows DOWN through
the desiccant, picking up the moisture from the bed.
The wet regen. NGL exits from the bottom of the dehydrator, and is routed to one
of the two regeneration separators, 53-D-01/02.
The regeneration separators are designed so that one will be in operation and
one on stand-by. Both are complete with ancillary equipment, i.e level glasses,
alarms, PSV's, vents and drains, and filled with PALL RINGS, to obtain maximum
separation of liquid from vapour. The NGL liquid from the bottom of the separator
and the NGL vapour from the top, are returned to the inlets of the liquid and
vapour stabilisers overhead compressor after coolers, 510-410-06, joining the
main vapour and liquid flows to the de-ethaniser feed surge tank. Any water will
be collected and drained from the water boots in the surge tank.
Cooling Step
After the heating step is completed, the regen. NGL flow will be re-routed after
the flow controller, FC-51015/7/8, to the BOTTOM of the dehydrator, and will flow
UP through the bed, cooling back to the operating temperature of 26C. The
cooling NGL will exit from the top of the dehydrators and via the regeneration
lines, be routed to the regeneration separators, following the same flow from
there as the heating step.
The cooling flow rate (15.89 M
3
/hr) is low enough that there is no danger of
fluidising the bed when all of the liquid vapourises, as it will during the first part
of the cooling step.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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a) De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrators
Normal Start-up Procedure (one train)
When one train has been shutdown for maintenance or bed renewal, it
is important that a standard start-up procedure be followed. The
following is a guide to starting up one train and placing it ON LINE in
parallel with the two trains already in service.
When the vessels are handed back from the Maintenance Department,
all flanges, manways, etc. should be thoroughly checked for
completeness, tightness, correct gaskets (size and type) and cleanliness
(all maintenance materials cleared from the area). Blind list should be
double checked to ensure all blinds removed.
All valves in the system should be checked and shut to ensure purging
is done in a controlled, methodical manner.
The following can now be carried out on a step by step basis:
1. Open the PSV vent valve on top of each vessel fully to allow free
flow of air to atmosphere.
2. Commence N
2
purge, with at least 3 changes.
Purging should continue in this manner until the oxygen content
is less than 2% of vessel volume before requesting Labs to
sample for oxygen.
3. When oxygen content is 2% commission PSV and vent valve,
shut the PSV. (The PSV by-pass will be required for removing N
2
so do not fit car seals to the by-pass at this point). While
pressure is rising, carry out a complete inspection of all flanges,
etc. for leakage.
4. When the vessels have reached operating pressure, carry out hot
and cold regens before returning the bed to service.
b) De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrators
Shutdown Procedure (one train)
During normal running it will be necessary to shutdown one train for
maintenance or to renew the desiccant etc. The following is a guide to
shutting down one train and isolating from on stream equipment:
Assuming that all three trains are in service, it will be necessary to wait
until the selected train coming off line is on a regeneration cycle at the
HEATING STEP.
While the bed is on the heating step, the vessel will have no liquid
present (only hot vapour will be passing through).
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The PSV by-passes to cold relief header can be used to depressure the
vessels.
NOTE: When carrying out heating step ensure beds are regened to First
Plateau only i.e. vapourised and not superheated. In this way, cold vent
pipework will not be overheated when the beds are depressured.
It may be necessary to initiate the regeneration on the second vessel
and carry it out manually. If so, be sure that the on line trains are not on
a regeneration cycle at that time.
Power Failure
In the event of a power outage all switching valves associated with the
automatic valve sequence control will remain in the position they wee in
at the time of the outage.
Instrument Failure
In the event of loss of the instrument air all switching valves controlled by
the DCS will remain in the position they were in at the time of the failure.
It will be necessary to shutdown the de-ethaniser feed pumps, and the
regeneration gas pumps as soon as possible, as the feed motor valves
for the De-ethaniser will fail closed, and the regeneration gas control
valves will fail open.
With three compressors, however, it is unlikely that an instrument air
failure will occur, but is not impossible. Closed, the regeneration valves
open and the regeneration gas being heated.
In the event of a failure of either or both of the D.C. supplies the
sequence controller will cease to function. As all the valves fail closed on
power failure which for process considerations is not practicable a
separate solenoid valve has been fitted on to the air header supplying the
valves which in the event of power failure will vent the air out of the
header. This will ensure that all valves remain in the position they
enjoyed prior to the power supply failure.
All the control valves except the temperature control valves are tight shut
off valves (orbit) powered by a double acting pneumatic diaphragm
actuator. They are each fitted with a 4-port solenoid valve, open and
closed limit switches, restrictor, lock up valve, level operated pneumatic
valve and handwheel. Before placing the system in automatic operation
it is necessary to ensure that all handwheels are in neutral and that the
level operated valves are in the normal operation.
The temperature control system on the regeneration gas heater has two
control valves. Only the steam valve is operated by the sequence
controller via a solenoid valve.
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A 3-way control valve is controlled by the output from the gas temperature
controller. the steam valve is closed at all times other than during hot
regeneration and is installed in the steam/condensate system. It will be
controlled by the gas temperature controller during hot regeneration and
will open when the gas temperature required cannot be achieved by the
usual steam supply.
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DE-Ethaniser LIQUID FEED DEHYDRATORS
NORMAL OPERATING SEQUENCE
1. Time 0 Hrs. Open XPV 51001 Liquid Inlet 53-D-05
(& 60 Hrs.)
2. Step 1 Complete Close XPV 51007 Liquid Inlet 53-D-06
& Step 41 Complete Close XPV 51012 Liquid Outlet 53-D-06
3. Step 2 Complete Open XPV 51008 Regen Inlet 53-D-06
Open XPV 51011 Regen. Outlet 53-D-06
TPV 51442B to
Controller Steam from Heater 53-E-34
4. Step 3 Complete Close XPV 51026 Regen. Inlet 53-D-09
Close XPV 51029 Regen. Outlet 53-D-09
Close TPV 51446B Steam from Heater 53-E-36
5. Step 4 Complete Open XPV 51027 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-09
Open XPV 51028 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-09
6. Step 5 Complete Close XPV 51015 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-07
Close XPV 51016 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-
07
7. Step 6 Complete Open XPV 51018 Liquid Outlet 53-D-07
8. Time 4 Hrs. Open XPV 51013 Liquid Inlet 53-D-07
9. Step 8 Complete Close XPV 51019 Liquid Inlet 53-D-08
& Step 7 Complete Close XPV 51024 Liquid Outlet 53-D-08
10. Step 9 Complete Open XPV 51020 Regen. Inlet 53-D-08
Open XPV 51023 Regen. Outlet 53-D-08
TPV 51444B to
Controller Steam from Heater 53-E-35
11. Step 10 Complete Close XPV 51008 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-06
Close XPV 51011 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-06
Close TPV 51442B Steam from Heater 53-E-34
12. Step 11 Complete Open XPV 51009 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-34
Open XPV 51010 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-06
13. Step 12 Complete Close XPV 51027 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-09
Close XPV 51028 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-09
14. Step 13 Complete Open XPV 51030 Liquid Outlet 53-D-09
15. Time 8 Hrs. Open XPV 51025 Liquid Inlet 53-D-09
16. Step 15 Complete Close XPV 51031 Liquid Inlet 53-D-10
& Step 14 Complete Close XPV 51036 Liquid Outlet 53-D-10
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17. Step 16 Complete Open XPV 51032 Regen. Inlet 53-D-10
Open XPV 51035 Regen. Outlet 53-D-10
TPV 51446B to
Controller Steam from Heater 53-E-36
18. Step 17 Complete Close XPV 51020 Regen. Inlet 53-D-08
Close XPV 51023 Regen. Outlet 53-D-08
Close TPV 51444B Steam from heater 53-D-35
19. Step 18 Complete Open XPV 51021 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-08
Open XPV 51022 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-08
20. Step 19 Complete Close XPV 51009 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-06
Close XPV 51010 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-06
21. Step 20 Complete Open XPV 51012 Liquid Outlet 53-D-06
22. Time 12 Hrs. Open XPV 51007 Liquid Inlet 53-D-06
23. Step 22 Complete Close XPV 51001 Liquid Inlet 53-D-05
& Step 21 Complete Close XPV 51006 Liquid Outlet 53-D-05
24. Step 23 Complete Open XPV 51002 Regen. Inlet 53-D-05
Open XPV 51005 Regen. Outlet 53-D-05
TPV 51442B Steam from Heater 53-D-34
Controller
25. Step 24 Complete Close XPV 51032 Regen. Inlet 53-D-10
Close XPV 51035 Regen. Outlet 53-D-10
Close TPV 51446B Steam from Heater 53-D-36
26. Step 25 Complete Open XPV 51033 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-d-10
Open XPV 51034 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-10
27. Step 26 Complete Close XPV 51021 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-08
Close XPV 51022 Cooling Liquid inlet 53-D-08
28. Step 27 Complete Open XPV 51024 Liquid Outlet 53-D-08
29. Time 16 Hrs. Open XPV 51019 Liquid Inlet 53-D-08
30. Step 29 Complete Close XPV 51013 Liquid Inlet 53-D-07
& Step 28 Complete Close XPV 51018 Liquid Outlet 53-D-07
31. Step 30 Complete Open XPV 51014 Regen. Inlet 53-D-07
Open XPV 51017 Regen. Outlet 53-D-07
TPV 5144B to
Controller Steam from Heater 53-E-35
32. Step 31 Complete Close XPV 51002 Regen. Inlet 53-D-05
Close XPV 51005 Regen. Inlet 53-D-05
Close TPV 51442B Steam from Heater 53-E-34
33. Step 32 Complete Open XPV 51003 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-05
Open XPV 51004 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-05
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34. Step 33 Complete Close XPV 51033 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-10
Close XPV 51034 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-10
35. Step 34 Complete Open XPV 51036 Liquid Outlet 53-D-10
36. Time 20 Hrs. Open XPV 51031 Liquid Inlet 53-D-10
37. Step 36 Complete Close XPV 51025 Liquid Inlet 53-D-09
& Step 35 Complete Close XPV 51030 Liquid Outlet 53-D-09
38. Step 37 Complete Open XPV 51026 Regen. Inlet 53-D-09
Open XPV 51029 Regen. Outlet 53-D-09
TPV 51446 B to
Controller Steam from Heater 53-E-36
39. Step 38 Complete Close XPV 51054 Regen. Inlet 53-D-07
Close XPV 51017 Regen. Inlet 53-D-07
Close TPV 51444B Steam from Heater 53-E-35
40. Step 39 Complete Open XPV 51015 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-07
Open XPV 51016 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-07
41. Step 40 Complete Open XPV 51003 Cooling Liquid Outlet 53-D-05
Close XPV 51004 Cooling Liquid Inlet 53-D-05
42. Step 41 Complete Open XPV 51006 Liquid Outlet 53-D-05
43. Time 60 Hrs. CYCLE REPEATS FROM STEP 1;
(& 0 Hrs.)
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3. SEQUENCE CONTROLLER FOR DE-Ethaniser LIQUID FEED DEHYDRATORS
CABINET UC 51021
3.1 General Description
The Sequence Controller consists of solid state circuit modules mounted on standard
cards in racks together with relays and other electromechanical devices mounted within
at two-bay steel enclosure UC 51021, and a separate control sub-panel.
The racks are mounted on swing frames which allows access to the rear of the card
sockets and to the rear of the cabinet.
Connection to plant equipment is via screw-clamp terminals situated within the rear of
the enclosure, entry to which is by top and bottom entry gland plates.
The logic circuits are connected to the screw-clamp terminals via plugs and sockets
adjacent to the terminals. This enables the logic to be disconnected from the plant
switches and solenoids, and connected to the simulator.
The enclosure may be electrically isolated by means of a push-button switch on the front
of the right hand swing frame.
The logic circuits have been broken down into blocks to facilitate description.
an operational description is given briefly showing the action when trains are taken out
of and returned to service.
3.2 Operational Description - Cabinet UC 51021
3.2.1 Start-up and Normal Operation
Before applying the supply to the cabinet by pressing the START button on the
right hand swing frame, the AUTO/MANUAL switch on the sub-panel should be
set to MANUAL. If this is not done all action will be inhibited.
The START button may now be pressed, but at this point in time all plant
solenoids will remain de-energised. It is now possible to operate the plant
manually. Valves TPV 51442B, TPV 51444B and TPV 51446B may be opened
or closed by operating the appropriate push-buttons on the sub-panel.
Valves XPV 51001 to XPV 51036 inclusive may be operated by selecting the last
two digits of the valve number on the sub-panel thumbwheel switches and then
operating the OPEN or CLOSE push-buttons to the left of the thumbwheel
switches. The valve selected will remain in the state chosen even though other
valves are now selected.
For example, if it was required to open XPV 51006, the thumbwheel switches
would be set to 06 and the OPEN push-button would be operated. Valve XPV
51006 would then open due to its solenoid being operated and would remain
open even though XPV 51013, say, was then selected.
If it is required to operate the plant in AUTO, it is first necessary to set all valves
manually to one of three points in a normal sequence. These three points are
shown in fig. 3.1.
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In fig. 3.1 the three trains (or six beds) are shown as drying, idling or hot and cold
regenerating.
During drying, the LIQUID INLET and LIQUID OUTLET valves only are open.
During idling the LIQUID OUTLET valve only is open.
During hot regeneration the REGEN. GAS IN and REGEN. GAS OUT valves only
are open.
During cold regenerating the COOLING LIQUID OUT and COOLING LIQUID IN
valves only are open.
The valves are designed as follows:-
(XPV preceeds all valve numbers)
Duty Column Column Column
53-D-05 53-D-06 53-D-07
Liquid Inlet 51001 51007 51013
Regen. Gas In 51002 51008 51014
Cooling Liq. Out. 51003 51009 51015
Cooling Liq. In 51004 51010 51016
Regen. Gas Out. 51005 51011 51017
Liquid Outlet 51006 51012 51018
Column Column Column
53-D-08 53-D-09 53-D-10
Liquid Inlet 51019 51025 51031
Regen. Gas In 51020 51026 51032
Cooling Liq. Out 51021 51027 51033
Cooling Liq. In 51022 51028 51034
Regen. Gas Out 51023 51029 51035
Liquid Outlet 51024 51030 51036
Having set the valves to one of the three points of entry, the rotary switch on the
sub-panel headed TRAIN TO START ON REGENERATION AT START OF AUTO
SEQUENCE should be set to the corresponding position.
The AUTO push-button may now be operated and the plant will continue to
operate automatically, according to the sequence shown in fig. 3.1, and the
manual controls will be rendered ineffective.
During hot regeneration, steam valves TPV 51442B (for Train 1) TPV 51444B (for
Train 2) and TPV 51446B (for Train 3) are opened and closed as appropriate.
Referring to fig. 3.1, it may be noted that a sequence can be broken down into
equal sections - in this case of 4 hours each. This the drying period occupies 3
sections and hot regeneration, cold regeneration and idle, one section each. The
beds within a train alternate in drying and train 1 is one section ahead of train 2
which is one section ahead of train 3.
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During commissioning or other shutdown times the length of the sections may be
set between 4 hours and 8 hours in 20 minute increments, by setting the total
drying time, which is effected by operation of two thumbwheel switches within the
main enclosure (see Technical description).
The thumbwheels should only be varied between 12 (which gives 12 hours drying
time and 4 hour sections) and 24 (which gives 24 hours drying time and 8 hour
sections).
Fig. 3.2 shows a sequence with a 6 hour sections (that is 18 hours drying time)
and fig. 3.3 shows a sequence with 8 hour sections. In these figures it will be
noted that drying still occupies three sections but total regeneration time (hot or
cold) remains constant at 8 hours as in fig. 3..
The remainder of the two sections following drying is then taken up as idling.
3.3.2 Taking a Train Out of Service
During normal AUTO operation one train only may be out of service at any one
time. Inter-locking ensures that another train may not be taken out when the train
out push-button has been operated.
To take a train out of service the sub-panel rotary switch designated TRAIN TO
BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE is set to the appropriate position. The push-
button to the right of the rotary switch is then operated.
The sequence immediately following the action of taking a train out will depend
on the point at which the train is taken out. Figures 3.4 to 3.9 show the resulting
sequences when train 2 is taken out during each of its sections of operation. For
the purposes of discussion, the section immediately following drying will be
referred to as hot regeneration even though the first 4 hours only are taken up
with hot regeneration. Similarly the following section is referred to as cold
regeneration.
Figures 3.11, 3.12, 3.13 outline the action when trains 1, 2, 3 are taken out and
these should be compared to the diagrammatic representation of fig. 3.4 to fig.
3.9 for train 2.
3.2.3 Returning a Train to Service
This may be accomplished by setting the rotary switch of para. 3.2.2 to the
appropriate position and operating the push-button.
The push-button may be operated at any time, however the train will not be
returned to service until the point is reached in cycle at which the first bed in the
train to be returned would be entering its hot regeneration cycle. This is shown
more clearly in fig. 3.10
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4. NO. 1 & 2 DE-ETHANIZERS
(505-950-05 AND 505-950-06
a. Purpose and Service The purpose of the De-ethaniser towers is to take as
feed, a composition of N.G.L. ranging from methanes to butanes with a trace of
pentanes from the combined stabiliser overhead products. remove the methanes
and ethanes out overhead, and drop the propane and heavier hydrocarbons out
the bottom for further treating and fractionation on downstream.
The towers are operated at elevated pressure and temperature sufficient to
enable partial amounts of the overhead products, C-1 and C-2, to be condensed
by refrigeration for reflux purposes and control.
The original design capacity for the towers is about 35,000 b/d each.
Feed: The feed to the two De-ethanizers is the combined overhead product from
all the stabilisers consisting mainly of methane, ethane, propane, isobutane,
normal butane and traces of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, normal
pentane-plus, and water.
The stabiliser overhead product is two-phase; vapour which is compressed and
liquid which is pumped to the cooled together in the stabiliser overhead airfin
coolers and collected in the two Feed Surge Tanks - (see "Feed Preparation -
Section A-1). The tanks have approximately 40 minutes surge time from half full
at design rate. At design operating conditions of 38C (100F) and 33.5 Bar G.
- (485 PSI) with expected composition, the feed will be approximately 90% liquid
and 10% vapour. It can be completely liquified @ 270C (80F). Good
temperature control of the airfins is important to maintain a steady flow rate and
enthalpy of the feed to the de-ethanizers. The liquid phase is pumped through
the liquid feed dehydrators to reduce moisture content to about 10 ppm to
prevent hydrate formation at the low temperatures of the De-ethaniser
condensers. The vapour phase is pressured through the vapour feed
Dehydrators to reduce the moisture content to less than 10 ppm for the same
reason.
After dehydration, both the liquid stream and vapour stream are divided about
equally to feed the two de-ethanizers in parallel. In order to keep the liquid feed
from flashing in the flow meter (which would cause loss of feed control), or in the
riser to the feed entry, the feed control valve which lets the pressure down to the
fractionator operating pressure is situated after the meter and at the elevation of
the feed entry. The vapour feed stream is introduced into the liquid feed between
this control valve and just before the column feed entry. At inlet conditions of
approximately 35C 995F) and 29.1 Bar G (437 psia) the combined feed is
about 86% liquid and 14% vapour.
Product Yields The De-ethaniser overhead product is a methane-ethane
mixture which is mostly vapour but up to 10% liquid at - 12C (10F) and 28.0 bar
g. (420 psia). Since most of the carbon dioxide and much of the hydrogen
sulphide is contained here it is warmed to around 27C (80F) and sent to the
diethanolamine (DEA) treaters for removal of these undesirables. It is then dried
again to remove moisture picked up in the DEA contactors before being chilled
and introduced into the Demethaniser Column for separation.
The bottom product is a propane-butanes liquid mixture which is cooled slightly
for metering and then fed directly to the two Depropanisers where, again further
separation is achieved.
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b. Separation The key components for the De-ethaniser separation are ethane and
propane. A high degree of separation is required here to insure that specification
products can be made downstream. Improper cuts causing too much propane,
for example, to be fractionated out the OHP will show up as heavies in the De-
Methaniser Kettle product, consequently throwing the ethane product off specs.
By the same token - dropping too many "lights" out the de-ethaniser bottom will
throw the propane make from the De-propanisers off specs by causing excessive
ethane in the propane. Primary consideration must be given in keeping the
ethane well below 3.6 MOL % of the propane in the bottom product.
(Approximately 2.3 mol % of the total bottom product). The propane vapour
pressure must not exceed 13.8 bar g (200 psig) at 38C (100F). Design is for
2.1 mol % ethane in propane (about 1.4 mol % ethane in the De-ethaniser
bottom product) which should make the propane product vapour pressure slightly
under 13.1 bar g. (190 psig) at 38C (100F).
Secondary consideration is given to limiting propane in the overhead product
as, mentioned above, to permit making an ethane product of at least 96 LV %
purity (95.5 mol %). Since impurities in the ethane other than propane are
carbon dioxide (0.2 LV % max. allowable) and methane, and assuming that the
De-Methaniser can limit methane in the ethane bottom product to about 1.0 LV
% designed, then propane up to 2.8 LV % can be tolerated. The De-ethaniser
design is for 2.0 mol %, opr 2.1 LV % propane in the ethane (about 1.2 mol %,
or 1.4 LV % propane in the de-ethaniser total overhead product which should
amount to an ethane product purity about 96.7 LV % propane in the ethane
(about 1.2 mol %, or 1.4 LV % propane in the De-ethaniser total overhead
product which should amount to an ethane product purity about 96.7 LV % on the
average allowing for some fluctuation.
The separation described above required 96% recovery of the ethane from the
feed as overhead, and 99% recovery of the propane from the feed as bottom
yield. This s accomplished with 45 trays and a reflux-to-feed ratio of 0.8 mol/mol
when the reflux is cooled to -12C (10F). Reflux-to-liquid-feed only is
approximately 0.87 mol/mol, or 0.83 bbl/bbl.
c. Process Equipment To achieve the desired conditions the de-ethanizers are
supplied with 45 valve trays. The 12 ft. diameter lower section has 32 four path
trays. Feed enters in on the 32nd tray. The 8 foot diameter upper section has
13 two path trays. Liquid from the 4 path bottom tray 1 pours into three
downcomers, to at the sides and one in the middle, which effectively partitions
off the vapour space below. To distribute the reboil vapours evenly to the two
sides of the centre, a chimney tray is provided 48 in. below tray 1, with a vapour
chimney on each side of the centre downcomer. The liquid overflow from tray 1
to the chimney tray flows across it without interfering with the rising vapours, and
pours into two side downcomers extending down beside the reboil heaters.
Reboil heat is supplied with L.P. steam, 3.5 bar g. (50 psi) at 198C - (298F),
using two internal U-tube heat exchangers fitted side by side. The condensed
steam is collected in the condensate accumulator, and pumped into the
condensate system. A minimum flow by-pass line is equipped on the pump
discharge to recycle a part of the condensate back into the condensate
accumulator in the event the Liquid Level Control on the condensate drum closes
off the pump discharge. The pump is driven by a 10hp, 415 volt motor, @ 2900
RPM rated at 22M
3
/hr maximum, and 3.3M
3
/hr minimum flow.
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For reflux purposes, the overhead vapours from the top of the column are partly
condensed in a plate type exchanger, 505-410-06, using propane from the
intermediate-stage propane refrigeration system as the refrigerant. The
vaporising propane is circulated by the thermosyphon effect from the
thermosyphon drum, 521-950-01, through the plate exchangers, and back to the
drum. Vapours are pulled off the top of the drum back to the intermediate-stage
suction-scrubber of the propane refrigeration compressor located in the Boiler
House area. The liquid propane that replaces the propane being vaporised is
replaced from the propane refrigeration high-stage flash drum, controlled by
Liquid Level Controller LIC-51074, mounted on the thermosyphon drum. "Heavy"
impurities that concentrate in the thermosyphon drum may be purged from the
system periodically by draining into a blow-case, 521-950-05, where it can be
pressured out into the propane storage.
A by-pass temperature control system, TIC-51129, resets on split range control,
valves TPV-51129A, and TPV-51129B located in the overhead vapour line
permitting part of the overhead vapours to be by-passed around the plat
exchanger for temperature control. The overhead vapour-liquid mixture from the
condenser is collected and separated in the reflux accumulator, 505-950-03,
which is sized for about 10 minutes surge time for the liquid when half full.
Sufficient liquid from reflux purposes is pumped with the reflux pump, 505-670-
04/06, back up to the top tray of the column. Any surplus liquid is taken on out
as overhead liquid product from the pump discharge. Excess vapours from the
accumulator are taken out through the top of the accumulator through back
pressure control valve PPV-51135 and join up with the overhead vapours from
the other De-ethaniser just before entering the overhead product Treater Feed
Heater, 509-410-01 or 02. The liquid streams from both DE-Ethaniser TOWERS
combine prior to entry into the DEA FEED VAPOURISERS.
An air fin cooler, 505-410-39 with two fans is supplied to cool the bottom product.
Control flexibility here is achieved by having two fans, as well as a by-pass
around the cooler which is controlled by a three way motor valve, TPV-51134,
reset by TIC-51134. Louvre are also provided for control which may be operated
by a hand controller, HIC-51008.
The reflux pump, 505-670-04/06, has a capacity rating of 180M
3
/hr maximum and
156 M
3
/hr minimum, and is driven by 415 volt, 3 phase, 50 cycle, 50 hp. motor,
at 2950 RPM.
The Column bottom product is liquid at its bubble point. It is cooled in an air fin
cooler, 505-410-39 just enough to avoid flashing when it is metered for flow
control. It is then, without further loss of heat content, fed directly to the De-
propanizer. the temperature is controlled here by a 3-way valve TPV-51134,
reset by TIC-51134, that will open and y-pass a part of the bottom product around
the air fin cooler to give a run down temperature of about 85C (160F). Two
fans are also supplied with this cooler giving the operator even a little more
control latitude, as one fan can be shutdown if necessary.
d. Operating Conditions The operating pressures are set high enough so that the
overhead product from the reflux accumulator at 28 bar g (420 psia) may low
through the DEA TREATER CONTACTORS and Dehydrators to the De-
Methaniser tower without pressure boosting equipment. The De-mechanizers
in turn, must operate at pressures high enough to condense reflux at a
temperature of -73C (99F) at 21.9 bar g. (325 psia) attainable with ethane
refrigeration.
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John Stead
Date:
9
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November 2000
Revision:
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With propane refrigeration at -17C (2F) and 1.7 bar g. (39 psia) to cool the De-
ethaniser condenser, the reflux accumulator temperature is designed to operate
as low as -12C (10F) to condense more liquid than required for reflux to allow
some flexibility for control. At -10C (14F) i is calculated that just enough liquid
would be condensed to satisfy the reflux requirement, with no excess for
overhead liquid product; that is, all of the overhead product would be taken off
as vapour.
The De-ethaniser column top pressure should be controlled at 29.0 ar g. (435
psia) and operate at about 2C (36F). Bottom pressure should be about 29.3
bar g. (440 psia), at which boiling temperature should be around 88C (191F).
The reboilers are heated by steam supplied at 3.5 bar g (50 psig) @ 148C
(298F) temperature, the steam pressure and temperature entering the tubes is
reduced to the minimum to insure nucleate boiling rather than film boiling for
better heat transfer. Design is for about 2.4 bar g. steam (35 psig) that
condenses at 139C (283F) which is about 51C above reboiling temperature.
e. Flexibility - Feed Rates. With promised feed composition and 35C (95F) feed
temperature, the column and auxiliary equipment should be capable of 5% above
material balance rates to handle dynamic surges. The valve trays will also
operate efficiently at rates as low as 50%.
Warmer feed temperature adds load to the overhead condenser, which should
be adequate for 38C, (100F) feed. Cooler feed adds load to the reboiler, which
should be adequate for feed temperatures down to 27C (80F).
Composition - A range of +5% in ethane and/or propane cold be handled
adequately, however, hour to hour variations should be minimised for efficient
operations. This will be dependent upon the incoming feed however.
Reflux - A 5% additional reflux rate is designed into the column, condenser, and
reflux pump @ normal feed rate. Colder reflux temperature will create more
internal reflux. Temperature may be varied between -10C (14F) and -12C
(10F) as required.
(only one tower will be described - No. 2 being alike except for control numbers).
f. Controls - Feed is introduced into the column in two phases - liquid and vapour.
Each has its separate lines up until the actual entry into the 32nd tray of the
column. To total liquid feed flow rates to the two De-ethanizers and regulated by
individual flow controller - FIC-51028 and FIC-51037 which operate control
valves FPV-51028 and FPV-51037 each reset by a common signal from the Feed
Surge Drum Level controllers LLC-51022 or LLC-51033 - whichever tank has
been selected to be the controlling tank. (See under Feed Surge Drum, Section
11-A1). The actual split between the De-ethaniser towers is adjusted by means
of a biasing relay on the liquid level signal.
Vapour feed - The total vapour feed flow rate is regulated by a pressure control,
PIC-51057 located on the Feed Surge Drum vapour piping, which controls a back
pressure control valve PPV-51057C located downstream of the de-ethaniser
Vapour Feed Dehydrators. The actual split between the towers is controlled by
a three-way motor valve, FPV-51027 located in the feed line which is reset by
controller FIC-51027 on the panel board. A variable ratio controller is
incorporated in the control scheme to permit the operator to vary the percent of
total vapour (as the liquid) rates to each column. Vapour feed is measured to
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each column through separate meter runs which are compared with the total feed
signal from FIC-51027.
Column Pressure: Pressure on the tower is controlled by a back pressure
motor valve PPV-51133 located in the 12" overhead vapour line between the
tower and the overhead condensers. The valve is actuated by PIC-51133 which
receives its signal from a pressure point PNT-51133 also located on the
overhead vapour line just upstream of the valve. Basic
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NO. 1 & 2 DE-Ethanizers
5-T-05 AND 5-T-06
a. Purpose and Service The purpose of the De-ethaniser towers is to take as feed, a
composition of NGL ranging from methanes to butanes with a trace of pentanes from the
combined stabiliser overhead products, remove the methanes and ethanes out
overhead, and drop the propane and heavier hydrocarbons out the bottom for further
treating and fractionation on downstream.
The towers are operated at elevated pressure and temperature sufficient to enable
partial amounts of the overhead products, C-1 and C-2, to be condensed by refrigeration
for reflux purposes and control.
The original design capacity for the towers is about 35,000 b/d each.
Feed: The feed to the two De-ethanizers is the combined overhead product from all the
stabilisers consisting mainly of methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane and
traces of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, normal pentane-plus, and water.
The stabiliser overhead product is two-phase; vapour, which is compressed and liquid
which is pumped to be cooled together in the stabiliser overhead airfin coolers and
collected in the two Feed Surge Tanks - (see "Feed Preparation - Section A-1). The
tanks have approximately 40 minutes surge time from half full at design rate. At design
operating conditions of 34C-38C and approximately 23-25 Bar G with expected
composition, the feed will be approximately 90% liquid and 10% vapour. It can be
completely liquified at flow rate and enthalpy of the feed to the de-ethanizers. The liquid
phase is pumped through the liquid feed dehydrators to reduce moisture content to about
10 ppm to prevent hydrate formation at the low temperatures of the De-ethaniser
condensers.
After dehydration, the liquid stream is divided about equally to feed the two de-ethanizers
in parallel. In order to keep the liquid feed from flashing in the flow meter (which would
cause loss of feed control), or in the riser to the feed entry, the feed control valve which
lets the pressure down to the fractionator operating pressure is situated after the meter
and at the elevation of the feed entry. At inlet conditions of approximately 25-30C and
29.1 Bar G (437 psia).
Product Yields: The De-ethaniser overhead product is a methane-ethane mixture which
is mostly vapour but up to 10% liquid at -12C (10F) and 28.0 Bar G (420 psia). Since
most of the carbon dioxide and much of the hydrogen sulphide is contained here it is
warmed to around 20C (100F) and sent to the diethanolamine (DEA) treaters for
removal of these undesirables. It is then dried again to remove moisture picked up in the
DEA contactors before being chilled and introduced into the Demethaniser column for
separation.
The bottom product is a propane-butanes liquid mixture which is fed directly to the two
Depropanisers where, again further separation is achieved.
b. Separation The key components for the De-ethaniser separation are ethane and
propane. A high degree of separation is required here to insure that specification
products can be made downstream. Improper cuts causing too much propane for
example, to be fractionated out the OHP will show up as heavies in the De-Methaniser
Kettle product, consequently throwing the ethane product off specs. by the same token
- dropping too many "lights" out the de-ethaniser bottom will throw the propane make
from the Depropanisers off specs by causing excessive ethane in the propane. Primary
consideration must be given in keeping the ethane well below 2.5 MOL % of the propane
in the bottom product. (Approximately 1.5 mol % of the total bottom product.
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Secondary consideration is given to limiting propane in the overhead product as,
mentioned above, to permit making an ethane product of at least 96 LV % purity (95.5
mol %). Since impurities in the ethane other than propane are carbon dioxide (0.2 LV
% max. allowable) and methane, and assuming that the De-Methaniser can limit
methane in the ethane bottom product to about 1.0 LV % as designed , then propane up
to 2.8 LV % can be tolerated. The De-ethaniser design is for 2.0 mol %, or 2.1 LV %
propane in the ethane (about 0.25 % or 1.4 LV % propane in the De-ethaniser total
overhead product which should amount to an ethane product purity about 96.7 LV % on
the average allowing for some fluctuation.
The separation described above required 96% recovery of the ethane from the feed as
overhead, and 99% recovery of the propane from the feed as bottom yield. This is
accomplished with 45 trays and a reflux-to-feed ratio of 0.8 mol/mol when the reflux is
cooled to -12C (10F). Reflux-to-liquid-feed only is approximately 0.87 mol/mol, or 0.83
bbl/bbl.
c. Process Equipment To achieve the desired conditions the de-ethanizers are supplied
with 45 valve trays. The 12 ft. diameter lower section has 32 four path trays. Feed
enters in on the 32nd tray. The 8 foot diameter upper section has 13 two path trays.
Liquid from the 4 path bottom tray 1 pours into three downcomers, two at the sides and
one in the middle, which effectively partitions off the vapour space below. To distribute
the reboil vapours evenly to the two sides of the centre, a chimney tray is provided 48 in.
below tray 1, with a vapour chimney on each side of the downcomer. The liquid overflow
from tray 1 to the chimney tray flows across it without interfering with the rising vapours,
and pours into two side downcomers extending down beside the reboil heaters. Reboil
heat is supplied with LP steam, 3.5 Bar G (50 psi) at 175C, using two internal U-tube
heat exchangers fitted side by side. The condensed steam is collected in the
condensate accumulator, and pumped into the condensate system. A minimum flow by
pass line is equipped on the pump discharge to recycle a part of the condensate back
into the condensate accumulator in the event the Liquid Level Control on the condensate
drum closes off the pump discharge. The pump is driven by a 10 hp, 415 volt motor, at
2900 RPM rated at 22M
3
/hr maximum, and 3.3M
3
/hr minimum flow.
For reflux purposes, the overhead vapours from the top of the column are partly
condensed in a plate type exchanger, 5-E-06, using propane from the intermediate-stage
propane refrigeration system as the refrigerant. The vaporising propane is circulated by
a thermosyphon effect from the thermosyphon drum, 54-D-01, through the plate
exchangers, and back to the drum. Vapours are pulled off the top of the drum back to
the intermediate-stage suction-scrubber of the propane refrigeration compressor located
in the Boiler House area. The liquid propane that replaces the propane being vaporised
is replaced from the propane refrigeration high-stage flash drum, controlled by Liquid
Level Controller LIC-51074, mounted on the thermosyphon drum. "Heavy" impurities
that concentrate in the thermosyphon drum may be purged from the system periodically
by draining into a blow-case, 54-D-05 where it can be pressured out into the propane
storage.
A by-pass temperature control system, TIC-51129B located in the overhead vapour line
permitting part of the overhead vapours to be by-passed around the plate exchanger for
temperature control. The overhead vapour-liquid mixture from the condenser is collected
and separated in the reflux accumulator, 5-D-03, which is sized for about 10 minutes
surge time for the liquid when half full. Sufficient liquid from reflux purposes is pumped
with the reflux pump, 5-P-04/06, back up to the top tray of the column.
Vapours from the accumulator are taken out through the top of the accumulator through
back pressure control valve PPV-51135 and join up with the overhead vapours from the
other De-ethaniser just before entering the overhead product Treater Feed Heater,
51-E-01/02.
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The reflux pump, 5-P-04/06, has a capacity rating of 180 M
3
/hr maximum and 156 M
3
/hr
minimum, and is driven by 415 volt, 3 phase, 50 cycle, 50 hp. Motor at 2950 RPM.
d. Operating Conditions The operating pressures are set high enough so that the
overhead product from the reflux accumulator at 23 Bar G may flow through the DEA
TREATER CONTACTORS and Dehydrators to the De-Methaniser in turn, must operate
at pressures high enough to condense reflux at a temperature of -73C (-99F) at 18.5
Bar g (325 psia) attainable with ethane refrigeration.
With propane refrigeration at -17C (2F) and 1.7 Bar G (39 psia) to cool the De-
ethaniser condenser, the reflux accumulator temperature is designed to operate as low
as -12C (10F) to condense more liquid than required for reflux to allow some flexibility
for control. At -10C (14F) it is calculated that just enough liquid would be condensed
to satisfy the reflux requirement, with no excess for overhead liquid product; that is, all
of the overhead product would be taken off as vapour.
The De-ethaniser column top pressure should be controlled at 23.0 Bar G and operate
at about 2C (36F). Bottom pressure should be about 23.3 Bar G.
The reboilers are heated by steam supplied at 3.5 Bar G (50 psig) @ 148C (298F)
temperature, the steam pressure and temperature entering the tubes is reduced to the
minimum to insure nucleate boiling rather than film boiling for better heat transfer.
Design is for about 2.4 ar G steam (35 psig) that condenses at 139C (283F) which is
about 51C above reboiling temperature.
e. Flexibility - Feed Rates. With promised feed composition and 34-38C feed temperature,
the column and auxiliary equipment should be capable of 5% above material balance
rates to handle dynamic surges. The valve trays will also operate efficiently at rates as
low as 50%.
Warmer feed temperature adds load to the overhead condenser, which should be
adequate for 38C, (100F) feed. Cooler feed adds load to the reboiler which should be
adequate for feed temperature down to 27C (80F).
Composition - A range of +5% in ethane and/or propane could be handled adequately,
however, hour to hour variations should be minimised for efficient operations. This will
be dependent upon the incoming feed, however.
Reflux - A 5% additional reflux rate is designed into the column, condenser, and reflux
pump @ normal feed rate. Colder reflux temperature will create more internal reflux.
Temperature may be varied between -10C (14F) and -12C (10F) as required, to
maintain a steady level in the accumulator.
(only one tower will be described - No. 2 being alike except for control numbers).
f. Controls - Feed is introduced into the column in one phase - liquid. Each has its
separate lines up until the actual entry into the 32nd tray of the column. The total liquid
feed flow rates to the two De-ethanizers and regulated by individual flow controller - FIC-
51028 and FIC-51037 which operate control valves FPV-51028 and FPV-51022 or LLC-
51033 - whichever tank has been selected to be the controlling tank. (See under Feed
Surge Drum, Section 11-A1). The actual split between the De-ethaniser towers is
adjusted by means of the biasing relay on the liquid level signal.
Column Pressure: Pressure on the tower controlled by the accumulator back pressure
controller PIC 51135 - PIC 51133 now remains in the fully open position.
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A differential pressure recorder is provided to measure the difference of pressure
between the bottom of the column and the overhead vapour line (dPR-51128).
Accumulator Pressure: Pressure on the accumulator is controlled by PIC-51135 which
controls the accumulator back pressure control valve PPV-51125 located in the 6"
overhead vapour line off the top of the vessel. the pressure sensing point is located on
the accumulator (PNT-51135).
Column Temperature Control - Temperature required for proper separation is controlled
by either of two types of control (1) Conventional tray temperature control, or (2) by
Distillation Column Control
Tray Temperature Control - with this type control the temperature of tray no. 20 is used
as the control point. Temperature here is transmitted to a temperature controller, TIC-
51125 where the signal is then sent out to the bottom product flow control valve - FPV-
51032 (which is also the feed motor valve to the De-propanizer Column down stream).
The kettle flow affects the level o the liquid in the bottom of the De-ethaniser which is
sensed by the kettle liquid level control LIC 5100. this resets FIC-51033 which in turn
(through FNX-51033) controls the amount of steam through the steam motor valve, FPV-
51033 located in the main 12" steam line to the reboilers, to reboil the correct amount o
liquid to hold the level constant.
Bottom Product - The bottom product rate is on flow control, FPV-51032, which is reset
by conventional temperature control sensed from 20th tray, or by Distillation. Column
valves are situated on the Depropanisers near the feed entry on the tower, their by-pass
valves are power operated by hand controllers, HPV-51010/51012 located on the panel
board.
Distillation Column Control - Chromatograph analysers are provided to analyse the
bottom product composition. This information, plus input signals from feed volume,
reflux and overhead vapour temperatures are calculated and compared with pre-set
variables in a computer. The computer output signal is then employed to control the
bottoms product rate by resetting the bottom product flow control valve FPV-51032 as
well as the external reflux. Like the Tray Temperature Control Scheme described above,
the steam is then re-set by the bottom liquid level control. The overhead product also
has a chromatographer, for analyser control.
The Column Distillation Control will try to control by keeping a pre-set composition of
ethane/propane ratio in the bottom product at all times.
The overhead product is monitored to enable the operator to observe the amount of
propane being produced out the top with the methane/ethane mixture and can make
reflux biasing changes to compensate for it when not on computer control.
External Reflux rate is adjusted (1) with feed rate changes and (2) with reflux/overhead
vapour temperature differential to maintain a constant internal reflux to feed ratio by the
internal reflux computer, or if the computer is not on, by a rate of flow controller - FIC-
51029 which operates control valve FPV-51029 in the 6 inch reflux line.
Overhead Vapour Product is actually the result of the actions of the accumulator back
pressure control mentioned above - to hold the accumulator pressure constant.
Condensate Accumulator level is controlled by a liquid level controller, LNC-51245 which
operates control vale LPV-51245 in the 3" condensate transfer line.
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Reflux Accumulator Temperature Control - Temperature is controlled by TIC-51129 which
controls the amount of overhead vapours passing through or by-passing the overhead
product condensor. The temperature in the accumulator will be the reflux temperature.
The more liquid condensed, the colder it will be and also less pressure.
g. Alarms and Safety Equipment
The control valves throughout the De-ethaniser systems are designed to "fail safe"; that
is, with loss of instrument air or electricity the control valves will open or close as
necessary to block in the feed and product streams, shuts off the steam, allows overhead
vapour to flow through the overhead vapour condenser, and liquid to be pumped back
to the column if the reflux pump is still operating.
Column over-pressure devices have four stages of operation with increasing pressure:
(1) ALARM (2) STEAM SHUT OFF, (3) Vent to relief system and (4) last resort vent to
atmosphere from the top of the column. Other pressure safety valves vent to the relief
system from the accumulator and the refrigerant thermosyphon drum.
Other automatic shut offs are as follows;-
Trip Feed Pump shut-off and alarm on feed tank low level, or high pump discharge
pressure
11LA-51026/37; PNS-51068
Trip Bottom product control valve shut-off and alarm on column low liquid level
11LNS-51312/13
Trip Reflux pump shut-off and alarm on the reflux accumulator low level 11LNS-
51086/51002
Bottom Product airfin fan shutdown on excessive vibration - XA-51056/57
Feed Tank High Liquid Level - hLA-51024/35
Feed Tank Low Liquid Level - ILA-51025/35
Feed Tank High Pressure - hPA-51057
Feed Tank Low Pressure - IPA-51057
Feed Tank - High Water Level - hLA-51029/40
Feed Tank - Low Water Level - ILA-51030/41
Liquid Feed Dehydrators High Moisture Content - hA-51008
Low Differentia Pressure between Liquid Feed flow Meter and Feed Tank - IdPA-51063
Column High Pressure Differentia - between Tip & Bottom - hdPA-51128/51147
Refrigerant Thermosyphon Drum high liquid level - hLA-51075/51092.
Refrigerant Thermosyphon Drum low liquid level - ILa-51076/51093
Reflux accumulator High liquid level - hLA-51079/51096
Reflux accumulator Low liquid level - ILa-51080/51097
Reflux Low Flow rate - IFA-51029/38
Seam Condensate Drum low liquid level.
h. Start-up Preparatory to start-up, all utilities must be in service, instrumentation all
checked out and all rotating equipment tested. Checks should be made that all blinds
have been pulled from the piping intended to be utilised , all water drained from vessels,
and low places in piping where valves are available. Steam supply line should be
warmed up and drained of liquid to the control valve - also, the propane refrigeration
system must be in operation. Check for a good working level in the thermosyphon drum.
The drain systems, hot and cold vent systems and related flares should be available.
The liquid feed drier and vapour feed direr also should be regenerated and ready to be
put on the line to dry the feed. The Depropanizer should also be ready to take feed, as
well as the De-ethaniser Overhead Product (both liquid & vapour) Amine treater. The
Glycol system should be in operation to vapourize the liquid overhead product prior to
entry into the Amine Treaters, and the overhead dehydrators must be ready. All air must
be purged from the systems.
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It is also a good idea, to have most of the piping, such as feed, overhead product - etc.
- lined up ahead of the actual column start to facilitate the start-up process.
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(1) De-ethaniser Column & Accumulator Purge
On the initial start-up, or if the column has been down for turnaround, all air must be
purged from the equipment before it can be re-started. Following is a step-by-step
procedure that may be used to accomplish this;
(NOTE -It is advisable to use a nitrogen purge of the equipment before the gas purge is
initiated. to nitrogen purge, admit nitrogen to the tower and associated equipment from
the plant nitrogen supply. Pressure up the equipment with nitrogen, then release the
pressure to the air. Repeat this at least two more times, then take an air analysis test,
and determine the amount of oxygen left in the tower. If it is down to 2% or thereabouts,
it is now ready for a gas purge).
LINE-UP
1. COLUMN - All bleeders on kettle LLC open.
2. OHV LINE - Back pressure motor valve (PPV 51133) open.
3. OHV LINE - Back pressure motor valve by-pass open.
4. REFLUX ACCUMULATOR temperature controller TPV-51129, and by-pass open.
5. ACCUMULATOR - ALL gauge glass bleeders open.
6. 3" STEAM-OUT VALVE on bottom of accumulator open.
7. OHV PRODUCT MOTOR VALVE blocked downstream of valve (MV OPEN).
8. 1" bleeder upstream of OHV motor valve open.
9. 6" OHV product line open at top of accumulator.
10. Reflux pump suction and discharge valves CLOSED.
11. 1" by-pass around reflux pump discharge non-return valve open.
12. Reflux pump bleeders open.
13. 1" by-pass around reflux pump suction non-return valve closed.
14. TPV 51134 open, downstream isolation valve blocked, a 1" bleeder open (bottom
product).
15. 1" bleeder on bottoms cooler.
The object of this exercise is to admit purge gas in at the bottom of the column and
purge out through the top, clearing the OHV line to and through the accumulator, and
also the reflux line back down to the pump. The OHP lines, liquid and vapour, and
bottom product line will also be purged.
PROCEDURE
With the aforementioned valves and bleeders blocked or open, as outlined, admit gas
or nitrogen to the bottom of the column through the purge gas inlet. Regin checking gas
from kettle LLC bleeders (when free of air, block in bleeders). Air will be pushed out at
the bottom through the KP line, and out bleeders there. Also check bottoms make line
bleeder.
As the gas flows upwards, the air will be displaced out the various bleeders on the reflux
pump accumulator through the OHV line and reflux line.
Gas will begin to displace air out the reflux line, back to pump and out pump bleeder -
block in bleeder when gas detected. Reflux line will be cleared.
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Gas will be flowing out the top of the column through the overhead vapour line, through
back pressure motor valve and by-;ass; on through the OH condenser and through reflux
temperature control (TPV 51129). When gas is detected through the 1" bleeder on TPV
51129, block in the by-pass and motor valve. This will force gas through reflux temperature
control TPV 51129B, clearing the by-pass line. check 1" bleeder here, and when gas is
detected, block in bleeder.
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Continue purge to accumulator through OHV line.
Note - While this has been going on gas has been purging through the reflux line back
towards the reflux pumps. when gas is detected from the reflux pump bleeders, block
i the 1" by-pass line around the reflux pumps discharge non-return valves. Purge will
then continue on out of the overhead product liquid make line No. 2" 551-L40-094, and
on to the liquid OHP motor valve FPV 51031 and out the 1" bleeder. When gas is
detected here, block in bleeder.
Gas should be showing up now on the accumulator gauge column bleeder, and 3"
steam-out valve. Gas will also be going out through the vapour OHP line.
When gas is detected at the 32 steam-out valve, block in and open the 1" by-pass
around the reflux pumps suction valves. Air will then be pushed on back through the
pump and out the 1" pump bleeder. When you are satisfied that the air is out, block in
the bleeder.
When gas has appeared out the 1" bleeder on the vapour OHP line motor valve, FPV
51135 (mentioned above), block in bleeder.
The above operation has cleared the column proper, overhead vapour line through
condenser, temperature control by-pass, accumulator, reflux line, pumps and equipment,
overhead vapour and liquid product lines.
During the aforementioned operations, the column bottom product line was being cleared
out from the column, but through the bottoms line through the bottoms cooler (510-410-
39) and out the 1" bleeder. Clear the 4" cooler by-pass line, 4" 551-L40-086, by blocking
in the upstream isolation valve for TPV 51134, and cracking the 3-way valve open - this
should force the trapped air in the by-pass line out through the 1" bleeder. When this is
done, and you are satisfied that sufficient purging has been done time-wise, block in the
purge gas.
The procedure outlined above will get the purge done, but judgement on the part of the
operator must be exercised throughout the entire procedure. Constant checking of all
bleeders must be done, as some lines will clear before others, some will clear almost at
the same time. Operator surveillance and care is the most important thing.
Note: The 6" de-ethaniser bottom cross-over line, 6" 551-L40-097, will have to be cleared
from either No. 1 de-ethaniser tower to No. 2, by opening across, or from No. 2 to No.
1 de-ethaniser by the same manner and breaking a flange at the isolation valve. If both
towers are to be purged at a close time interval, then you can route purge gas from No.
1 tower, through the 6" cross-over, and use this a s a means of getting purge gas into
No. 2, purging out from bottom to top in the same manner.
(2) Line Up After the column, accumulator, and associated piping has been purged of air
line up the various feed and product stream as suggested below:
Liquid Feed Line up feed from the bottom of the De-ethaniser Feed Surge Drums, 519-
950-03/04 through the suction line, through the feed pumps suction valves, but keep the
discharge valves closed until such time as they are ready to start. Go from the discharge
valves through the 10" discharge line to the De-ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrators and
switch through the pair that is ready for service - continue through the Dehydrator,
through the feed control valve, to the cold relief line through HPV51006 located on a 6"
take off line from the De-ethaniser Feed line near the column. (This will allow flow to go
to flare until ready to be switched into the column.
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Reflux Open through the 12" accumulator suction line through the reflux pumps, (leaving
discharge valve closed at this time) through the 6" discharge line and control valve FPV-
51038 and on into the column.
Overhead Product - (LIQUID) Line up from the Reflux pump discharge through the
overhead liquid pay off line 2"-551-L40-094 through FPV-51031 inlet block valve - but
leaving the outlet block valve closed at this time - Note: If the other De-ethaniser is
running at this time this will be all that is necessary to line up for now - but if the other De-
ethaniser is not running, steps will have to be taken to line up through one of the DEA
treaters, on out through the De-ethaniser overhead dehydrators, and to the flare, or fuel
system just downstream of the dehydrators. (The De-ethaniser overhead products, both
Liquid and Vapour, join together just upstream of the DEG ONP, treater Feed heater and
5-E-01/02.
From here, open up through the common De-ethaniser overhead products inlet scrubber
- 51-D-01, on out through the 10" effluent to one of the three Amine treaters by routing
in through the Amine Contactor, 51-D-07/08 or 09 - depending on which treater is used,
and through the treater back pressure control valve FPV-51050 to the De-ethaniser
Overhead Product Dehydrators, 53-D-20/21/22 or 23 - whichever is dry, and ready to
receive feed. Switch to flare, or fuel system by leaving the line blocked to the
DEMETHANISER FD/OHP exchangers, and going out through the 10", line 551-L40-036
through PPV-51285 to Warm Relief, or out the 4" take off, off of this line - (4"-551-L40-
032) to the fuel system, utilising control valve PPV-51279
Overhead Product - Vapour The overhead vapour product yield lines on the De-
ethanizers are tied in like the liquid yield - in that both columns lines tie together just
before entry into the Amine Treater Feed Heater, 5-E-01/02 and are common from that
point on.
If the other DE-C
2
Column is running, simply open the overhead vapour pay-off line on
top of the reflux accumulator (line 6" - 551-L90-093) through the inlet block valve on the
accumulator back pressure control valve PPV-51135 - leaving the downstream valve
blocked until column is ready for pay-off.
If the DEC
2
Column is not running, then it must be lined up through the Amine Treater
Common Feed Heaters, 51-E-01 or 02, where it then will be mixed with the liquid phase,
and already be lined up to go on out through the Amine Treater, DEC
2
Overhead Product
Vapour Dehydrators, and Fuel or Flare.
Bottom Product Line up from the bottom of the Column through the Bottoms Air Cooler,
5-E-39 through Bottoms temperature control valve, TPV-51134 and up through the
Bottoms Product control valve, TPV-51134 and up through the Bottoms Product control
valve, FPV-51032, (which is actually the Feed motor valve to the DE-Propanizer) and out
to the warm relief line valve. Leave the 8" valve next to the column blocked in until such
time as some Bottom Yield is necessary. The main block valve on the De-propanizer -
next to the tower - must remain blocked until such time as to admit feed to the tower.
STEAM Have steam lined up from main header, through cracked by-pass around control
valve FPV-51033, and into the heating elements. Open condensate valves from
elements into the condensate accumulator, and to condensate pump - but leave pump
blocked in until time to use it. Warm up the heating elements, and rid the steam line of
accumulated water to prevent "knocking" when starting up by using the bleeder on the
reboiler outlet condensate lines, and condensate accumulator drain valves.
Condensate - open discharge of condensate pump to control valve. Leave control valve
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closed until needed.
Column Back Pressure Control Crack by-pass open slightly around the valve.
Reflux Condenser Have temperature control set on a high temperature valve at first.
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th
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(3) START Column
Open the Feed Surge drum Overhead Vapour Line to the Vapour Feed Driers and out
to the flare, or fuel system, through the feed dump valve, HPV-51006 (the Surge Drum
Pressure Maintenance Control should hold the pressure constant). Open the suction
valve to the Feed pump and bleed the pump down-ridding it of all vapours. Open the 3"
minimum flow control line, and control valve and set the control for about 4.6 Bar g. (or
36M
3
/hr) for a start. Open the discharge valve slowly - feed will begin flowing through the
discharge line into the liquid feed drier. After the line has filled somewhat start the pump.
(Discharge Valve still pinched back) and pressure up the line and equipment to the feed
motor valve. Start the feed pump and adjust the feed to the Dehydrator on manual
control until the flow is lined out properly before switching back to feed tank liquid level
control. (The feed tank liquid level control will be controlling the amount of liquid going
to the flare, and the pressure maintenance system will control the vapour flow).
Continue flaring the feed streams until dry (which should not be long). Both sets of
dehydrators are provided with moisture analysers (AR-51068 on the vapours and AR-
51001/2 and 3, located on the outlet of each set of drier filters, 53-F-01/02/04). Also
have checks made by Laboratory to confirm the analyser results.
START WARMING UP THE STEAM LINES TO THE COLUMN.
When the liquids and vapour test dry switch them into the De-ethaniser column. The
column should start showing signs of pressure build up soon. Continue watching for
signs of liquid build up in the bottom, and as soon as a level is established switch the
feed back to the flare temporarily. Start a small amount of steam through the column re-
boiler through the steam control valve FPV-51033. When a level is established in the
condensate accumulator, open through the condensate pump and discharge control
valve, and start the pump. The condensate accumulator liquid level should now take
hold and control the level. Minimum flow protection is provided to protect the pump
against a blocked control valve.
As soon as heat is put through the column the bottom level will start dropping and the
pressure increase in the column will accelerate. Switch the feed back into the column
before the level has a chance to go dry - continue tot increase steam. Vapour will be
going through the by-pass around the reflux condenser and straight to the accumulator,
so the accumulator pressure should start up along with the column accordingly.
Continue to increase steam and pressure on the tower. Put steam control on "manual",
and close by-pass.
As pressure and temperatures continue to build, start easing back on the reflux
condenser chiller temperature control and start forcing some vapour through the chiller.
When a working level appears in the accumulator start the reflux pump at a low rate on
"flow rate control" and continue to raise rate as possible until normal - (about 149M
3
/hr).
When the column pressure reaches normal working pressure (around 29.0 bar g.)
switch the back pressure control valve back to "AUTO" position, and close the by-pass.
when the accumulator pressure reaches its normal working pressure, around 28.0 bar
g., switch the accumulator overhead vapours to the warm relief system or to the fuel
system through the DEA Treaters and De-ethaniser Overhead Vapour Dehydrators (as
per instructions at the time).
When the reflux rate, temperatures, and pressures have been brought to normal
operating conditions (bottom temperature about 88C, top 2C, Reflux - 12C, at about
29.0 Bar g. Top pressure) check bottom and accumulator levels, and then gradually open
the bottom product through the flow control valve, FPV-51032 and dump valve to the
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Date:
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th
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flare through HPV-51011. Switch the steam to flow control FIC-1035 reset by the column
bottom level control LIC-51070. Start the air fin cooler, 5-E-39 and put on temperature
control. TIC-51134. Open through the bottom product analyser, and begin monitoring the
purity. When on specs, or very near, about 0.4% ethane in the bottom product, switch
into the De-propanizer, and out of the flare.
Open the overhead liquid off the reflux pump discharge to the De-ethaniser overhead
vapouriser 5-e-08 or 09 and to the DEA treater feed heater, 51-e-01 or 02, and to the
treater, and put on Control - LIC-51078, from the accumulator liquid level control.
PUT STEAM ON "TEMPERATURE CONTROL".
Adjust the steam and reflux to hold about a maximum of 1.4 LV % propane in the
overhead product.
Line out the column on control.
After column has been stabilised and running good, switch over to Column Distillation
Control.
Note: As experience is gained with the equipment, and tower operating peculiarities it
will soon become practically unnecessary to flare product from one tower to the next, or
switch the feed in and out of the tower on start up. Start up will commence as soon as
the feed hits the column - and the feed will remain in the column, as it gets up to the
operating conditions, and products switched out.
The chromatograph Analysers on the product streams should be working to indicate the
cut the column is doing as well in addition to sampler sent to the laboratory as necessary.
Line out the column with TIC-51125 and reflux adjustments until the desired set point is
found to make the proper separation. when on spec switch the bottom product out of the
flare and to the Depropanizer.
i. Shut Down
When it is necessary to completely shutdown a De-ethaniser and purge the system for
repair work the following procedure may be used.
Inform others involved. Take the column off distillation control. Switch the feed to the
flare by using the hand control feed dump valve, HPV-51006. Cut back on re-boiler
steam with the steam controller FIC-51033. Switch the bottom product to the flare by
opening HPV-51011, dump valve to flare. (Reflux the De-propanizer). Keep reducing
the steam flow by cutting back with the controller until it is off. Continue to pump
accumulator liquid back into the column as long as the reflux pump will take suction, then
shutdown and block in the overhead liquid product line. By-pass the overhead
condenser, 5-E-06 and switch the overhead product vapour to the flare as soon as the
pressure gets down to fuel gas pressure. (Switch to flare through dump valve HPV-
51076, and block in the down-stream isolating valve to prevent fuel gas loss to flare
should the check valve in the overhead vapour line leak). Gradually reduce pressure as
the bottom liquid and overhead vapours bleed off to the flare. Drain any remaining
liquids to the respective drain systems.
j. Refluxing the Column
When a de-ethaniser is to be taken off stream for a short period of time the column can
be put on total reflux, which means keeping the tower pressure and temperatures normal
without external feed. The product lines are blocked in, and the steam and reflux are in
an equilibrium condition - the steam reboiling just enough overhead for reflux, and the
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Date:
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reflux being pumped back into the column.
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If, for instance, the reason is due to loss of feed, the feed flow meter will drop to zero and
cause the distillation column control to shut in the bottom product, and cut the reflux to
a low rate of flow and energy conservation. If the feed is switched to the flare through
the De-ethaniser feed dump valve, however, the Feed meter will still be showing a flow,
even if no feed is getting in the column. In this case, and if nothing was done, the
Distillation Column Control will not sense the lack of feed, and continue to pull the same
amount of bottom product from the column which would soon empty it if nothing were
done. In this case, switch from Column Distillation Control back to Tray Temperature
Control and reflux to local control block in the product lines.
To put feed back into the column after refluxing it, on Tray Temperature Control, switch
the feed back into the column and open the product lines again. The products should
be near enough to being on specification that they could be switched directly to their
normal destination. If they are not, however, go tot he flare until they are.
If the Column has been refluxing on Distillation Column Control with no feed going tot he
flare open and feed back into the column, and open the product line as done in the same
manner above, but switch them to the flare, as the feed may not be on specification yet
due to no pay-off from the column up-stream. Switch to storage, however, as soon as
possible.
POWER FAILURE
In case of a power failure all pumps and fans will stop. The bottoms product control
valve will close if the column is running on computer control. The overhead product will
stop due to failure of the reflux pump. The overhead vapour product will pay off
according to the pressure on the accumulator.
If the power outage is less than 8 minutes of duration the reflux and condensate pumps
will come back on within seconds after resumption of power. The feed pumps will not
come back on, and will have to be re-started manually. If the outage exceeds 8 minute,
none of the pumps will come back on automatically in which case all must be re-started
manually.
After 8 minutes, and no power is available, block in the overhead liquid line, and bottom
product line. The overhead vapour product will shut itself in when the accumulator
pressure falls below the operating pressure set point.
As soon as power is restored, check levels, and re-start the reflux pump, feed pumps
and condensate pumps. Re-start the bottoms product air fin fans. Open the product
lines and line out the column again.
If a power "dip" has occurred, restart the feed and condensate pumps and quickly check
the rotation of the reflux pumps to make sure they did re-start, and are not running
backwards. In some cases, a pump can go down, and the NRV on the discharge stick
in the open position, causing the pump to act like a turbine and run backwards. If this
does ever happen, shut in the pump discharge line, un-gas the pump, and restart the
motor. Immediately open the discharge valve.
Restart the air fin coolers fans.
Loss of the feed will momentarily cause the bottoms product control valve to shut in if on
computer control, and cause an interruption of flow downstream to the Depropanizer.
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Date:
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
SERVICE SIZE NO.
TRAYS
TRAY DESIGN TRAY SPACING REBOILER
NGL 3660
x
32790
45 Valved Tray 24" (610 mm) Feed Tray,
48" (1220 mm)
Internal, "I" tube.
LP Steam. 3.5 Bar g
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRYS WORKING PRESS.
Number Size Set Press Relieve to:
32nd 29.0 Bar G PSV-51020
PSV-51031
6 x 8
6 x 8
33.0 Bar g
39.6 Bar g
Warm Relief
Atmosphere
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
RELIEF VALVES
SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESS
Number Size Set Press Relieve to:
2800 mm x 8400 mm Horiz 28.0 Bar G PSV-51036 1" 33.3 Bar G Cold Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
5-D-01
SIZE TYPE WORKING PRESS
760 mm x 1525 mm T/T Horizontal 3.5 Bar G
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Date:
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th
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
SERVICE SIZE No. TRAYS TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY
SPACING
REBOILER
N.G.L.
Products
C1
s
: C
3
C2
s
; C4
s
3,660 mm x 32,790 mm
T/T
45 Valve Trays 24" Spacing
(610 mm)
(Feed Tray)
48"(1,220 mm)
505-410-01/02
Internal U-
Tube L.P.
Steam 3.5
Bar G.
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
(Tray No.)
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET
PRESS
RELIEVE TO:
32 29.0 Bar G
Temp. 88C.
PSV-51030
PSV-51031
6" X 8"
6" X 8"
33.0 Bar G
39.6 Bar G
Warm Relief
Atmos.
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
RELIEF VALVES
SIZE TYPE
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE RELIEVE TO:
2,800 mm x 8,400
mm
T/T
Horizontal 28.0 BAR G
TEMP. - 12C
PSV-51036
33.3 Bar G
Set Press
1" x 2" Cold Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
5-D-01
SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
760 mm x 1,525 mm T/T Horizontal 3.5 Bar G
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Date:
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN
No. 1 DE-ETHANISER 5-T-05
SERVICE SIZE No.
TRAYS
TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY
SPACING
REBOILER
N.G.L.
Products
C1
s
: C
3
C2
s
: C4
s
3,600 mm x32,790 mm
T/T
45 Valve Trays 24" spacing
(610 mm)
(Feed Tray)
48" (1,220 mm)
505-410-01/02
Internal U-Tube L.P.
Steam 3.5 Bar G.
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
(Tray No.)
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET
PRESS
RELIEVE
TO:
32 29.0 Bar G
Temp. 88C.
PSV-51030
PSV-51031
6" X 8"
6" X 8"
33.0 Bar G
39.6 Bar G
Warm Relief
Atmos.
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
RELIEF VALVES SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE RELIEVE TO:
2,800 mm x 8,400 mm T/T Horizontal 28.0 Bar G
Temp. -12C
PSV-51036
33.3 Bar G
Set Press
1"
x
2"
Cold Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
5-D-01
SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
750 mm x 1,525 mm T/T Horizontal 3.5 Bar G
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Date:
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th
November 2000
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
SERVICE SIZE No. TRAYS TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY SPACING REBOILER
NGL 3660 x 32790 45 Valved Tray 24" (610 mm)
Feed Tray,
48" (1220)
505-410-03/04
Internal, "U" tube
LP Steam 3.5 Bar G
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET PRESS RELIEVE TO:
32nd 29.0 Bar G PSV-51032
PSV-51032
6 x 8
6 x 8
33.0 Bar g
39.6 Bar g
Warm Relief
Atmosphere
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET PRESS RELIEVE TO:
32nd 29.0 Bar G PSV-51032
PSV-51032
6 x 8
6 x 8
33.0 Bar g
39.6 Bar g
Warm Relief
Atmosphere
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
RELIEF VALVES SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET
PRESS.
RELIEVE TO:
2800 mm x 400 mm Horizontal 28.0 Bar G PSV-51039 1 33.3 Bar G Cold Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
5-D-02
SIZE TYPE WORKING PRESSURE
760 mm x 1525 mm T/T Horizontal 3.5 Bar G
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th
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PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
(DE-ETHANIZERS)
5-T-05 AND 06
SIZE SERVICE NO.
SUCT. DISCH.
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED-
RPM
SUCTION
PRESSURE
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
DIFF.
HEAD
MIN.
FLOW
MAX.
FLOW
DRIVE
DE-ETHANISER
REBOILER
COND.
5-P-1/2/3/36
DE-ETHANISER
REFLUX
5-P-4/5/6/35
DE-ETHANISER
FEED PUMPS
53-P-1/2/3
4
4
3
3"
8"
10"
1"
4"
6"
Ing. Rand.
Cent.
Ing. Rand.
Cent.
Ing. Rand.
Cent
2900 RPM
2950 RPM
2950 RPM
2 Bar g.
28 Bar g.
33.64 Bar g.
6.1 Bar-g.
32 Bar-g.
38.2
Note: Pump
will shutdown
at 41 Bar-g.
4.1 Bar g.
4 Bar g.
4.6 Bar g.
3.3M
3
/hr
24M
3
/hr
36M
3
/hr
22M
3
/hr
180M
3
/hr
273M
3
/hr
Electric
10 H.P.
motor
Electric
50 H.P.
motor
Electric
100 H.P.
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
HEAT EXCHANGERS
DE-ETHANIZERS, 5-T-05/06
TUBES WORKING PRESSURE No. SERVICE TYPE
No. SIZE TYPE TUBES SHELL
2. OHP LIQUID
VAPOURISER
53-E-08/09
TUBE IN
SHELL
106 " OD. SINGLE
PASS
390 psig. 17.5 psig.
CONDENSERS
DE-ETHANISER BOTTOMS AIR COOLER 5-E-39/40
No. SIZE TYPE WORKING PRESSURE SOURCE OF
COOLING
2. 174M
2
Surface Area
length
2.280M.
FINNED TUBES
ONE PASS
29.3 Bar G. Air
BOTTOMS CONDENSATE FANS
No. BLADES Mf. DRIVE REMARKS FAN. RPM.
2. 5 each
2.5 ft. dia.
Aluminium
Aerex Electric 2
speed 1.1 KW.
Aluminium Hubs
Louvres open inst.
air failure
1450
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th
November 2000
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INSTRUMENTS
COLUMN
No. 1 DE-ETHANISER 5-T-05
INST. No. SERVICE SIGNAL Action
Air
Failure
RESETS
LIC-51070
FIC-51033
FPV-51033
PIC-51133
PPV-51133
FPV-51029
(COMP. RESET)
(PRIMARY)
FIC-51029
(COMP. RESET)
(PRIMARY)
TIC-51134
TPV-51134
COLUMN BOTTOM
PRODUCT
CONTROL 5-T-05
L.P. STEAM TO
REBOILER
5-E-01/02
L.P. STEAM
CONTROL VALVE
TO REBOILERS
5-E-01/02
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
PRESS. CONTROL
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
PRESS. CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-05
REFLUX
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-05
REFLUX
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT EX.
5-E-39
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT TEMP.
CONTROL VALVE
EX 5-E-39
E
E
3-15 psi.
E
3-15 psi.
3-15 psi.
E
3-15 psi.
3-15 psi.
C.A.F
O.A.F.
O.A.F.
FIC-51033
L.P. STEAM TO
REBOILER
505-410-01/02
F.P.V.-51033
PPV-51133
FPV-51029
REFLUX VALVE
TPV-51134
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
COLUMN
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
INST. No. SERVICE SIGNAL ACTION
Air
Failure
RESETS
FIC-51032
(COMP. RESET
PRIMARY)
FPV-51032
TIC-51125
HIC-51011
HPV-51011
HIC-51010
HPV-51010
TIC-51129
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUN DOWN
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-05
TRAY 20
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
TO COLD RELIEF
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
TO COLD RELIEF
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
5-T-05
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
BY-PASS
CONTROL VALVE
AROUND
FPV-51032
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT TO
5-E-06
CHILLER.
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
START UP
SHUTDOWN
EMERGENCY
EMERGENCY
OR MTCE.
USE ON
FAILURE
OF FPV-51032
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
O.A.F.
FPV-51032
FPV-51032
(WHEN OFF
PRIMARY
CONTROL)
HPV-51011
HPV-51010
BY-PASS
CONTROL
VALVE
AROUND
FPV-5103
TPV-51129 A
&
TPV-51129 B
Approved By:
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
TPV-51129 A
TPV-51129 B
PIC-51135
PPV-51135
HIC-51076
HPV-51076
LIC-51078
(CASCADE)
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT
CONTROL
VALVE
EXIT 5-E-06
CHILLER
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT
BY-PASS
CONTROL
VALVE OF
5-E-06 CHILLER
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR
CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
TO FLARE
FROM 5-D-03
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
(VAPOUR)
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
DUMP TO COLD
RELIEF
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
START UP
SHUTDOWN
EMERGENCY
O.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
PPV-51135
HPV-51076
FIC-51031
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
FIC-51031
FPV-51031
LIC-51074
LPV-51074
PIC-51554
PPV-51554
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
(LIQUID)
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-E-03
LIQUID CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM 54-D-01
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM 54-D-01
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
TANK 54-D-05
5-T-05
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
TANK 54-D-05
CONTROL VALVE
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
PROCESS
IMPULSE
3-15 psi
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
FPV-51031
LPV-51074
PPV-51554
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-05
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HIC-51008
HPX-
51008
5-T-05
LOUVRE
CONTROL
ON BOTTOMS
PRODUCT FIN
FAN 5-E-39
5-T-05
LOUVRES ON
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT FIN
FAN 5-E-39
E
3-15 psi
HPX-51008
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
73 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
COLUMN
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
INST. No. SERVICE SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
LIC-51087
FIC-51042
FPV-51042
PIC-51152
PPV-51152
FIC-51038
(PRIMARY
CONT.
COMP.
RESET).
FPV-51038
TIC-51149
TPV-51149
COLUMN
BOTTOM
PRODUCT
CONTROL
5-T-06
5-T-06
LP STEAM
TO REBOILERS
5-E-03/04
5-T-06
L.P. STEAM
CONTROL
VALVE TO
REBOILERS
5-E-03/04
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
PRESS.
CONTROL
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
PRESS
CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-06
REFLUX
5-T-06
REFLUX
CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
EX 5-E-40
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONTROL
VALVE
EX 5-E-40
E
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
C.A.F.
O.A.F.
O.A.F.
FIC-51042
FPV-51042
PPV-51152
FPV-51038
TPV-51149
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
74 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
COLUMN
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
INST. No. SERVICE SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HIC-51009
HPX-51009
FIC-51041
(PRIMARY
CONT.
COMP.
RESET).
FPV-51041
TIC-51140
HIC-51013
HPV-51013
5-T-06
LOUVRE
CONTROL ON
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT FIN
FAN 5-E-40
5-T-06
LOUVRES ON
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT FIN
FAN 5-E-40
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-06
TRAY 20
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT TO
COLD RELIEF
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT TO
COLD RELIEF
CONTROL
VALVE
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
START UP
SHUTDOWN
EMERGENCY
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
HPX-51009
FPV-51041
FPV-51041
(WHEN OFF
PRIMARY
CONTROL)
HPV-51013
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
75 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air
Failure
RESETS
HIC-51012
HPV-51012
TIC-51144
TPV-51144A
TPV-51144B
PIC-51154
PPV-51154
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
5-T-06
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT BY-PASS
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-06 OVERHEADS
PRODUCT TO
CHILLER 5-E-07
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT
CONTROL VALVE
EXIT 5-E-07
CHILLER
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT BY-PASS
CONTROL VALVE
OF CHILLER 5-E-07
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
5-T-06 OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR CONTROL
VALVE
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
BY-PASS AROUND
FPV-51041
EMERGENCY OR
MTCE.
C.A.F.
O.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
HPV-51012
TPV-51144A
&
TPV-51144B
PPV-51154
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
76 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HIC-51077
HPV-51077
LIC-51095
(CASCADE)
FIC-51040
FPV-51040
LIC-51091
LPV-51091
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04 DUMP TO
COLD RELIEF
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04 LIQUID
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM 54-D-22
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM CONTROL
VALVE
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
START-UP
SHUTDOWN
EMERGENCY
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
C.A.F.
HPV-
51077
FIC-51040
FPV-51040
LPV-51091
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
77 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
INST. No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
PIC-51553
PPV-51553
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
54-D-06
5-T-06
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
54-D-06
CONTROL VALVE
PROCESS
IMPULSE
3-15 psi C.A.F.
PPV-51553
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
78 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
No. 1 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
Valve No. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
Temp
.
Cap
.
SIZE Material Relieve
To:
PSV-
51030
PSV-
51031
PSV-
51034
PSV-
51036
PSV-
51135
PSV-
51142
PSV-
51143
PSV-
51035
VAPOUR SPACE
COLUMN RELIEF
5-T-05
OVERHEADS LINE
5-T-05
OVERHEADS LINE
INLET
5-E-06
5-D-03
ACCUMULATOR
O/H
S
PRODUCT
DE-Ethaniser
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR
REFRIGERANT
ACCUMULATION
TANK 54-D-05
DE-Ethaniser
REFLUX PUMP
5-P-04
DE-Ethaniser
REFLUX PUMP
5-P-06
DE-Ethaniser
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR
REFRIGERANT
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM 5-D-01
33.0 Bar
G
39.6 Bar
G
35.0 Bar
G
33.0 Bar
G
33.0 Bar
G
40.0 Bar
G
40.0 Bar
G
11.0 Bar G
6"x8"
6"x8"
1"x2"
1"x2"
1"x2"
"x1"
"x1"
1"x2"
NGL
Product
NGL
Product
NGL
Product
NGL
Product
Propane
Propane
Propane
Propane
WARM
RELIEF
ATMOS.
COLD
RELIEF
COLD
RELIEF
WARM
RELIEF
AROUN
D PUMP
N.R.V.
AROUN
D PUMP
N.R.V.
WARM
RELIEF
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
79 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
Valve
No.
LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
Temp
.
Cap. SIZE Material Relieve To:
PSV-
51032
PSV-
51033
PSV-
51037
PSV-
51039
PSV-
51144
PSV-
51145
PSV-
51038
PSV-
51136
PSV-
51232
VAPOUR SPACE
COLUMN RELIEF
5-T-06 OVERHEADS
LINE
5-T-06 OVERHEADS
LINE INLET 5-E-07
DE-Ethaniser
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-04
DE-Ethaniser
REFLUX PUMP
5-P-05
DE-Ethaniser
REFLUX PUMP
5-P-35
DE-Ethaniser
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR
REFRIGERANT
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM 54-D-02
DE-Ethaniser
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR
REFRIGERANT
ACCUMULATION
TANK 5-D-06
De-Ethaniser
OVERHEAD LIQUID
PRODUCT EX.5-D-04
33.0 Bar G
39.6 Bar G
35.0 Bar G
33.0 Bar G
40.0 Bar G
40.0 Bar G
11.0 Bar G
33.0 Bar G
40.0 Bar G
6"x8"
6"x8"
1"x2"
1"x2"
"x1"
"x1"
1"x2"
1"x2"
"x1"
NGL
Product
NGL
product
NGL
Product
NGL
Product
Propane
Propane
Propane
Propane
Propane
WARM
RELIEF
ATMOS.
COLD
RELIEF
COLD
RELIEF
AROUND
PUMP
N.R.V.
AROUND
PUMP
N.R.V.
WARM
RELIEF
WARM
RELIEF
ATMOS.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
80 of 335
ALARM No. DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW
SET
ACTION
HLA-51071
LLA-51072
LLLNS-51312
hhPNS-51130
XA-51056
XNS-51056
hLA-51079
1LA-51080
11LA-51086
11LNS-51086
hLA-51075
1LA-51076
5-T-05
COLUMN
BOTTOM
5-T-05
COLUMN
BOTTOM
5-T-05
COLUMN
BOTTOMS TRIP
5-T-05
COLUMN
HIGH PRESS
5-E-39 BOTTOMS
CONDENSER
MOTOR
5-E-39 BOTTOMS
CONDENSER
MOTOR
5-D-08
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-03
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-01
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR REFRIG.
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM
54-D-01
OVERHEAD
VAPOUR REFRIG.
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM
2,085 mm
2,140 mm
1,900 mm
1370 mm
910 mm
600 mm
405 mm
405 mm
1,300 mm
ALARM
ALARM
ACTIVATES
FEV-51032
and
CLOSES FPV-51032
ACTIVATES FEV-
51042
and
CLOSES FPV-51042
VIBRATION ALARM
STOPS MOTOR
ALARM
STOPS REFLUX
PUMP MOTORS 505-
670-04/06
ALARM
ALARM
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
81 of 335
ALARMS AND SHUT-DOWNS
No. 2 DE-Ethaniser 5-T-06
ALARM No. DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW
SET
ACTION
hLA-51088
1LA-51089
11LA-51313
11LNS-51313
hhPA-51149
hhPNS-51149
5-T-06
COLUMN BOTTOMS
5-T-06
COLUMN BOTTOMS
5-T-06
COLUMN BOTTOMS
5-T-06
COLUMN BOTTOMS
5-T-06
COLUMN BOTTOMS
COLUMN BOTTOMS
HIGH PRESSURE
SWITCH
2,085 mm
1370 mm
910 mm
910 mm
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
ACTIVATES FEV-
51042
and
CLOSES FPV-51041
ALARM
ACTIVATES FEV-
51042
and
CLOSES FPV 51042
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
82 of 335
SPECIAL NOTES:-
By-pass valves on
1. Feed control valves HIC-51004 and HIC-51005.
2. Bottoms control valves HIC-51010 and HIC-51012.
3. R/Vs on No. 1 & 2 columns to warm relief at 33.0 Bar G.
4. R/Vs on No. 1 & 2 columns O/Hs line to ATMOS 39.6 Bar G.
5. R/Vs on No. 1 & 2 columns Accumulators 5-D-03/4 to ATMOS 33.0 Bar G.
6. Feed to columns, relief to cold relief by HIC-51006 and HIC-51007.
7. Vapour lines exit 5-D-03/4, relief, HIC-51076 and HIC-51077.
8. Bottoms flow, relief to cold relief, HIC-51011 and HIC-51013.
9. Low level safety shut off on FEV-51032 and FEV-51041 on column bottoms flow out.
10. High column pressure steam valve shut off FEV-51033 and FEV-51042.
11. Accumulators 5-D-03/4 low levels 11 LNS-51086 and 11 LNS-51102 shuts down reflux
pumps 5-P-04/6 and 5-P-05/35.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
83 of 335
NORTH SEA PETROLEUM - TEESSIDE OPERATIONS
DE-ETHANISER OVERHEAD AMINE PRODUCT TREATERS
P & ID 7809-509-D00-001 to 007
Purpose of the System:
The treater will remove hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from the de-ethaniser overhead
product, which will permit the manufactures of on specification product ethane in the
downstream units. To achieve on specification products, the treated gas leaving the amine
contactor should contain a maximum of 0.25gr H
2
S per 100ft
3
and 1500 ppm CO
2
. Exceeding
these amounts could result in production of off specification ethane product, which would then
have to be flared.
Extent of the System
The system starts with the vapour and liquid lines leaving the de-ethaniser overhead reflux
accumulators (2 of), and the regeneration gas line leaving the de-ethaniser overhead product
de-hydrator treater. Included in the system is the following equipment:-
A. Glycol Heater and Pumps.
B. De-ethaniser Overhead Liquid Vapouriser and Spare.
C. Treater Feed Heater and Spare.
D. Amine Storage Tank.
E. Inlet Scrubber.
F. Amine Contactor-Outlet Scrubber (3 of).
G. Amine Surge Tank (3 of).
Amine Surge Tank Pumps (6 of) .
H. Amine Coolers (3 of).
I. Amine Heat Exchangers (3 of).
J. Amine Still (3 of).
K. Amine Still Kettle (3 of).
L. Amine Still Overhead Condensers (3 of).
M. Amine Still Overhead Reflux Accumulators (3 of).
N. Amine Still Overhead Reflux Accumulators Pumps (6 of).
The system ends at the three gas outlet lines from the outlet scrubbers, and the acid gas outlet
lines from the three amine still reflux accumulators
Process Description
The de-ethaniser overhead liquid product is vapourised in the de-ethaniser overhead liquid
vapourisers, then mixed with the de-ethaniser overhead vapour product and superheated in the
treater feed heaters. As the vapours pass form the feed heaters, the regeneration gas from the
de-ethaniser overhead dehydrators mix together and flow into the inlet scrubber. As the gas
leaves the scrubber it is divided evenly to the three amine contactors, where the hydrogen
sulphide and carbon dioxide are removed by contacting the gas vapour stream with
diethanolamine (D.E.A) which has the properties of absorbing the impurities H
2
S and CO
2
, the
D.E.A being circulated over the contactor as a form of reflux.
On leaving the top D.E.A contactor, the treated gases are passed to the outlet scrubber where
traces of D.E.A carry-over are knocked out, the treated gas then being piped to the de-ethaniser
overhead product dehydrators for the removal of moisture content. The foul D.E.A is transferred
under controlled conditions to the D.E.A still.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
84 of 335
In the D.E.A still, the foul D.E.A is regenerated by the use of controlled re-boil system whereby
the foul acid gases, H
2
S and CO
2
, are taken over the top of the still to be cooled then scrubbed
in the reflux accumulator and finally the acid gases are burnt in the acid gas incinerator (see Acid
Gas Incinerator).
The regenerated D.E.A is taken from the bottom of the overflow wire section of the kettle reboiler,
and piped under controlled conditions to the amine surge to be re-used in the D.E.A contactor.
Process Flow Control (refer to Fig. No.1)
This pre-heating system is common for all three product treaters.
The de-ethaniser overhead liquid product from both de-ethaniser columns, at a temperature of
10.4
o
F (-12
o
C) and pressure of 24 Bar G (392 psi), flows through the tube side of vapouriser 5-E-
08 where the liquid is vapourised by circulating hot glycol at 149
o
F (65
o
C) through the shell side
of vapouriser 5-E-08.
As the gas vapours leave the vapouriser, they are mixed with the de-ethaniser overhead vapours
from both columns, and passed through the tube side of an LP steam superheater, the vapours
being superheated to an operating temperature of approximately 95
o
F (35
o
C). A temperature
control system is positioned on the gas vapour exit line TIC-51161, which re-sets a control valve
TPV-51161 situated in the LP steam line. Depending on process conditions, steam is allowed
to flow through the shell side 51-E-01 the condensate being trapped, and discharging to the LP
condensate system.
The now superheated gas vapours flow into the inlet scrubber 5-D-01 via an 8 inch line, where
the vapours are scrubbed of any entrained liquids and then, pass out via a 10 inch line which
splits into three identically sized 8 inch lines to feed Nos 1,2 and 3 D.E.A contactors, the flows
being proportioned evenly by the use of a flow indication control system on the outlet of each
amine contactor outlet scrubber.
The inlet scrubber 51-D-01 is fitted with sight glasses and any accumulated levels of liquid
hydrocarbon are pressured to the cold flare system. Here a high level switch HLNS-5114 will
operate on high level, and transmit a signal through LEV-51109 to a control valve LPV-51109
which is positioned on the outlet line from the bottom of the scrubber. As the liquid level is
pressed to the cold flare system, a level switch 1LNS-51109 will close off the control valve LPV-
51109. The regenerated gas re-cycle is mixed with the gas vapour prior to entering the inlet
scrubber.
The glycol heating system and the amine storage tank will be discussed later.
Amine Contactor (refer to Fig. No. 2)
This description refers to No. 1 stream south, the other two streams are identical in operation.
The D.E.A contactor/outlet scrubber is two stage column, the purified gas passing from the top
of the contactor into the outlet scrubber and finally to the downstream dehydrator.
The de-ethaniser overhead product from the inlet scrubber enters the amine contactor at the
base of the column. The contactor product operates with a normal level of D.E.A solution, and
there are 22 bubble cap trays. As the gas vapours pass up the column and through the trays,
they are constantly in contact with the D.E.A solution. The H
2
S and CO
2
in the gas vapour are,
therefore, absorbed by the constantly circulating D.E.A solution.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
85 of 335
As the gas vapour (now stripped of H
2
S and CO
2
) pass out of the top of the D.E.A contactor, they
flow into the outlet scrubber, where any entrained D.E.A is removed by a stainless steel mist
extractor. In order to control the flow of gas and the operating pressure of the contactor, a
control valve is positioned in the outlet gas line. Here a flow element FNT-51050 relays a signal
to FIC-51050, which is converted to a pneumatic by FNX-51050. This pneumatic signal then
operates the flow control valve FPV-51050. To hold an operating pressure of 22 Bar G in the
system, a pressure transmitter PNT-51180 relays a signal to PIC-51180 which re-sets FIC-
51050. An analytical instrument AE-51009 alarms on high H
2
S content. The vapours then pass
on to the dehydrating unit. In the event of a build up of liquid level in the scrubber, high level
alarm switch hLNS-51112 is activated. The level can be blown via a 2" line to the D.E.A still.
D.E.A. carryover into the gas stream will result in plugging of the tubes on the overhead treaters
regeneration gas coolers.
The circulating D.E.A is taken under controlled conditions from the D.E.A surge tank 51-D-13.
The electrically driven circulating pumps, 51-P-04 or 51-P-05, take suction and deliver the lean
D.E.A to the 22nd tray in the contractor. For controlled operating conditions, a flow instrument
FIC-51051 is used to re-set a control valve FPV-51051. In the event of upset conditions, very
often due to foaming in the control valve, a differential point between these points is relayed to
the Control Room by dPR-51177 and corrective action can be taken.
The surge tank operators at atmospheric pressure and is supplied with a fuel gas purge for
blanketing, the flow being measured on FI-51056, the excess gas venting to the atmosphere.
Sight glasses are fitted for visual observation of levels, and high and low level switches, HLNS-
5116 and LLNS-51117, are also supplied. Facilities are also supplied for the addition of soda
ash to maintain a control on the pH of the lean D.E.A. To minimise foaming in the contactor a
sludge free D.E.A system is maintained by passing a slip stream of D.E.A off the circulation
pump discharge 51-P-04/05 through a cartridge type filter, and a activated charcoal filter, the flow
being measured on FI-51054. The filtered D.E.A. is then re-routed back to the surge tank 51-
D13.
In the event of foaming problems, an anti-foam tank,51-D-20, is supplied. An electrically driven
positive displacement pump, 51-P-01, is used for metering the injection rate of anti-foam
solution, which is delivered into the lean D.E.A. solution line on the circulating pumps discharge.
The lean D.E.A. returning from the D.E.A. still, passes through the shell side of heat exchangers
51-E-06/07/08, pre-heating the foul D.E.A. going to the D.E.A. still. In order to achieve an
operating temperature of 100
o
F (38
o
C) on the lean D.E.A. to the surge tank, a fin-fin cooler, is
supplied, which effectively reduces the D.E.A. temperature from 117
o
C to 38
o
C. To achieve this
trim control HIC-51020 operates a set of adjustable louvres. A motor driven fan is also available,
where the fan can be operated on high/low speed or, can be stopped. The selection buttons
being in the control Room. Any vibration on the motor, XNS-5176, will trip the cooler to hold a
controlled level of D.E.A. in the D.E.A> still. Low pressure condensate facilities are provided to
hold the D.E.A. solution at the correct operating strength.
The foul D.E.A. solution on leaving the contractor at a temperature of 140
o
F (60
o
C), flows
through the tube side of heat exchanges 51-E-06/07/08), where it is pre-heated to a temperature
of 210
o
F (99
o
C) and then fed forward to the D.E.A. still. A torque tube arrangement for bottom
level control LNT-5110 relays a signal to LIC-5110, the signal from this is converted to a
pneumatic signal by LNX-5110. The pneumatic air signal then re-sets a level control valve LPV-
51110 on the foul D.E.A. line downstream of the feed pre-heaters.
D.E.A. Regeneration (refer to Fig. No. 3)
This description refers to stream No. 1 south. The other two streams being identical in
operation.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
86 of 335
Flow Control
The foul D.E.A. solution after passing through the pre-heat exchanges, enters the D.E.A. still at
the 22nd tray at a temperature of 99
o
C. The still has 22 stainless steel valve trays, the bottom
tray No. 1, overflows into a seal pan with wire plate, which is positioned such to avoid vapour
impingement from the reboil vapours. To attain the removal of the acid gases, H
2
S and Co
2
from
the foul D.E.A. solution, an external type reboil kettle is used, the reboil agent being LP steam.
The level control is positioned on the reboiler to hold controlled conditions in the kettle and still.
A tube bundle is fitted in the kettle, where the LP steam passes through the tube side on flow
control. An injection of condensate is provided for de-superheating and dilution of the D.E.A.
if required. Any accumulated water or D.E.A. is pumped back as reflux.
On the LP steam supply, FIC-51081 re-sets a control valve, FPV-51081. Downstream, TIC-
51178 re-sets a control valve, TPV-5178, where condensate at 6.1 Bar G (87 psi) is injected as
a de-superheating agent. The condensed steam form the steam bundle is collected in
condensate pot 51-D-16. Condensate pumps 51-P-10/11, pump the condensate to the LP
system on level control. Here a torque tube instrument LNC-51125 re-sets a control valve on
the pump discharge LPV-51125 to hold a constant level in 51-D-16. A slip stream is taken off
upstream of the level control valve which is used as the de-superheating agent on the LP
reboiler steam supply.
An overflow wire is positioned at the back of the steam bundle where the lean D.E.A. in the
reboiler overflows and passes out of the bundle where it is piped to the lean D.E.A. surge tank.
The level of lean D.E.A. in the kettle (and the still) is controlled by LIC-51121 re-setting a control
valve LPV-51121 on the exit of the D.E.A. cooler 51-E-03. Facilities are provided for the injection
of condensate (from the de-superheater supply) to hold the D.E.A. concentration by dilution,
which will also keep the level up in the D.E.A. surge tank. The condensate when required is
measured on FI-51055.
Sufficient steam is supplied to the reboil kettle by FIC-51081 to hold a boil-up temperature of
118
o
C at 0.8 Bar G (13 psi). As the D.E.A. vapours flow from the reboiler they pass into the
D.E.A. still below the first tray. As boil-up is achieved, the H
2
S and CO
2
are stripped out of the
foul D.E.A. solution flowing down the column, the removed acid gases plus entrained
condensate and D.E.A. pass from the top of the column at a temperature of 107
o
C. The
overhead vapours are passed through a fin fan cooler, 51-E-03/04/05, where the temperature
is reduced to 38
o
C. To achieve this a motor driven fan is used. A shut switch XNS-51179 trips
the motor on excessive vibration. For trim control, adjustable louvres are supplied operated by
TIC-51023.
The outlet line form 51-E12, flows into the reflux accumulator 51-D-19. The acid gas vapours
are scrubbed by a stainless steel mist extractor and then are piped forward to be burnt in the
acid gas incinerator. A control valve is positioned in the acid gas exit line, where a pressure
instrument PIC-51194 re-sets a control valve PPV-51194 to hold a back pressure of 0.45 Bar G
(6 psi) in the reflux accumulator. The condensed product in the accumulator, i.e D.E.A. and
condensate, is let out on level control and used as a reflux. Electrically driven pumps 51-P-16/17
take suction from 51-D-19 and pump the reflux forward where it joins up with the foul D.E.A.
solution downstream of LPV-51110. The reflux is fed forward on level control, where the control
valve LPV-51122 is re-set by the accumulator level controller
LIC-5112.
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Glycol Heating System (refer to Fig. No. 1)
Purpose:
In order to ensure that the de-ethaniser overhead liquid is totally vapourised prior to treating, a
set of two vapourisers, one on line and one spare, have been supplied where a glycol solution
is used as a heating medium. The closed glycol system was chosen because the high heat
transfer rate and low temperature levels in the exchange, could result in freezing if steam had
been used. In order to attain the required heat for vaporisation of the liquid feed, the glycol is
heated by LP steam.
Flow Control
The glycol used in the system is heated to an operating temperature of 66
o
C in the glycol surge
tank 51-D-26. In order to achieve this, LP steam is passed through a tube bundle 51-E-15. A
temperature control TIC-51222 receives a signal from a temperature element 51-D-26 and re-
sets a control valve TPV-51222 on the steam to 51-E-15. The condensate is trapped and then
discharged to the 1.7 Bar G (26 psi) condensate header.
A baffle plate is positioned between the head of 51-E-15 and the suction line vortex breaker.
The heated glycol is discharged at a pressure of 1.2 Bar G (18 psi) and flows through the shell
side of the liquid feed vapouriser 5-E-08 or 09, returning to the heating side of the surge tank 51-
D-26 at a temperature of approximately 30
o
C, where it is reheated. As the glycol system is a
closed circuit and is kept at a constant operating temperature, no controls have been supplied.
However, the surge tank is fitted with a level glass and high and low level switches, HLNS-51183
and LLNS-51185. To help prevent corrosion, a sample is taken twice weekly, and as the PH of
the circulating glycol falls off, NIACORR is added from an inhibitor pot. Facilities are provided
for the addition of fresh glycol solution if required.
D.E.A. Storage Tank:
At various intervals fresh D.E.A. will be required in the treaters, either through loss by
entrainment or decomposition. In order to do this a D.E.A. storage tank is supplied, where fuel
gas is used to blanket the D.E.A. and also keep a constant working pressure in the storage tank,
the excess venting to the incinerator and burnt. A steam coil is fitted inside the tank and 3.5 Bar
G condensate is used to maintain the 100% strength D.E.A. at about 45
o
C, discharging to the
1.7 Bar G condensate header.
Tank Control:
The storage tank 51-D-10 is fitted with level glasses and if the level is noted to be low, fresh
100% D.E.A. is charge to 51-D-10 by road tanker via 4 inch line.
On 51-D-10 a pressure control instrument PIC-51242 operates on a split range system two
control valves. Fuel gas is supplied to 51-D-10 to hold a pressure of 2.5 Bar G (36 psi) where
PPV-51242A working on a 3-9 psi signal opens to admit the gas, and PPV-51242B working on
a 9-15 signal opens to vet excess pressure to the amine incinerator.
If fresh inventory of D.E.A. is required in any one of the three treaters, the D.E.A. is pressured
forward to the relevant D.E.A. surge tank.
3 diags.
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4. SPECIAL NOTES
Foaming
Can be caused by:
a) Liquid hydrocarbons entering the D.E.A. solution (probably due to problems
upstream)
b) Poor operation of D.E.A. filters.
Action:
1) Injection of antifoam agent, as required.
2) Check operation of filters, clean as required.
3) Increase feed inlet gas temperature.
H
2
S Breakthrough:
H
2
S analyser will alarm at grain and 1 grain H
2
S per 100ft
3
.
Cause:
a) Low D.E.A. circulation on contactor.
b) Poor stripping rate on D.E.A. regenerator.
Action:
1) Increase lean D.E.A. circulation to contactor.
2) Increase stripping rate on D.E.A. regenerator.
Acid Gas Removal:
While complete removal of acid gas is impractical, removal down to 30-60 grains (0.05-
0.10scf) per gallon of D.E.A. solution should be achieved. Any appreciable increase in
this residual will decrease the acid gas removal in the contactor. A high residual will
indicate that more acid gas, primarily carbon dioxide, is entering the reboiler and being
evolved. This higher concentration of hot acid gases will cause corrosion and erosion
of the reboiler, its tubes ad the still.
Another possible trouble spot in the regenerator still is the reflux system. H
2
S, CO
2
and
water are main constituents in the regenerator overhead vapours. Small amounts of
D.E.A. carry over in the condensed reflux, will provide a sufficient corrosion inhibitor in
the overheads equipment. The concentration will be approximately 0.5% D.E.A. Higher
concentrations will result in D.E.A. losses and poor stripping due to possible foaming.
Antifoam injection would help this problem.
Control tests to be run each day on the treater are, D.E.A. concentration (approx. 30%),
acid gas content of foul and lean D.E.A. streams.
If the D.E.A. content of the solution falls below 30%, fresh D.E.A. should be added.
If acid gas content of the lean solution gets above 60 grains (0.1 scf) per gallon, increase
reboil rate in regenerator.
Steam condensate should be added to the solution as needed to keep the level up in
D.E.A. surge tank. This is done using 6.1 Bar G condensate and injecting into lean
D.E.A. line from 509-950-23 to reboil kettle, 509-410-09. The flow is measured on FI-
51055, using a needle valve for fine adjustment.
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DE-ETHANISER OVERHEAD VAPOUR DEHYDRATOR/TREATERS
(P & ID Ref. 7809-519-D00-006)
Introduction
The treater/dehydrators will remove water and any residual hydrogen sulphide from the de-
ethaniser overhead products to provide a suitable feed for the Demethaniser tower.
Specifications for the feed product to the Demethaniser are 1ppm water and 1 ppm hydrogen
sulphide. If the water content is high, downstream equipment could plug with hydrate
formations. If the H
2
S (Hydrogen Sulphide) is too high, the ethane product will be off
specifications, and therefore unsaleable.
This section includes the following:
De-ethaniser Overhead Dehydrator Towers 53-T-20/21/22/23
De-ethaniser Overhead Dehydrator Dust Filter 53-FI-05
De-ethaniser Overhead Dehydrator Regen. Heaters 53-E-09/10/27/28/29/34
De-ethaniser Overhead Dehydrator Fan Coolers 53-E-07/08
De-ethaniser Overhead Dehydrator Regen. Separator 53-D-24
Flow Description
Wet De-ethaniser overhead product from the outlet scrubbers of the treater flows into a common
header (10") at 47,900 NM
3
/HR. and 25. Bar G at 38
o
C, and is composed of ethane, and
methane. The primary process conditions, i.e. flow, pressure and temperature, are controlled
by other units and cannot be directly changed y the dehydrator unit. However, the flow through
the two dehydrators on line should be adjusted manually by using the outlet block valves to
ensure each dehydrator has the same flow and sharing the drying load equally. Flow indicators
are supplied on each dehydrator for this purpose.
There are four dehydrators in this section and two will work in parallel when drying, while the
other two will be in different stages of regeneration, or on stand-by.
The dehydrators are vertically mounted vessels approximately 24 x 6 6" and filled with a
desiccant called L.B. Davidson 614 Mol Sieves. A molecular sieve is an extruded pellet in which
the pores of the pellet can be different sizes to absorb different materials. The pellets in these
dehydrators have been designed ad made with a pore size to absorb moisture (H
2
O) and
hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S). This desiccant is supported by a layer of " alumina balls which are
supported by a layer of " alumina balls.
The NGL vapours pass through the desiccant, and any moisture, or traces of H
2
S will be
absorbed on the pores of the desiccant.
Normal flow through the dehydrators is from TOP to BOTTOM. The dry vapour exits at the
bottom and joins a common header, (10"), with the flow from the outer "On Line" dehydrator. It
then enters a dust filter which filters out any desiccant or other dust which may get past the
dehydrators. There is only one dust filter supplied, therefore, it will have to be bypassed for
cleaning or changing cartridges. After the dust filter the vapour is sampled for moisture content
with an "in line" analyser, AE-51068, which will indicate and alarm on high water content in the
control room. The vapour then flows directly to the first Demethaniser feed heat exchanger, 5-E-
10.
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Regeneration
The normal cycle for the dehydrators is controlled automatically by an automatic sequence timer,
which will start and stop the compressors, establish and maintain flows temperatures, and
change over the dehydrators at the end of each step or cycle. Normal cycles are:
On stream (Drying) - 16 hours
Heating - 4 hours
Cooling - 4 hours
Stand-by (or idle) - 8 hours
During normal operation the timers will be set with two dehydrators "On line" in parallel, one on
regeneration (heating or cooling), and one on stand-by at any time. If one is under maintenance
or for some other reason, the timers can be set for 8 hour drying cycle with no stand-by time.
The system is designed so that one dehydrator can accommodate full vapour feed rate for the
Demethaniser.
Regeneration Flow
A side stream of the dry, treated vapour from the main flow, downstream of the dust filter and
moisture analyser, and used to regenerate the desiccant in the exhausted bed.
This flow is directed to the regen. heaters during the heating cycle or around the heaters for the
cooling cycle.
Heating Step
There are six regeneration gas heaters. They will operate in series of three when heating, i.e
53-E-10/29/30 will be in service, while 53-E-9/27/28 are on stand-by, or vice-versa. They will
raise the regeneration gas flow from 38
o
C to approximately 315
o
C. 55.2 Bar G steam is used
as the heating medium.
The regeneration gas temperature must be maintained above 288
o
C at the outlet of the
dehydrators to remove the H
2
S from the desiccant, which will decrease its capacity for drying and
treating on the next drying step. The regeneration vapour temperature is controlled by a split
range controller, TRC-51244, A and B. The A valve (3-way) is on the main regeneration flow and
is situated at the inlet to the regeneration heaters. This will control the relevant amount of
regeneration vapour flowing through, or by-passing the heater. When the bypass is closed (All
flow going through the heater), the B valve, which controls the flow of 55.2 Bar G steam from the
heater to a 5.2 Bar G steam system, will open, allowing more steam to pass through the heater,
therefore, heating up a vapour quicker. Once the temperature is raised to the set point, the B
valve will close and the A valve will then control the temperature by allowing more or less through
the by-pass.
The hot regeneration vapour will flow to the bottom of the dehydrator and join the normal outlet
line, and pass UP through the bed picking up moisture and H
2
S from the desiccant. The wet
regeneration vapour will exit from the top of the dehydrator and flow to the regeneration coolers.
There are two regeneration gas coolers, 53-E-07/08. They are motor driven fans forcing air
through a radiator type tube bundle. Adjustable louvres are fitted on the top which can reduce
or increase the amount of air passing through the coolers allowing some degree of control over
the outlet temperature. Design temperature on the outlet is 38
o
C. The adjustable louvres are
auto. Operated by remote controllers in the control room. (TIC-51249).
High and low temperature alarms are fitted on the outlet and will alarm in the NGL control room.
During normal operation, one cooler will be in service and one on stand-by.
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Regeneration gas then flows to the regeneration gas separator, 53-D-24, which is a vertically
mounted vessel, 82" x 26" with a demister pad fitted near the top section. The gas enters the
side, flows up through the pad and exits from the top. Any liquid which collects in the bottom will
be drained off by hand. In the event of high level, a high alarm will indicate in the NGL control
room. If the level is allowed to get any higher, it will actuate a high level alarm switch and shut
down the regeneration gas compressor. The regeneration vapour flow then carries on to the
compressors. Conditions at this point are 22.4 Bar G, 38
o
C and 8,300 NM
3
/Hr.
The regeneration compressors are provided because the premised gas analysis was changed.
Originally the regeneration gas was taken from the fuel gas system (As with the propane, and
butane treaters), but later analysis showed there would not be enough fuel gas to use for all
three systems, so this was redesigned to use the dried/treated effluent gas from the dehydrators.
The compressors are required purchased and their pressure rating was too low to be on the
compressor discharge side, the regeneration had to be arranged with the towers on the suction
side of the compressors. In most designs the towers would be on the discharge side, as this is
more economical.
There are two electric driven compressors, 53-C-01/02 one will be in service and the other on
stand-by. They will raise the pressure enough to re-cycle to the line of the de-ethaniser
overhead inlet scrubber, 51-D-01. Discharge pressure is 27.3 Bar G at 38
o
C.
The flow control system is situated on the discharge line of the compressor. The flow will be
monitored and controlled by FRC-51090 "A" and "B". This is a split range controller in which the
"A" valve is controlling the main flow of regeneration gas to the de-ethaniser overhead scrubber
(inlet) 51-D-01.
When the compressors are out of service this valve will be in closed position and the "B" valve
will be in the open position. When the compressor starts, the "B" valve, being open, will allow
the flow to recycle back to the inlet of the separator. As the flow is established and sensed by
the FIC, the "B" valve will close (on a 3-9 pisg signal), and the "A" valve will open (9-15 pisg
signal) diverting the flow to the scrubber, 51-D-01 design flow rate for the regen. gas is 8,300
NM
3
/Hr.
Cooling Step
During the cooling cycle the flow will be exactly the same as the heating step, except the cooling
gas will completely by-pass the heaters. (All flow going through TRC-51244 "A" by-pass port).
The flow rate is still 8,300 NM
3
/Hr. If the cooling rate is low, the dehydrator will not be sufficiently
cooled. This would result in poor drying when first placed in the drying cycle.
Instrument Air Failure
In the event of an instrument air failure all switching valves controlled by the automatic sequence
timer, will stay in the position they were in at the time the failure occurred. The steam bleed
valve, TRC-51244, will close.
Block in the regeneration gas compressor and block in the towers to prevent any sour gas from
entering the tower.
Electrical Failure
In the event the electrical supply is lost all fans, and compressors will stop. The automatic valve
sequencer will continue to operate from the D.C. power as long as the batteries hold up. (The
emergency steam powered generator located in the Utilities Area will come on automatically and
produce power to keep the batteries charged). Loss of the 110 volt A.C. supply will stop the
Sequence timing mechanism which will stop the sequence and hold all valves in the position
they were in at the time of the outage.
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The Regeneration Gas Compressors will automatically re-start within two seconds, provided the
outage does not last longer than eight minutes. Any longer duration requires the manual
restarting of these compressors.
The Regeneration Gas Cooler Air Fans are not on the Auto-restart program and will have to be
restarted manually.
Loss of the 24v D.C. system from the battery supply (which could be caused within the system
itself, such as a blow fuse, short, etc), will cause the valves to hold in the position they are in the
time of the outage, and upon restoration of power, will require a start up according to the start
up procedure detailed in the section following under "Automatic Valve Sequencing Control".
Note: The 55.2 Bar G steam line to condensate from the heaters should be blocked in to
prevent loss of steam from the header during the power outage.
Original Start-Up
After the treaters have been completely purged of air the following method of start-up is
suggested:
1. Set the automatic sequencing control to the start of the on-stream cycle for Tower 1.
Leave Tower 2 blocked in. In order to prevent bed changeling, only one tower should be
on-stream at a time as long as the feed gas flow rate (including recycle regeneration gas)
is below 18 MMSCFD (509,400 SCMD).
2. Open block valves on Tower 1 and start feed gas flow.
3. Open block valves on Tower 4, start Regeneration Gas Compressor and start
regeneration of Tower 4. (The compressor will run continuously through all cycle
changes).
4. Open block valves on Tower 3 and place on stand-by.
5. After 8 hours, place Tower 2 on stream and close the inlet block valve on Tower 1.
6. When the total feed gas flow automatic sequence control is on "AUTOMATIC".
VALVE SEQUENCE CONTROLLER - DE-ETHANISER OVERHEAD PRODUCT
DEHYDRATOR
INTRODUCTION
The de-ethaniser overhead product dehydrator system is intended to remove the moisture
picked up from diethanolamine in the treaters.
It comprises four vessels 53-T-20-21-22-23 which are referred to as bed 1, bed 2, bed 3, and
bed 4 in these instructions.
(Refer to logic diagram number 5120 drawing number 7809.552J81.250). The sequence
controller (UC51023) is designed to switch the beds automatically through their drying and
regeneration sequences. At any one time a bed can be.
a) Drying with product inlet and outlet valves open and regeneration valves closed.
b) Hot regenerating with product inlet and outlet valves closed and regeneration valves
open and the regeneration gas being heated.
c) Cooling with product inlet and outlet valves closed and regeneration valves open but the
regeneration gas by-passing the heater.
d) Idling with the product outlet valve open product inlet valve and regeneration valves
closed. (Vessel is pressurised).
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The bed may also be taken out of service with all product and regeneration valves closed. The
process requires that at any one time one bed is drying. The remaining beds will be idling or
regenerating. Only one bed may be regenerated at a time.
The regeneration of a bed will immediately follow its drying period. The operating sequence is
drying, regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, regeneration, etc. (See logic diagram number 5211
drawing number 7809.552J81.251). Regeneration is achieved by using a quantity of treated
vapour, which is heated before passing through bed on regeneration. Cooling is a continuation
of this process without heating.
The drying time for each bed is adjustable by preset controls between 16 and 32 hours whilst
the regeneration time is fixed at 8 hours (4 hours hot regeneration and 4 hours cooling). The
idling time is dependant on the drying time and is automatically adjusted. Provision is made for
the removal of any one bed from service whilst the automatic sequence remains in operation on
the other beds. In this situation the remaining beds will continue with drying and regeneration
periods unchanged but the idling time will be reduced automatically.
The cabinet housing the sequence controller is located behind the control room panel. (See
Figs. 4.10 to 4.12 inc.) An operator control unit is mounted remotely in the control panel (See
Fig. 4.13).
In the automatic mode, the controller maintains the correct sequence of operation by opening
and closing the product and regeneration valves. The unit monitors the position of all valves to
ensure that each step of the sequence is done correctly. The status of each valves is displayed
continuously on the graphic panel in the control room by means of semaphore indicators. Any
discrepancy between the actual valve position and that required for correct operation will
suspend the sequence and initiate an alarm. The state of each bed, e.g drying, cooling etc.
is also indicated on the graphic panel. The sequence of operation under normal conditions is
given in this introduction.
The operator control unit permits the operator to change the operation from automatic to manual,
open and close any valve and to remove from service as follows:-
a) Any valve can be opened or closed by selecting the valve number on the thumbwheel
switch and pressing the open or close button as appropriate. The valve position will
be indicated on the graphic panel.
b) The temperature control valves on the regeneration gas heater can be closed or
controlled by the output of the temperature controller by pressing the appropriate button.
On start-up it is necessary to preset the dehydrator control valves in to one of four operational
patterns whilst the unit is in manual control prior to switching to Automatic. These operational
patterns are shown on Fig. 4.1.
If it is required to remove a bed from service the right hand selector switch must indicate that bed
and the out button pressed. The effects of removing a bed from service are shown in Figs. 4.4
to 4.7 inclusive at various times within the sequence when removed from service without
affecting the Auto sequence. A bed can be returned to service by pressing in button at any
time. The bed will automatically re-enter the sequence but only at its correctly appointed time.
(See Fig. 4.8) This is because the position of each bed within the sequence relative to the other
beds is always the same.
If a valve is operated locally whilst the sequence controller is in the Auto position the sequence
will automatically suspend and an alarm will be initiated.
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The sequence control unit is fed from three power sources:-
a) 24v D.C from the battery system.
b) 110v D.C from the battery system.
c) 110v A.C from the static inverter.
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In the event of a failure of either or both of the D.C. supplies the sequence controller will cease
to function. As all the valves fail closed on power failure which for process considerations is not
practicable a separate solenoid valve has been fitted on the air header supplying the valves
which in the event of power failure will vent the air out of the header. This will ensure that all
valves remain in the position they enjoyed prior to the power supply failure. In the event of
failure of the 110 volts AC supply, which is only used to drive the timing mechanism, then the
sequence will stop and hold all the valves in the position they were at prior to the failure.
On return to normal operation following failure of the D.C. power supplies it is necessary to follow
the start-up procedure. However, return of the A.C. supply will automatically rest at the
sequence. All the control valves except the temperature control valves are tight shut off with a
4 port solenoid valve, open and closed limit switches, restrictor, lock up valve, lever operated
pneumatic pilot valve and hand wheel. Before placing the system in automatic operated valves
are in the normal position.
The temperature control system on the regeneration gas heater has two control valves each
equipped with a solenoid pilot valve.
A 3-way control valve by-passes the regeneration gas heater at all times except during a hot
regeneration period when it is controlled by the output from the gas temperature controller. The
second valve also closed at all times other than during hot regeneration is installed in the
steam,/condensate system and will be controlled by the gas temperature controller and open
when the gas temperature required cannot be achieved by the usual steam supply.
The operation of the sequence controller is described in detail in this section.
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4.0 SEQUENCE CONTROLLER FOR DE-ETHANISER O.H PRODUCT TREATER
CABINET UC 51023
4.1 General Description
The Sequence Controller consists of solid state circuit modules mounted on standard
cards in racks together with relays and other electromechanical devices within a single
bay steel enclosure UC 51023, and a separate control sub-panel.
The racks are mounted on a swing frame which allows access to the rear of the card
sockets and to the rear of the cabinet.
Connection to plant equipment is via screw-clamp terminals situated within the rear of
the enclosure, entry to which is by top and bottom entry gland plates.
The logic circuits are connected to the screw-clamp terminals via plugs and sockets
adjacent to the terminals. This enables the logic to be disconnected from the plant
switches and solenoids, and connected to the simulator (see Part IV) for testing and fault
finding.
The enclosure may be electrically isolated by means of a push-button switch on the front
of the swing frame.
The logic circuits have been broken down into blocks to facilitate description.
An operational description is given briefly showing the action when trains are taken out
of returned to service.
4.2 Operation Description - Cabinet UC 51023
4.2.1 Start-Up and Normal Operation
Before applying the supply to the cabinet by operating the START push-button
on the swing frame, the AUTO/MANUAL switch on the sub-panel should be set
to MANUAL. If this is not done all action will be inhibited.
The START push button may now be operated, but at this point in time all plan
solenoids will remain de-energised.
It is now possible to operate the plant manually. Valve TPV 51244 may be
opened or closed by operating the appropriate push-buttons on the sub-panel.
Valves XPV 51058 to XPV 51080, exclusive of XPV 51061, XPV 51063, XPV
51067, XPV 51069, XPV 51073 and XPV 51080, may be operated by selecting
the last two digits of the valve number on the sub-panel thumbwheel switches
and then operating the OPEN or CLOSED push button to the left of the
thumbwheel switches.
The valve selected will remain in the state chosen even though other valves are
now selected.
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For example, if it was required to open XPV 5106, the thumbwheel switches
would be set to 62 and the OPEN push-button would be operated. The valve
would then open due to its solenoid being operated and would remain open even
though XPV 51077, say, was then selected.
If it is required to operate the plant in AUTO, it is first necessary to set all valves
manually to one of four points in normal sequence. These four are shown in Fig.
4.1.
In Fig. 4.1 the four beds are shown as drying, idling or regenerating.
During drying, the VAPOUR INLET and VAPOUR OUTLET valves only are open.
During idling the VAPOUR OUTLET valve only is open.
During regeneration the REGEN. INLET and REGEN. OUTLET valves are open,
together with TPV 51244 for this 4 hours (hot regeneration).
The valves are designated as follows:-
(XPV preceeds all valve numbers).
Duty 53-T-20 53-T-21 53-T-2253-T-23
Vapour Inlet 51058 51064 51070 51076
Regen. Outlet 51059 51065 51071 51077
Vapour Outlet 51060 51066 51072 51078
Regen. Inlet 51062 51068 51074 51080
Having set the valves t one of the four points of entry, the rotary switch on the
sub-panel headed BED TO START ON REGENERATION AT START OF AUTO
SEQUENCE should be set to the corresponding position.
The AUTO push-button may now be operated and the plant will continue to
operate automatically, according to the sequence shown in Fig 4.1, and the
manual controls will be rendered ineffective.
Referring to Fig. 4.1, it may be noted that a sequence can be broken down into
equal sections -in this case of 8 hours each. This the drying period occupies 2
sections and regeneration and idle, one section each.
During commissioning or other shut-down times the length of the sections may
be set between 8 hours ad 16 hours in 30 minute increments, by setting the total
drying time, which is effected by operation of two thumbwheel switches within the
main enclosure (see Technical Description).
The thumbwheels should only be varied between 16 (which gives 16 hours drying
time and 8 hours sections) and 32 (which gives 32 hours drying time and 16 hour
sections).
Fig. 4.2 shows a sequence with 12 hour sections (that is 24 hours drying time)
and Fi,g 4.3 shows a sequence with 16 hour sections. In these figures it will be
noted that drying still occupies 2 sections but total regeneration time remains
constant at 8 hours as in Fig. 4.1.
The remainder of the section following drying is taken up as idling.
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4.2.2. Taking a Bed Out of Service
During normal AUTO operation one bed only may be out of service at any one
time. Interlocking ensures that another bed may not be taken out when the bed
out push-button has been operated.
To take a bed out of service the sub-panel rotary switch designated BED TO BE
TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE is set to the appropriate position. The push-button
to the right of the rotary switch is then operated.
The sequence immediately following the action of taking a train out will depend
on the point at which the bed is taken out. Figures 4.4 to 4.7 show the resulting
sequences when a bed 2 is taken out during each of its sections of operation.
For the purposes of discussion, the section immediately following drying will be
referred to as regeneration even through the first 8 hours only are taken up as
regeneration.
4.2.3 Returning a Bed to Service
This may be accomplished by setting the rotary switch of para 4.2.2 to the
appropriate position and operating the push-button.
The push-button may be operated at any time, however the bed will not be
returning to service unit the point is reached int he cycle as which the bed would
be entering its regeneration stage.
This is shown more clearly in Fig. 4.8
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C-3 DE-METHANISER TOWER - 5-T-07 (P & ID REF. 7809E-505-D00-008/009)
a. Purpose and Service
The purpose of the De-Methaniser tower is taken as feed the combined overhead
product of both the De-ethaniser towers and produce high purity ethane product for
sales. The methane is fractionated off overhead and the ethane is dropped out the
bottom. The methane by-product is then used for regeneration gas, pressurization gas,
and plant fuel gas. The system consists of the fractionating tower, overhead vapour
chilling system, normally associated with a fractionating unit.
Feed
The feed for the column consists of about 15-20% methane, 70-80% ethane 1% propane
and traces of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. It is available as a vapour at 35
o
C at 24.2 to
25.2 bar-g. The feed must be treated for H
2
S and CO
2
and dehydrated and chilled
before being introduced into the column.
Overhead Product
The overhead product is a cold vapour off the reflux accumulator, which is warmed to
around 32
o
C (90
o
F) by heat exchange with the warm feed before going to the
regeneration fuel gas system. It consists mainly of methane, 83&, with about 17%
ethane, 0.2% carbon dioxide and a trace of nitrogen.
Bottom Product
The bottom product is high-purity ethane consisting of 99 mol % ethane pumped through
a refrigeration section where it is chilled to -72
o
C (bout -100
o
F) and flashed down to -
91
o
C in the storage tank.
b. Separation
The key components for separation are methane and ethane. To meet the ethane
specifications requires about 97.5% removal of methane from the feed to the overhead
ad 95.0% recovery of ethane to the bottom product. Propane in the ethane product is
controlled upstream of the De-Methaniser by the operation of the De-ethanizers which
remove the propane and the DEA treater where H
2
S and carbon dioxide are removed.
The moisture that is picked up in the DEA contactor is removed in the De-ethaniser
overhead vapour Dehydrators.
c. Process Equipment
Column
The De-Methaniser column has 35 single-path valve trays, 13 in the bottom section and
22 in the upper section. The column is swaged from 1768 mm (58") diameter in the
bottom section to 1374 mm, (45") in the upper section. The 13th tray level is the
elevation of the swage. The trays are spaced at 610 mm (24") apart except for the three
feed entry trays, and tray 13 which are spaced at 915 mm (36").
Valve trays are used because of their wide operating range and should operate efficiently
at 50% or less of design rate which is calculated to be 25,000 NM
3
/hr vapours.
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The feed comes from the Dehydrators at about 37
o
C (about 99
o
C) at 22 bar-g. (355
psig) through a 10" line which reduces to an 8" before entering the shell side of the
feed/overhead heat exchanges 5-E-10/11 where the temperature is dropped to 9.4
o
C
(49
o
C) at 21.0 Bar G. It is then routed to the De-Methaniser Feed chiller 5-E-12 where
the temperature is dropped further to -40
o
C and partially liquified. (About 64% should be
liquified at this point). The feed chiller is a plate-type exchanger using low stage propane
refrigerant for the chilling agent. The vaporising propane is circulated by a
thermosyphon effect from the thermosyphon drum, 54-D-03, through the heat exchange
exchangers is removed by the suction of the propane refrigeration compressor. A level
control on the side of the thermosyphon drum regulates the incoming liquid propane to
replace the amount vaporised, and maintain a proper working level. Provisions are
made to periodically drain off a part of the propane refrigerant into a drain blow-case,
54-D-08 to the cold vent system to rid the system of impurities that need to build up over
a period of time.
The Thermosyphon Drum has a capacity of 13.2M
3
and a Maximum working pressure
of 7.6 bar-g. Operating pressure is calculated to be around 0.12 (1.77 psig) bar-g at -
40
o
C. Maximum temperature rating is +40
o
C, and minimum -45
o
C. Temperature of the
feed is controlled by a temperature control sensing the temperature of the feed from the
chiller that operates a control valve in the outlet propane vapour line from the
thermosyphon drum to the propane refrigeration compressor low stage suction.
The feed may be switched into the column through one of three different feed entries -
the 24th, 28th or 32nd tray, depending upon its composition and operating conditions.
Two feed lines of different size are provided for the vertical feed risor. An 8" and 4" are
tied together on 24th(bottom) tray entry and the 8" is carried on up to the 28th tray
(middle tray) where it then reduces to a 4" from there on up to the 32nd tray (top entry).
Since the feed is part liquid and part vapour at this point, the smaller line should be used
at lower feed rates to prevent liquid slugs of feed to the column. The middle feed entry
is intended for use according to design conditions, but may be moved up or down for
feed composition.
The overhead vapours from the De-Methaniser must be cooled and partly condensed
for reflux in the same manner as the feed. The overhead vapours leave the top of the
column through the 8" overhead vapour line at 20.5 bar-g. (331 psig) pressure and -45
o
C
(-49
o
F) temperature through the column back pressure control valve, PPV-51301,
through the overhead vapour chiller, 5-E-15 where enough liquid is condensed and
collected in the reflux accumulator 5-E-14 for reflux purposes, and the remaining vapours
going on out to the fuel gas system.
The overhead vapour chiller, 5-E-15 is similar to the feed chiller described above except
that low stage ethane instead of propane is used for the refrigerant. The same operating
principles are used here also, except that no control valve is provided in the
thermosyphon drum outlet vapour line. Liquid ethane refrigerant is supplied to the
thermosyphon drum 54-D-04 from the ethane refrigeration system high stage flash tank,
and the vapours generated are returned to the ethane refrigeration compressor low stage
suction. Temperature of the chilled product can be controlled by HIC-51068, a hand
operated controller that operates a three way control valve HPV-51068 located on the
6" chiller by-pass line allowing a controlled portion of the vapours to be by-passed.
Additional control may be had by controlling the temperature of the ethane refrigerant
with controller PIC-71048 which operates control valve PPV-71048 on the suction of the
ethane refrigeration compressors. The design temperature of the thermosyphon drum
is calculated to be +40
o
C maximum and -100
o
C minimum. Design pressure is 12.5 bar-
g. (185 psig). The chiller has a maximum design pressure of 26.5 bar-g. on the
condensing side and 19.6 bar-g. on the refrigerant side. Design temperature on both
sides is (-96.5
o
C) (-140
o
F).
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Column Accumulator
The partially condensed overhead vapours are collected in the reflux accumulator, 5-D-
14 which is a horizontal tank made of low alloy steel enabling it to withstand very cold
temperatures. It has a capacity of 19M
3
, design temperature of -100
o
C bar-g. with a
working temperature of -73
o
C (-100
o
F). It is equipped with gauge glasses, high and low
level alarms and an extra low level shut down switch designed to shut down the motor
on the reflux pump should the situation arise. One relief valve is provided, PSV-51080
which has a set pressure of 25.9 bar-g., relieving into the cold relief system. The vessel
has about 25 minutes residence time for the liquid when half full.
The accumulator overhead vapour leave the vessel at 19.5 bar-g. pressure and 72.7
o
C
temperature through the 6" overhead vapour product line off the top of the accumulator.
Since this is too cold to be used as plant fuel or regeneration gas purpose it must be
warmed. This is done by passing the vapour through the tube side of the two feed-
overhead heat exchanges, 5-E-10/11, where it is warmed to about 32
o
C by exchanging
heat with the feed stream following through the shell side. The two feed-overhead
exchangers are two-pass, tube in shell stainless steel exchangers containing 394 " OD
dia. U-tubes. Design pressure is 26.0 bar-g. on the tube side and 32.0 bar-g. on the
shell. Design temperature is -90
o
C on both the tube, and the shell side.
The Bottom of the column, is reboiled with hot ethylene glycol (about 66
o
C) which in turn
is heated by low pressure steam(3.5 bar-g) in an external heater and circulated through
the column reboiler. This is done to avoid direct heat exchange between steam and the
cold process fluid around the column heating element to prevent the possibility of
freezing. The glycol heating tank 5-E-13 is divided into two compartments separated by
a dam with an overflow from the front end to the back end. A U-tube steam heater is in
the front compartment of the tank between the front end and the dam.
Hot glycol is pumped from the bottom of the rear compartment with the glycol circulating
pump 5-P-09 or 010 through the column re-boiler bundle 5-E-14 where the heat is
transferred to the column liquid. The glycol then is returned to the front compartment of
the glycol heater assuring the heater bundle to always be submerged. Hot glycol, then
is re-heated and overflows the dam into the rear section to continue the circulation
process.
A working level is maintained in the pump suction compartment by occasionally adding
make-up ethylene glycol through the 2" ethylene glycol fill line from the central supply
tank. The strength of the supply is normally about 70% ethylene glycol but may be
diluted if desired by adding water from the 2" condensate make-up line. Since ethylene
glycol gradually oxidizes on exposure to the air releasing organic mildly corrosive acids,
a flow-through gas blanket is provided on the tank to exclude air. The gas is supplied
from the pressurization gas system through a two inch line which is controlled by flow
indicator FI-51099, and exits through 4" vent line off the top of the heater shell. For
further protection an injection pot, 5-D-13 is provided to add Nio-corr occasionally for pH.
control by neutralizing the acids. It is very important to sample the circulating glycol and
test for pH. to determine the need for Nio-corr addition. This is done weekly by the Labs.
The injection pot is 200 mm ID x 305 mm T-T. with a capacity of 0.009M
3
. Design
pressure is 1.0 Bar-g. and 79
o
C temperature. A one inch filler valve is supplied, and
must be hand charged.
The Glycol heater 5-E-13 is a tube-in-tank heat exchanger with a capacity of 7.1M
3
; is
2130 mm ID x 4270 mm T-T. Design pressure is 1.0 bar-g, and a design temp. 110
o
C.
(it is not stress relieved). The heating element is a U-tube, two pass element having a
total heating area of 115.7M
2
. The tubes are " stainless steel with a design
temperature of 260
o
C, and a pressure of 5.2 bar-g.
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The Glycol circulation pumps are two electrically driven centrifugal pumps with a rated
capacity of 65.0M
3
/hr. A two inch minimum flow line with a drilled orifice plate in it is
provided in case the flow is blocked in by the control. The orifice is designed to allow a
minimum recycle of 9M
3
/hr. The pump jackets are water cooled with water from the
enclosed cooling water system.
The bottom product leaves the column at its bubble points so must be either pumped
or cooled. In this case, it is pumped to keep it from flashing vapour in the meter and long
transfer line to the ethane product chiller, which is the first step of refrigeration. Pressure
is maintained through the refrigeration process and all the way tot he tank before it is let
down to the tank pressure.
The bottom product transfer pumps, 5-P-11 & 12 are both centrifugal type pumps having
a rated capacity of 120M
3
/hr., discharge pressure of 27 Bar-g. and driven with 37 K.W.
motors at 2950 RPM.
Condensate ACCUMULATOR
The condensate accumulator is a horizontal vessel, 5-D-12 designed to receive the
condensed steam required to exchange heat with the ethylene glycol used for re-boil
purposes. It has a capacity of 0.7M
3
, is 760 mm x 1525 mm in size, and has a pressure
rating of 15.2 bar-g. Design temperature is 260
o
C. The level is controlled by a level
control that operates control valve LPV-51204 on the pump discharge.
Condensate Pumps
The condensate pumps are centrifugal, water cooled electrically driven pump. Rated
capacity is 4.6M
3
/hr. Minimum flow protection of 1.5M
3
/hr is required.
d. Operating Conditions
The minimum operating pressure is limited by the pressure required to condense enough
liquid for reflux purpose using ethane as the refrigerant. The overhead vapour must be
cooled to -73
o
C (-99
o
F) and maintain pressure of 19.0 bar-g. (325 psia) to condense
reflux. The column top operates at 20.5 Bar-G (340 pisa) and -46
o
C (-50
o
F) and the
bottom at 20.6 bar.g. at which the boiling temperature is -3
o
C (26
o
F).
The column bottom is re-boiled with hot ethylene glycol at 66
o
C (150
o
F) in a closed
circulation system. The ethylene glycol is heated with steam at 3.5 bar-g. (50 pisa) and
148
o
C (298
o
F). It is reduced to about 2.8 bar-g. (40 pisa) by control valve, FPV-51094,
which is located upstream of the glycol heater and will condense in the heater at about
143
o
C (289
o
F). The condensate is collected in the condensate accumulator, 505-950-12
and pumped on out with the condensate pumps, 5-P-7/08 to the 4" L.P. condensate
system.
The feed is chilled from 38
o
C (100
o
F) to 9
o
C (49
o
F) by heat exchange with the overhead
product which in turn heats the overhead product from -73
o
C (-99
o
F) to 32
o
C (90
o
F)
during the heat exchange process. The feed is further chilled from 9
o
C (949
o
F) to -36
o
C
(-32
o
F) with low stage refrigerant at -40
o
C (-40
o
F) at 0.1 bar-g. (1.5 pisa) in the feed
chiller, 5-E-12.
The Reflux to feed ration is fixed for any given set of conditions, as all the liquid that
condenses is returned to the column as reflux. The condensing temperature is
essentially determined by the ethane refrigerant which is set by the ethane compressor
suction pressure (see "Column Controls"). The accumulator LLC controls the reflux to
hold the level constant in the vessel.
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e. Control System
Feed The feed rate to the control is affected by a cascade of various controls all the way
back to the De-ethaniser Feed Surge Drums as dictated by the amount of NGL feed
available, and the composition thereof. The feed tot he De-Methaniser is controlled
upstream of the DEA TREATER at the De-ethanisers Overhead Vapour product back-
pressure controllers PPV-51135/51154 and the De-ethanisers liquid overhead product
flow controllers, FPV-51031/51040, which reflect the amount of methane/ethane gasses
contained in the incoming De-ethaniser feed. The flow through the three DEA treater
trains is balanced by control valves operated by FLOW INDICATOR CONTROLLERS,
FIC-51050/60 and 70 on the effluent of each treater and are re-combined before entering
the Dehydrators. After dehydration another control valve, HPV-51026, is incorporated
to hold enough back-pressure on the De-Methaniser feed by-pass to insure emergency
make-up into the regeneration/ fuel gas system on pressure maintenance control. (The
regeneration gas for the Butane and Propane Treaters normally is supplied from the DE-
METHANISER COLUMN overhead vapour product from a point down-stream of the De-
Methaniser Feed/OHP heat exchanges). The De-Methaniser accumulator back pressure
control valve PPV-51307 is also located downstream of the exchangers but upstream of
the Regeneration Gas supply. The emergency Regeneration Gas by-pass, mentioned
above, has a control valve PPV-51279B that works off the same pressure point as the
other back pressure motor valve, PPV-51279A, which provides pressure for the Regen.
Gas. AS the "A" valve closes off for instance due to problems on the De-Methaniser or
feed heat exchanger, the "B" valve on the emergency by-pass will open and the "A" valve
close to direct De-Methaniser feed into the Regeneration gas supply line and by-pass the
De-Methaniser.
Feed temperature control
The only means of control on feed temperature is by controlling the temperature of the
propane refrigerant in the thermosyphon drum 54-D-03. This is done by regulating the
pressure in the drum with control valve TPV-51265 which determines the resultant
temperature of refrigerant. Control valve TPV-51265 is operated by adjustments on TIC-
51265 which senses the temperature of the feed as it leaves the chiller, 5-E-12.
The bottom product rate is on flow control re-set by the column level control LIC 51208,
which controls the bottom product flow rate with FPV 51096. The tray No. 5 temperature
controller TIC 51272 controls the amount of hot ethylene glycol circulated through the
column reboiler heating element to hold the column temperature constant. The
temperature of the glycol from the glycol heater 5-E-13 is controlled by temperature
control line TIC-51270 which operates a flow control valve FPV-51094 located in the inlet
steam line to the glycol heater heating element, 5-E-13.
Column Pressure is controlled with a pressure controller PIC-51301 which operates
control valve, PPV-51301 located in the 8" overhead vapour line between the column
and the overhead reflux condensers 5-E-15.
f. Alarms and Safety Features
All control valves are designed to fail "safe", that is, with loss of instrument air or
electricity the control valves will open or close in a pattern that blocks in feed and product
streams, shuts out the ethylene glycol circulation system, shuts off steam to the glycol
heater, and allows the overhead vapour to flow through the condenser, and liquid to be
pumped back to the column if power is available for the reflux pump.
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Column over pressure devices have four stages with increasing pressure; (1) alarm (2)
Ethylene Glycol shut-off, (3) Vent to relief system, and (4) as a last resort, vent to
atmosphere from the top of the column. Other pressure safety valves are provided that
vent to the relief system are from the accumulator, ethane and propane refrigeration
thermosyphon drum, and the bottom product transfer line to storage. (See instrument
and control schedule). A PIC is provided to switch the feed to the flare if the situation
arises where it is necessary. (PIC-51285).
g. Methanol Injection
Due to the very low temperatures required for this type of operation the danger of
hydrates forming (Freezing off) is very likely if the entire system is not completely dry. As
a precaution against this possibility, and a means of thawing if it does occur, several
injection points are installed for the addition of methanol.
These are:
1" on each inlet core on the Feed Chiller - process side.
1" on each inlet core on the Feed Chiller - refrigeration side.
1" on the column back pressure control valve - PPV-51301.
1" on each core inlet on process side of the O.H.V. Chiller.
1" on each core inlet on Refrigerant side of the O.H.V. Chiller.
Any accumulated methanol will collect in the Feed refrigerant accumulator tank, 54-D-07
or the O.H.V. refrigerant accumulator tank, 54-D-08 and can be drained out through a
two inch line provided on each accumulator.
Portable methanol pumps mounted on a cart, together with a methanol tank are provided
to move around the area to the various methanol injection points. Frequency, and
amounts of methanol injection will be determined as necessity, arises, and will probably
vary.
h. Operating Procedures
The following is offered as a suggested guide, or procedure to follow in putting the
equipment into service, or shutting it down.
i. Start-Up Preparation
Preparatory to start-up, all utilities must be in service, instrument checked out and
rotating equipment tested. All piping should be checked for open bleeders, and drains,
as well as spades (blinds) that may have inadvertently been left in. The ethane and
propane refrigeration systems should be in operation-check for levels in both
thermosyphon drums. The ethylene glycol enclosed system should be filled and the
injection pot charged. The system can be topped up by bringing in glycol from the glycol
transfer system through the two inch glycol fill line on the heater, 5-E-13. Circulate the
glycol to fill the system and have a good working level in the suction end of the heater
(about 110mm in the gauge glass should be about the normal working level). Crack
some steam into the heater, and start the circulation pump back up to keep the glycol
warm. Crack in a little purge gas through FI-51099. Open the minimum flow line.
To start the De-Methaniser after it has been down and purged of hydrocarbon it is
necessary to purge the air from the system. Steam should not be used on the air purge
due to getting water in the column. The column and associated piping and equipment
must be as dry as possible to prevent operational difficulties after start up due to
freezing. Nitrogen will be used for purging purposes. Tie nitrogen into the feed line
upstream of the FD/OHP exchangers.
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After it has been determined that all systems upstream if the De-Methaniser are in
operation, and means of handling the products from the De-Methaniser after it has been
started are in operation the starting process may begin. Alert the Utilities personnel that
you are about to start the column, as it will have a direct effect on them. clear the are of
maintenance, or other people not directly associated with the start up, or other operation
in the area, and put up your chain gates.
2. Line-Up
Before actually starting feed to the column, line up as much piping and equipment as
possible to facilitate the start-up. The feed will be switched to the fuel system or flare
upstream of the 8" block valve HPV-51026 upstream of the feed/overhead product
exchanger. (If going to fuel, it will be routed through the De-Methaniser by-pass through
PPV-51279B and PPV-51279A, and the 6" PPV-51307 will be blocked in). Gas for
regeneration purposes will be flowing out through the normal line, 6"-551-L50-015 tee-
ing off between PPV-51279B. Leave all three feed entry valves closed at this point, and
set the feed chiller to the warmest feed temperature possible at this time.
Line up the K.P from the column through the K.P. pumps, through the K.P. control valve,
FPV-51096, but leave the downstream isolation valved closed, as well as the 3" isolating
valve off the K.P. line to the Ethane Dump line.
Line up the column overhead vapour line by opening the back pressure control valve
PPV-51301 with PIC-51301 in the "manual" position - and crack the by-pass around
PPV-51301 slightly. Set the 3-way valve, HPV-51068 in the full "chill" position (to clear
through the chiller, instead of the by-pass around it). Open into the reflux accumulator
through the 8" valve on top. Open the 3" vent on the top of the accumulator.
Reflux
Leave reflux pump suction and discharge valves closed at this point, but open the one
inch by-pass around the discharge block and check valves, and open the pump case
bleeders. Open through the reflux motor valve, PPV-51097 with the control on manual.
Open reflux line next to column.
Overhead Vapour
The only place the overhead vapours will be blocked in will be at PPV-510307 down-
stream of the Feed/Overhead heat exchanger - (5-E-10/11). Leave it blocked at present.
Have the bleeders on the column bottom glasses, and float barrels open, but make sure
the bottom drain valve is closed. Have the K.P. pump minimum flow line, (3") open at the
column and blocked at the pump discharge. Open the 4" vent on top if the column and
bleeder on the overhead vapour back pressure valve setting PPV-51301.
Crack open the 6" feed purge line (coming off the main column feed line) next to
the column bottom. Crack open HPV-51026 on feed line, and start nitrogen
through heat exchangers, and feed system to column. Open up to get a fairly
good flow of nitrogen into column. Start checking open bleeder on column
bottom area for air. Check bleeders on K.P. pumps and bleeder on K.P. flow
control valve FPV-51096-block in bleeder as air is displaced, and block in the
pumps. Continue to monitor all bleeders for air. The reflux line will clear out
through the reflux pump cases, the column through the top vent, and then will
start showing up in accumulator, but as soon as the air is cleared from the
overhead vapour line through the reflux condenser, start opening the condenser
by-pass with the 3-way valve HPV-51069 to clear the by-pass section of piping.
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Continue monitoring open bleeders, and block them in as soon as nitrogen is
evident to reduce the amount of gas in the atmosphere. Where the accumulator
is cleared, block in the 3" vent on top of it.
3. START COL
As soon as the feed has been switched to the normal feed entry on the column, gas will
be flowing through the normal route except that the vapours will still be switched through
the reflux condenser by-pass, instead of going through it. When the accumulator
pressure builds up to about 19 bar-g. pressure, open the accumulator back pressure
control PPV-51307 and put on control. Put the column back pressure controller on
control also, shutting off any through the by-pass.
Gradually switch the condenser 3-way valve, HPV-51068 to route all the overhead
vapours through the condenser. Lower feed temperature. As liquid builds up in the
accumulator dry.
Begin lowering the feed temperature slowly to start condensing some liquid. When
begins accumulate in the column bottom the temp. controller may be used to reset the
glycol rate. Increase the steam flow through the steam control drum, on level control.
Gradually increase the steam to the ethylene glycol circulation and reboil the bottom
liquid. As the temperatures approach normal, around -3
o
C on the bottom, with 66
o
C
glycol temperature, start the bottom pump with the discharge routed to the flare through
the ethane dump line flow control, (Note: the 2" minimum flow line must be open before
starting the pump). at a low rate. Gradually increase feed, steam, and bottom product
until feed line is wide open. When conditions appear to stabilize the steam may be put
on the automatic flow control, reset by the ethylene glycol temperature control, TIC-
51270. The bottoms level will re-set the amount of glycol circulation, and this will in turn
call more or less steam, as required to hold the glycol at the pre-set temperature. The
amount of bottoms product drawn off is determined by, the column level.
Continue to bring the system up to full rates and temperature and normal operating
conditions. When on specification, switch the ethane product chilling and refrigeration
units and on to storage.
4. Shut-Down (Complete Shut Down for Maintenance)
Inform the Utilities and all other people in the area. Take the column off Distillation
Column Control. Switch the feed to the regeneration fuel gas system and/or flare by
blocking HPV-51026 and the feed then goes to the regeneration gas and fuel system
through PPV-51279, or to flare through PPV-51285, whichever the orders call before the
shut down. Normally it would be utilized as fuel, or regeneration gas, however, before
being burned in the flare.
Switch the bottom product to the flare through the 2" ethane dump valve, HPV-51027
and block off to storage, FPV-51096. Take the steam to glycol heater off temperature
control and start cutting back on the heat, (the glycol circulation will pick up as the
column cools down, and tends to raise the kettle level with the glycol temperature being
reduced). Open the by-pass around the column overhead vapour control, PPV-51307
and lower pointer on column back pressure control, PPV-51301. Start warming up a
Reflux temperature control, and continue and accumulator will be coming down together.
Pressure out the bottom product by opening the by-pass around the bottom control valve
to the flare. When the accumulator pressure equalizes with the plant fuel system, block
the overhead vapours to fuel in (PPV-51307) and open the by-pass around the
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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accumulator relief valve PSV-51088 and bleed the pressure down tot he cold relief.
When the Kettle is empty, shut in the bottom product to flare. As the pressure gets pretty
well down, shut the steam out of the glycol heater, and shut down the glycol circulation
and accumulator into the cold drain and block in.
5. Refluxing the column. When the De-Methaniser is to be taken off stream for a short
period of time for one reason or another the column can be out on total reflux. As the
feed is cut out of the column, either to the flare, or regeneration-Fuel gas system.
Pressure through the column will tend to immediately lower, causing the accumulator
back pressure controller to shut in to hold the pressure up. The column temperature
controller will reduce reboiler heat enough to maintain reflux circulation. The reflux rate
will be adjusted by the level in the reflux accumulator. The column should maintain these
conditions for an extended length of time. Shut down the bottoms pump and block it in.
Too start the column after on a total reflux condition, ease the feed back into the column
and open the product lines. Switch tot he type of control desired, whether on Column
Distillation, or Temperature Control.
De-Methaniser
Power Failure
In the event of a power "dip", all pumps that were in service before the interruption will
re-start within a few seconds of the restoration of the power provided the total outage
time does not exceed 8 minutes. Should the duration of the outage exceed 8 minutes
the "auto re-start" relays will no longer function, and the motors will have to be started
manually.
An outage of any duration will upset the operation of the tower to a certain degree, and
the longer, the more severe.
In this case, start the reflux pump as soon as power is restored if there is a level in the
accumulator, and then start the remaining pumps. In any case, however, always make
sure all pumps are running that are supposed to be, and check the rotation. Make sure
none are running backward - which would indicate a stuck NRV. In this case, block the
discharge of the pump, ungas it, and restart the motor. Open the discharge valve
immediately, and then check to see if it is pumping properly.
The bottom product may be off spec. by this time, as well as the overhead product.
Switch the bottom product tot he flare until it is back on sepc. Watch the analyser during
this operation also. Return the product to ethane storage as soon as it is on spec. or
very near so. Only operating experience and judgement based upon the conditions at
the time can determine this.
Check the level in the thermosyphon drums on both the feed, and reflux condensers to
make sure the liquid level in them holds, and does not rum over, thereby flooding the
vapour return lines with liquid.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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FRACTIONATING EQUIPMENT
DEMETHANISER TOWER 5-T-07
Tower Size 1750 X 26060 mm; 1370 mm Dia. above swage.
Tray Design Single Path Valved Trays.
No. of Trays 35
Feed Entry Nos. 32, 28 and 24.
Tray Spacing 610 mm, with the exception of the feed entry trays which
are 915 mm, which is required to allow for the feed
distribution piping inside the tower.
Design Pressure 26 Bar G.
Operating Pressure 20.5 Bar G.
Design Temperature -100
o
C.
Relief Valves PSV-51084, 4" x 6". Set Pressure - 25.7 Bar g.
(C.R.)
PSV-51085, 4" x 6". Set Pressure - 31.2 Bar g.
(Atmos.)
Reboiler (505-410-14), Internal, Horizontal "U" Tube Type.
217" OD Tubes.
Reflux
Accumulator 5-D-14
Size 2000 x 6000 T.T.
Type Horizontal
Design Pressure 25.9 Bar g.
Operating Pressure 19 Bar G.
Design Temperature -100
o
C. Low alloy steel
Capacity 19M
3
Relief Valves PSV-51088, 1" x 2" 25.9 Bar g. (C.R.)
Thermosyphon
Drum 54-D-04 (Reflux)
Size 1220 x 3050 mm
Capacity 3.5 M
3
Design Pressure 12.5 Bar g.
Design Temperature -100
o
C; +40
o
C
Operating Pressure 0.827 Bar g.
Operating Temperature -100
o
C
Overhead Refrigerant Accum. Tank 54-D-08
Size 510 mm x 610 mm
Capacity 0.125 M
3
Design Pressure 26.0 Bar g.
Design Temperature -100
o
C
Relief Valve PSV-51137 - 1" x 2" 26.0 Bar g. (C.R.)
(De-Methaniser Fractionating Equipment)
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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Ethylene Glycol Heater 5-E-13
Type Tube-in-tank "U" Tube
Tubes 453" OD
Working Pressure 9.2 Bar g. (Tube side, Atmos. (Shell Side)
Feed-OHP Exchanger 5-E-10/11
Type Tube-in-Shell
Tubes 197" OD "U" Tube
Working Pressure Tubes, 26.0 Bar g.; shell, 52.0 Bar g.
Overhead Condenser 5-E-15
Type Plate Type
Refrigerant Ethane (Low stage)
Working Pressure Process side, 26.5 Bar g.
Refrigerant side, 11.0 Bar g.
Feed Chiller 5-E-12
Type Plate Type
Refrigerant Ethane (Low stage)
Design Pressure Process side, 32.0 Bar g.
Refrigerant side, 11.0 Bar g.
Thermosyphon Drum (Feed Chiller) 54-D-03
Size 2140 mm x 3650 mm T.T
Capacity 13.2M
3
Design Pressure 7,6 Bar g.
Relief Valve PSV-51082, Set press, 7.6 Bar g. W.R
Operating Pressure 0.12 Bar g.
Operating Temperature -40
o
C
Design Temperature -45
o
C to +40
o
C
Feed Refrigerant Accumulator Tank 54-D-07
Size 510 mm x 610 mm
Capacity 0.125 M
3
Design Pressure 32 Bar g.
Operating Pressure 5.0 Bar g.
Operating Temperature -42
o
C
(De-Methaniser Tower Operating Equipment)
Condensate Accumulator 5-D-12
Capacity 0.7M
3
Design Pressure 5.2 Bar g. and full vacuum
Design Temperature 260
o
C
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
DEMETHANISER 5-T-07
SIZE
SERVICE NO
.
SUCT. DISCH
.
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED-
RPM
SUCTION
PRESSURE
BAR-G
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
BAR-G
DIFF
HEAD
BAR-G
MIN
FLOW
MAX
FLOW
M
3
/hr
DRIVE
(H.P)
DE-METHANISER
REFLUX
5-P-13/14
Bottoms Pump
5-P-11/12
ETHYLENE
GLYCOL PUMP
5-P-9/10
Condensate
Pump
5-P-7/8
2
2
2
2
3"
8"
4"
2"
2"
4"
3"
1"
DAVID
BROWN
BINGHA
M (Cent).
Ing.
Rand.
Cent.
Ing.
Rand.
Cent.
Ing.
Rand.
Cent.
2960
2950
2950
2900
19
20.6
0.3
2.0
23
25
2.76
6.1
4
4.4
2.46
4.1
12.5
23
9
1.5
34
120
65
4.6
20
50
15
4
Approved By:
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Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST. NO DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION RESULTS
PIC-51285
PPV-51285
HIC-51026
HPV-51026
PIC-51279
PPV-51279A
PPV-51279B
5-D-07
FEED DUMP TO
WARM RELIEF
5-D-07
FEED DUMP TO
WARM RELIEF
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-07
FEED SHUT OFF
CONTROL
5-D-07
FEED SHUT OFF
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR TO F.G
SYSTEM
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR TO F.G.
SYSTEM
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-07
FEED MAKE UP
TO FUEL GAS
SYSTEM
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
9-15 psi
3-9 psi
START UP
SHUT DOWN
EMERGENC
Y
C.A.F
C.A.F
C.A.F
O.A.F
PPV-51285
HPV-51026
PPV-
51279A
&
PPV-
51279B
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
HIG-51067
HPV-51067
PIC-51307
PPV-51307
TIC-51265
TPV-51265
5-D-07
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR EX
5-D-07
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
VAPOUR EX
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
PRESS
CONTROL
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
PRESS
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-07
FEED EXIT
CHILLER BOX
5-E-12
54-D-03
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM VAPOUR
EXIT CONTROL
VALVE
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
C.A.F
C.A.F
O.A.F
HPV-51067
PPV-51307
TPV-51265
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
113 of 335
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
LIC-51198
LPV-51198
HNS-51080
HPV-51080
PIC-51555
PPV-51555
TIC-51270 }

}

FIC-51094 }
54-D-03
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM LEVEL
CONTROL
54-D-03
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM LEVEL
CONTROL VALVE
PROPANE
REFRIGERANT
TO 54-D-03
PROPANE
REFRIGERANT
TO 54-D-03 SHUT
OFF CONTROL
VALVE
54-D-07
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATION
TANK PRESS
CONTROL
54-D-07
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATION
TANK PRESS
CONTROL VALVE
5-E-13
GLYCOL
VAPOURISER
TEMP CONTROL
5-E-13
GLYCOL
VAPOURISER
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
PROCESS
3-15 psi
E
E
O.A.F
C.A.F
LPV-51198
HPV-51080
PPV-51555
FIC-51094
FPV-51094
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
FPV-51094
PIC-51301
PPV-51301
HIC-51068
HPV-51068
LIC-51212
LPV-51212
5-E-13
GLYCOL
VAPORISER
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-07
OVERHEADS
PRESS.
CONTROL
5-D-07
OVERHEADS
PRESS.
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-07
OVERHEADS TO
CHILLER BOX
5-E-15
5-D-07
OVERHEADS TO
CHILLER BOX
5-E-15
54-D-04
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM
54-D-04
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM LEVEL
CONTROL VALVE
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
C.A.F
O.A.F
C.A.F
PPV-51301
HPV-51068
LPV-51212
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
HNS-51081
HPV-51081
PIC-51556
PPV-51556
LIC-51216
FIC-51097
FPV-51097
54-D-04
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM
REFRIGERANT
SHUT OFF
54-D-04
OVERHEADS
REFRIGE
THERMOSYPHO
N DRUM
REFRIGERANT
SHUT OFF
CONTROL VALVE
54-D-08
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
TANK
54-D-08
REFRIGE
ACCUMULATOR
TANK PRESS
CONTROL VALVE
5-D-14
OVERHEAD
ACCUMULATOR
LEVEL CONTROL
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
REFLUX
CONTROL
5-D-14
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
REFLUX
CONTROL VALVE
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
C.A.F
C.A.F
HPV-51081
PPV-51556
FIC-51097
FPV-51097
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
117 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
DE-METHANISER 5-T-07
INST NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
LIC-51208
FIC-51096
FPV-51095
TIC-51272
(4th TRAY)
TIC-510-96
FPV-51096
HIC-51027
HPV-51027
5-T-07
BOTTOMS LEVEL
CONTROL
5-T-07
GLYCOL TO
COLUMN
REBOILER
5-E-14
5-T-07
GLYCOL TO
COLUMN
REBOILER
5-E-14
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-07
TEM. CONTROL
5-T-07
BOTTOMS TO
PRODUCT
CHILLING
5-T-07
BOTTOMS TO
PRODUCT
CHILLING
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-07
BOTTOMS TO
ETHANE DUMP
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-07
BOTTOMS TO
ETHANE DUMP
VESSEL
E
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
C.A.F
C.A.F
C.A.F
FIC-51096
FPV-51095
FIC-51095
HPV-51027
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
119 of 335
ALARMS, SWITCHES AND SHUTDOWNS
DEMETHANISER TOWER 5-T-07
PROCESS SWITCHES & ALARMS ANNUNCIATOR PROCESS CONTROL DEVICES
ACTUATOR LOCATION TAG No. COLOUR TAG. No. DESCRIPTION LOCATION
IFNS 51095
IFNS 51096
IFNS 51097
IPNS 51279
hdPNS 51296
hdPNS 51298
hpNS 51297
hpNS 51320
hLNS 51199
lLNS 51200
l1LNS 51207
hLNS 51209
lLNS 51210
hLNS 51213
lLNS 51214
REAR PANEL
REAR PANEL
REAR PANEL
REAR PANEL
REAR PANEL
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
IFA 51095
IFA 51096
IFA 51097
IPA 51279
hdA 51296
hhPA
51298
hPA 51297
hPA 51320
hLA 51190
lLA 51200
l1LA 51207
hLA 51209
lLA 51210
hLA 51213
lLNS
51214
W
W
W
W
W
R
W
W
W
W
R
W
W
W
W
GLYCOL TO 5-T-07
KP FROM 5-T-07
REFLUX FLOW TO 5-T-07
OUTLET FROM 5-E-11
COLUMN 5-T-07 Diff.
PRESSURE
HIGH COLUMN PRESSURE
SHUTS OUT GLYCOL
CIRCULATION
COLUMN 5-T-07
KP FROM 5-T-07
VESSEL 54-D-03
VESSEL 54-D-03
COLUMN 5-T-07
COLUMN 5-T-07
COLUMN 5-T-07
VESSEL 54-D-04
VESSEL 54-D-04
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
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ALARMS, SWITCHES & SHUTDOWNS
DEMETHANISER TOWER 5-T-07
PROCESS SWITCHES & ALARMS ANNUNCIATOR PROCESS CONTROL DEVICES
ACTUATOR LOCATION TAG No. COLOUR TAG No. DESCRIPTION LOCATION
hLNS-51217
lLNS-51218
llLNS 51220
hLNS 51222
lLNS-51305
STARTER
STARTER
STARTER
STARTER
STARTER
STARTER
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
FIELD
SW ROOM
SW ROOM
SW ROOM
SW ROOM
SW ROOM
hLA 51217
lLA 51218
llLA 51220
hLNS 51222
lLNS 51305
W
W
R
W
W
FEV-51095
FEV-51096
XNS-51301
XNS-51302
XNS-51303
VESSEL 5-D-14
VESSEL 5-D-14
VESSEL 5-D-14
VESSEL 5-D-23
VESSEL 5-D-23
MOTOR 5-P-09 (WEST
DEMETH. COL HOT CLYCOL
CIRC. PUMP)
MOTOR 5-P-11 (SKP PUMP)
MOTOR 5-P-12 (SKP PUMP)
MOTOR 5-P-13 (NORTH
REFLUX PUMP)
MOTOR 5-P-14 (SOUTH
REFLUX PUMP)
GLYCOL TO RE BOILER
KP FROM COLUMN
RESET FOR FEV-51095
RESET FOR FEV-51096
DEFEAT hhPNS 51298 (HOT
GLYCOL SHUT DOWN
FIELD
FIELD
PANEL
PANEL
PANEL
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
121 of 335
ALARMS, SWITCHES & SHUTDOWNS
DEMETHANISER TOWER 5-T-07
PROCESS SWITCHES &
ALARMS
ANNUNCIATOR PROCESS CONTROL DEVICES
ACTUATOR LOCATION TAG No. COLOUR TAG No. DESCRIPTION LOCATION
XNS-51304
XNS-51305
DEFEAT 11 NS 51207 (KP
SHUTDOWN)
DEFEATS 11 LNS 51220 (REFLUX
PUMPS SHUTDOWN)
PANEL
PANEL
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
122 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
DEMETHANISER COL. 5-T-07
VALVE No. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS
TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEVES
TO:
PSV-51080
PSV-51081
PSV-51082
PSV-51083
PSV-51078
PSV-51084
PSV-51085
PSV-51086
5-E-10/11
DEMETHANISER
FEED
EXCHANGERS
TUBE SIDE
54-D-03
DE-METHANISER
FEED
REFRIGERANT
THERMOSYPHON
DRYM VAPOUR
EXIT
54-D-03
DE-METHANISER
FEED
REFRIGERANT
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM
5-E-12
DE-METHANISER
FEED CHILLER
54-D-07
DE-METHANISER
FEED
REFRIGERANT
ACCUMULATOR
TANK
5-T-07
OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
5-T-07
OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
54-D-04
DE-METHANISER
REFRIGERANT
OVERHEADS
THERMOSYPHON
DRUM
26.0 BAR G
7.6 BAR G
7.6 BAR G
32.0 BAR G
32.0 BAR G
25.7 BAR G
31.2 BAR G
12.5 BAR G
" x 1"
4" x 6"
1" x 3"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
4" x 6"
4" x 6"
1" x 2"
FUEL GAS
(METHANE)
PROPANE
PROPANE
METHANE
&
ETHANE
METHANE
METHANE
ETHANE
ATMOS.
WARM
RELIEF
WARM
RELIEF
COLD
RELIEF
WARM
RELIEF
COLD
RELIEF
ATMOS.
COLD
RELIEF
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
123 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
DEMETHANISER COL. 5-T-07
VALVE No. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET PRESS TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEVES
TO:
PSV-51087
PSV-51088
PSV-51089
PSV-51137
PSV-51138
PSV-51139
PSV-51140
PSV-51141
PSV-51147
5-E-15
DE-
METHANISER
OVERHEAD
CHILLER
5-D-14
DE-
METHANISER
OVERHEAD
REFLUX
ACCUMULATOR
5-P-11/12
D-METHANISER
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT LINE
54-D-08
DE-
METHANISER
OVERHEAD
ACCUMULATOR
TANK
5-P-11
DE-
METHANISER
COLUMN K.P.
PUMP
5-P-12
5-P-13
DE-
METHANISER
COLUMN
REFLUX PUMP
5-P-14
DE-
METHANISER
REFLUX LINE
3"551-L43-043
EX-5-P-13/14
26.5 BAG G.
25.9 BAR G.
30.0 BAR G.
26.0 BAR G.
30.0 BAR G.
"
30.0 BAR G.
"
30.0 BAR G.
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
" x 1"
1" x 2"
" x 1"
"
" x 1"
"
" x 1"
METHANE
METHANE
ETHANE
METHANE
&
ETHANE
ETHANE
"
METHANE
"
METHANE
COLD
RELIEF
COLD
RELIEF
ETHANE
PROD.DUM
P (REFRIGE
FLARE
SYSTEM)
COLD
RELIEF
PUMP
SUCTION
"
"
"
ATMOS.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
124 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
DE-ETHANISER COL. 5-T-07
VALVE No. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET PRESS TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEVES
TO:
PSV-51233
PSV-51234
PSV-51235
DE-METHANISER
BOTTOMS PUMP
RE-CIRCULATION
LINE 3"
551-L64-077
EX 5-P-11/12
DE-METHANISER
BOTTOMS LINE 6"
551-L64-002
EX-5-P-11/12
DE-METHANISER
COLUMN REFLUX
LINE 3"
551-L43-014
EX-5-P-13/14
30.0 BAR G.
30.0 BAR G.
30.0 BAR G.
" x 1"
" x 1"
" x 1"
ETHANE
ETHANE
METHANE
ATOMS
ATOMS
ATOMS
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DEPROPANIZER FRACTIONATOR
5-T-09/10
(P & ID REF No. 7809e-505-D00-005/006)
1. PURPOSE AND SERVICE
The purpose of the Depropanizer is to take as its feed the bottoms product of the De-
ethaniser, composed of propane and butanes, separate the propane out of the top,
leaving mixed butanes suitable for further fractionation into high purity isobutane and
normal butane product for sale, out of the bottom.
a. Feed
The feed for the Depropanizer is pressured directly from the De-ethaniser tower bottoms
through an eight inch line. The feed motor valve for the Depropanizer, which also serves
as the kettle product control valve for the De-ethaniser, is located as near to the feed
entry (tray 28) as possible. Since the control valve is actually situated so high from the
ground a power operated valve HPV-51010, is provided in the bypass line around the
feed control valve, FPV-51032. This can be operated remotely by using the hand
controller, HIC-51010, located on the panel board in the control room. Directly down
stream of the feed motor valve a 4" line takes off the main feed line to the flare. This line
is also equipped with a power operated valve, HPV-51011 which is operated with the
HIC-51011 on the panel board. The purpose of this line is to permit the operator to turn
all the Depropanizer feed to the flare, if necessary, due to upset conditions in either the
De-ethaniser or Depropanizer. A check valve located near the column prevents back
flow from the column to the flare.
After the feed passes through the control valve it flashes to about 26% vapour due to the
pressure drop entering the column. Feed composition is approximately 1.4 mol%
ethane, 64.9% propane, 10.4% isobutane, 23.3% normal butane, a small amount of
pentanes plus, and traces of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide.
The feed volume to the Depropanizer is determined by the amount of bottoms pay-off
from the De-ethaniser. The De-ethaniser bottoms product control valve, and the
Depropanizer Feed control valve are one and the same.
b. Overhead Product
The overhead product is high purity propane which, after treating, must meet N.G.P.A.
HD-5 propane specifications. These include 2.5 LV% maximum butanes-plus and 13.8
Bar G. (200psi) maximum vapour pressure 38
o
C (100
o
F). The product must also have
a minimum purity of 95LV% propane and a maximum carbon dioxide content of 0.1 LV%.
The Depropanisers are designed for an overhead composition of approximately 2.0
mol% ethane 97.0 mol% (96.7 LV%) propane, and 1.0 mol% (1.1 LV%) butanes-plus.
The ethane content, which is controlled by the cut on the De-ethaniser, makes the
propane vapour pressure about 190 (13.1 Bar G.) @ 100
o
F (38
o
C).
c. Bottoms Product
The bottom product from the Depropanizer consists of mixed butanes and Pentanes.
The proportions of butanes and pentanes will depend largely on stabilizer operating. Any
propane content dropped out the bottom of the depropanizer will concentrate in the
overhead product of the Butane Splitter down stream. With a calculated content of 0.3
mol% propane, 29.4 mol% isobutane, 70.2 mol% normal butane, and 0.1 mol% if
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pentanes-plus, the propane content in the Butane Splitter will concentrate to about 1.0
mol% in the isobutane. The vapour pressure of the isobutane would well be within specs
at 4.0 Bar G. (58 psi) @ 38
o
C. (100
o
F) at those conditions, but any higher percentage of
propane allowed out the bottom would make it very difficult, or impossible, to come up
with isobutane at specification vapour pressure.
The Depropanisers are not likely to make a cut this good at all times, due to dynamic
surges and with the possibility of feed different than design. Since the primary obligation
is to make specification propane overhead, the bottom product may contain excess
propane.
2. Separation
The key components of the separation are propane out of the top and isobutane and
heavier out of the bottom. To keep butanes-plus below 2.5 LV% in the overhead product
requires a recovery of about 94% of the isobutane from the feed to the bottom of the
column. To reduce the propane content of the bottom product to 0.3%, which will enable
the Butane Splitter overhead product to make specs, requires a recovery of 99.8% of the
propane from the feed to the overhead. The system is designed for a high recovery with
a 50 tray column and reflux-to-feed ratio of 0.9 mol/mol or 0.86 barrel/barrel.
(0.86m
3
/m
3
/).
3. Process Equipment
The two Depropanizer are 2900mm (9-5") in diameter by 34,620 mm (about 113 feet)
in height. Each column is equipped with 50 valve trays, double cross flow, spaced at
610mm (20") intervals, with the exception of the feed entry tray which is spaced at
610mm (20") intervals, with the exception of the feed entry tray which is spaced at
1220mm (48"). (This was necessary to provide the extra space between the trays for the
internal feed distributors). Valve trays were selected for their turn-down ability to 50% or
less of design feed rates. As in the case of the De-ethaniser, in the event of low feed
availability, one Depropanizer can be out of service and the other operated at 25% or
less of total design feed.
Two steam-heated U-tube reboilers side by side, in the bottom of the column are used
for heat source. Each re-boiler contains 240 hair pin or U tube shaped, one inch tubes
and are sized to vapourize about 82% of the liquid reaching the bottom of the tower. The
remainder is draw off as bottom product.
Condensate Pumps
Two condensate pumps are provided to pump the condensed steam from the
condensate accumulator to the condensate gathering system. One pump is for service
and the other is for stand-by. They both are Ingersoll Rand centrifugal type pumps with
rated maximum capacity of 22M
3
/hr (about 138 b/hr) and minimum flow of 3.3M
3
/hr,
(about 20 B/hr). They are driven with 10hp, 415V. 3 phase 50 cycle electric motors at
2900 rpm.
The condensate accumulator for the Depropanisers are horizontal tanks 760mm id x
1525mm T.T. having a capacity of 0.7M
3
each. (About 4.39 bbls). The level is controlled
by a liquid level controller, LNC-51245, which operates control valve LPV-51245 (on No.
1 Depropanizer). The condensate is pumped into the 4" low pressure condensate line
4" 651-T21-517 back tot he condensate gathering system at the boiler house.
Power to drive the fans is provided by a 40 h.p., 415V 50 cycle motor each. Each set of
two coils has two fans. Adjustable louvres are provided to aid in temp control across the
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coils, as well as the ability to shut down fans if necessary during cold weather.
The condensed liquid leaves from each coil through a six inch lateral and is manifolded
into a common 8" line, 8"-551-L40-368, where it then flows into the accumulator.
The Accumulator is a horizontal vessel (5-D-19) 2900 mm ID (9.5) by 8700 mm (28.5)
long, with a rated capacity of 61M
3
(about 383 bbls). It has a working pressure at 11.5
Bar G. (028 psig) and design temperature of 60
o
C (140
o
F)/ -35
o
C, (-31
o
F).
In order to maintain a vapour space in the top of the accumulator and provide a working
level, some of the column overhead vapours is by-passed around the condenser through
a 6 inch (6"-551-L40-367) line, and control valve PPV-51332 into the top of the
accumulator. This is also serves as a method of pressure maintenance on the vessel.
The vessel has about seven minutes of surge time when running half full of liquid.
Reflux Pumps
The liquid is then pumped from the accumulator with the reflux pumps (one on line, one
on stand-by) back to the top of the column, with a side stream taking off the discharge
side as the overhead product. The pumps are centrifugal, 295M
3
/hr (1852.6 bbls/hr)
capacity, 1460 rpm, made by Ingersoll-Rand. They are driven by 100 h.p. 415V 3 phase
50 cycle motors. The reflux pumps return about 60% of the liquid as reflux to the top tray
of the column and deliver the remainder as overhead product.
5. Control System
The feed to the De-propanizer is on flow control reset by the De-ethanisers Distillation
Column Controls (Computer) or by the De-ethanisers tray temperature controller. As
stated before, the De-propanizers feed motor valve and the De-ethanisers bottoms
product motor valve are the same valve. Whatever the De-ethaniser pays off, the De-
propanizer must feed, (or go to the flare).
Steam to the De-propanizer reboiler is flow control FPV-51101, reset by the liquid level
controller, IC-51223, located near the bottom of the tower. An increase in kettle level will
add steam to re-boil more up into the top of the column, thereby holding the level as set.
Opposite reactions take place in case the level should drop.
Column Pressure is on back pressure control at the overhead vapour line. Control
valve PPV-51330. located in the 14" vapour line is actuated by PIC-51330 which senses
the pressure from pressure point PNT-51330 located on the overhead line upstream of
the back pressure control valve, PPV-51330. The air fin fan louvres located above the
overhead condenser, 5-E-24, are on hand control, HIC-51030, and is the only control
(aside from shutting down or starting fans, or coil pinching) provided for the reflux
condensing temperature. Normal Operating Pressure is 12.5 BAR.
Accumulator pressure is maintained by using a combination of two valves, 6" PPV-
51332A and 10" PPV-51332B, both located in the overhead vapour piping upstream of
the overhead condensers. A pressure controller, PIC-51332, which receives its signal
from pressure point PNT-51332 located on the accumulator, will control the accumulator
pressure by opening up on the 6", PPV-51332A and pinching back on the 10" PPV-
51332B, to force hot vapour off the overhead vapour line into the accumulator there-by
maintaining the set pressure of the PIC-51332. (This forces hot vapours around the
condenser directly to the accumulator through a separate line). Normal operating
pressure is 11.5 BAR.
External reflux rate is on flow control, FPV-51102, reset by the Distillation Column
Control, or by straight rate of flow control if necessary.
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Overhead Product is controlled by the level in the accumulator. Accumulator LIC-51227
re-sets FIC-51103 which of flow control if necessary.
Distillation Column Controls. The Distillation Column Control employs a computer to
implement feed forward and feed back control of the two De-propanizers. Before this
can work, certain information must be fed into the computer, such as feed rate, reflux and
overhead temperatures and overhead composition. Bottom composition-which is very
important, is monitored or ratioed to overhead composition for control. Chromatagraph
analysers which are used for product analysis are "batch type" analysis, etc. As the
mixture passes through the "column" in the analysis, each component of the mixture
encounters a different resistance to travel, therefore each component will require a
different length of time to travel through the column, and the components-lightest gases
first, etc.-will leave the columns separately. An electronic device at the exit of the column
measures the quantity of product leaving the column at a given time and this information
is relayed to the computer.
Four analysers are used to determine these compositions. Two are used on the De-
propanizers overhead product liquid for control, and the other two used on the bottom
products for monitoring and/or control. The overhead analyser should show iso-butane
to be about 0.4 mol% of the stream, and the bottom product analyser should show
propane to be about 0.3mol% the stream, or 1.0 to 15mol% of the iso-butane in the
stream.
The computer reads and stores the results of the overhead product analysis along with
the column feed, reflux temp, and bottoms rate. This information is compared with
previous stored information in the computer both from previous process information, and
pre-set operating limitations implemented by the operators of the P.O.C. The computer
then makes adjustments to the bottom flow rate and/or reflux flow rate to maintain the
desired column operating conditions to produce specification propane out the top, and
specification feed stock for the Butane Splitter downstream, out the bottom.
6. Alarms and Safety Features. The control valves throughout the De-propanizer systems
are designed to "fail safe" in case of loss of instrument power, air or electricity. The
control valves will open or close in a pattern that blocks in feed, overhead and bottom
streams, shut off the steam to the re-boilers, allows the overhead vapour to flow through
the con denser and liquid to be pumped back into the column if the reflux pump is
operable. Valve actions in case of instrument air failure are listed below:
Instrument Air Failure
Valve Service Action
PPV-51330 Col. back pressure Open
PPV-51332-A Accum. press mtcc. Open
PPV-51332-B Accum. press mtcc. Closes
FPV-51102 Reflux Open
FPV-51104 K.P. Closes
FPV-51103 OHP Closes
FPV-51101 Steam Closes
LPV-51231 Condensate Opens
FPV-51104 Bottoms Product Closes
K.P. Cooler Air fin Louvres Open
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7. Operating Procedure
The following discussion is offered to illustrate certain actions to be considered in putting the
process equipment into service, or shutting it down. It should be noted, however, that these are
general and that at times, special instructions pertaining to different types, or conditions of start-
up or shut-downs may be issued.
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a. Start-up
Preparatory to start-up all utilities must be in service, (including hot and cold vent
systems, all drain system), instrumentation checked out and all rotating equipment
tested. Steam supply line should be warmed up and drained of all liquid to the control
valve, and the condensate system lined up and ready to go. One, or both De-ethanizers
must be operating to furnish suitable feed for the De-propanizer with the feed switched
to the flare until such time as the De-propanizer can be started.
It should also be pointed out that on this particular write-up, the number one
Depropanizer will be the one described, and assume that number two De-propanizer is
not running.
To start up a De-propanizer for the first time or any time after it has been down and
purged of hydrocarbon, it is necessary to purge the system of all air before it can be
started. The normal method would be to purge with feed, but the Teesside equipment
is provided with piped in purge gas which can be tied into the bottom of the volume with
temporary swing pipe, or nitrogen may be used. The time element will play a definite part
in which method is used, either purge gas, nitrogen or feed, but in this case let us
assume nitrogen gas is to be used.
After close inspection has been made for blinds that may have been overlooked,
equipment properly re-fitted, and all drains and bleeders closed, blind flanges removed
from the 3" bleeder valve, and the bleeders opened on the overhead vapour line and 2"
blind plate off the top of the reflux accumulator we are ready to start.
Notify utilities and all personnel in the area, and see that all chain gates, or road barriers
are up to prevent vehicle entry to the affected area, or area down wind.
After nitrogen has been tried in, slowly crack open the purge valve and admit nitrogen
to the bottom of the tower through the entry valve provided. After a good rate has been
established in the tower crack open 3" vent (blind plate already removed) off the
overhead vapour line to let air out of the system. Open the bleeders on all gauge
glasses and control barrels on the bottom of the column, and start checking for gas. The
nitrogen will displace the air out the top through the overhead vapour line and towards
the overhead condensers. (Have all coils blocked in but one).
As the nitrogen displaces the air in the column it will also be backing out the reflux line.
Since there is a check valve in the reflux pump discharge line it will be necessary to
purge the reflux line from two directions - Block in the reflux control valve block valve, on
the pumps side - open the bleeder between the reflux motor valve and the block valve,
and open the reflux motor valve with the control - this will allow the air to be pushed out
the reflux line from the column down through the bleeder on the reflux motor valve (the
other half is purged later, as shown below).
Keep checking bleeder for air %. Block bleeder of when the air has been displaced.
When nitrogen is detected on the 3" bleeder on the overhead vapour line start checking
for nitrogen exiting from the bleeder on the coil in the overhead condenser that is open.
When nitrogen is detected on the outlet of the coil, start blocking in this coil and opening
the next coil and bleeder next (closing bleeders as coils are purged). Continue this
process on all coils.
During this time, air has been displaced out the 3" bleeder on top of the accumulator, so
someone should be watching this also.
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When all the coils are purged it wont be long until signs will be showing up from the
bleeder on the accumulator - (by this time, have the accumulator gauge columns,
glasses, and control barrels bleeders open). When nitrogen is detected form these
bleeders, open the reflux pump suction valve, open the bleeder on the pump case and
check for gas here. With the reflux pump discharge valve still blocked, go to the reflux
control valve, block in the isolating valve on the column side (leaving bleeder open) and
open the isolating valve on the pump side-when the air has been displaced at the pump
casing bleeder, open the pump discharge valve and purge the remaining section of reflux
line out through the bleeder on the control valve piping. When no air is detected here,
block in the purge gas to the column, and then block in there flux motor valve bleeder,
along with any more that may still be open.
If purge nitrogen, or purge gas is not elected to be used as the purging agent then the
same procedure can be used by using feed, with the following exceptions: First establish
a level in the bottom of the column with feed by cracking open the feed motor valve by-
pass valve HPV-51011 with the control on the panel board and letting feed in this way
around the feed motor valve. The same precautions, and method of watching for vapour
out the vents can be applied. There should be little steam cracked through the reboiler
to prevent freezing the condensed steam in the tubes. A good way to insure this is to
have the bleeder open to the slab on the condensate run-down lines to the condensate
accumulator to keep the reboiler warm. Use the by-pass line around the steam motor
valve during this time - cracked.
All during the time that feed has been admitted to the column it will have been
vaporising, so close watch on the bleeders must be had at all times. shut the feed out
when a level has been established in the bottom-crack a little more steam through the
reboiler and keep checking vents-exactly in the same order as the other method.
When all the air is out, the column is ready to start.
b. Starting the Column
Due to the control arrangements on the De-ethaniser tower bottom line, (which is the
feed line to the De-propanizer tower), in order to have the De-ethaniser on spec and
ready to go to the De-propanizer, it would have been switched to the flare-which takes
off the De-ethaniser bottoms line down stream of the De-ethaniser K.P. control valve-and
since the pressure on he De-propanizer at this time is nil, the main isolating valve on the
De-propanizer column must be closed to prevent filling up to the column with feed before
it was on spec, or ready to receive. This means that someone must climb the tower to
the feed entry level and manually operate the feed entry valve to the column, when
ready. This applies to the initial purge step- (Method No. 2) and initial start up step.
After manually opening the feed valve at a fairly low rate to start with, (with part of the
feed still going to flare through the 4" flare valve, HPV-51011), admit feed again until a
good level is established in the column bottom.
When a good level is established, increase the steam to the column and start building
up pressure and temperature- (all coils will be open @ this step due to purging). Check
level in condensate pot and start the condensate pump, if not already started due to
condensate build-up form warm-up stage. Have the column back pressure control either
on manual, or on by-pass during this initial period to allow some heat to pass through the
overhead condensers for gradual warm-up. This should also prevent any excess
"knocking" as the hot vapour pass through cold equipment.
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After the coils have had a little time to warm up, then begin starting sir fin fans. Continue
increasing steam, either on "manual" or, by-pass (By pass preferred) and letting the
pressure and heat build up until near operating levels, then switch the back pressure
controls on automatic, this also applies to the accumulator pressure-which should have
been coming up with the column due to the back pressure motor valve by-pass being
open allowing a constant flow of hot vapour out through the system.
During this time so far, some of the vapour has been condensing and dropping out in the
accumulator-when a pumping level been established in the accumulator, open through
the reflux line (with overhead product line still blocked off) control valve and start reflux
pump. (Be sure the pump case has been properly primed with liquid, and un-gassed).
Start reflux at a low rate at first, as it will tend to pull the level down in the vessel-keep
at low rate, increasing only as liquid level in accumulator will allow. The sooner, however,
that the proper reflux rate is achieved, the sooner the column will be on line.
Continue increasing reflux and feed with the controls-until desired are evident- the open
the product lines to the flare until on spec. When the propane out the overhead is on
spec, the propane treater, and out of the flare. When the bottom is on spec, switch to
the Butane Treater, and out of the flare.
Initially the column bottom product flow controller may be put on tray temperature control
if desired. When conditions are reasonably well lined out, the sampling system should
be started and the analysers put into service. When functioning properly the Distillation
Column Control may be put into service.
c. Shut Down
When it is necessary to completely shut down the column and purge the system for
repair work the following procedure may be used:
Inform the Boiler House and all others involved. Take the distillation column control out
of service. Switch the feed to the flare by opening the 4" vent to flare line valve HPV-
51011 with HIC-51011. (The check valve in the feed line will prevent any back flow from
the tower to go to the flare but the feed line must be blocked in at the column). Open the
bottoms product to the flare by opening the 6" valve HPV-51028 with HIC-51028. A
check valve will prevent back flow. Open the overhead product to flare by operating 3"
HPV-51037 valve with HIC-51073. A check valve is installed here also to prevent back
flow to the flare-from the product line down-stream. Shut off the supply, and condensate
pump. Block in condensate. Continue to reflux the column as long as there is anything
left to pump in the accumulator.
During this time, the pressure on the column and accumulator will continue to drop.
Lower pointer on column back pressure controller to keep the overhead vapour motor
valve open to let out vapour from the column as long as possible. The accumulator back
pressure motor valves will position themselves in the maximum pressure make-up
situation, which will prevent the vapour from flushing the coils, so pull the accumulator
back pressure pointer down to force the remaining column overhead vapour through the
condensing coils, flushing the majority of liquid into the accumulator. As the column
empties up, shut down the air in fan to minimize any mor condensation so that the
vapour may be passed on out the accumulator 2" line to relief (shut down reflux pump
when it gasses off); this will minimize the amount of liquid settling out in the vessel to
weather off. As the column pressure comes down most of the lighter ends will flash off,
but more than likely a residual amount of heavies will accumulate in the bottom which will
have to be drained out along with any in the accumulator, to the enclosed drain system.
(Close watch on blow egg is necessary here). To aid in the final draining, it would be
helpful to hook the purge gas back into the column, and pressure out the remaining liquid
to drain system. This would also help flush the underground drain line and blow egg of
liquid.
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After all liquid and pressure has been blown out through the various product lines, and
drain, block in the overhead product line at the overhead product control valve, the
bottom product at the tower and at the bottom product control valve.
Note:
If the Depropanizer is to be down an extended length of time the corresponding De-
ethaniser should also be shut down to prevent excessive loss of product to the flare.
After all pressure is off, and the tower is drained up it can be vapour freed by steaming
with 3.5 bar g. steam.
d. Refluxing the column
At times, due to temporary trouble with the De-ethaniser, for instance, and the feed to the
De-propanizer is not on specs, or due to low incoming feed it is possible that the column
will have to be refluxed rather than completely shut down.
If the reason is due to complete loss of feed flow meter will go to zero and cause the
Distillation Column control to shut in the bottom product, and reduce the reflux to the
minimum stop. The accumulator liquid level control would shut in the overhead product
flow when the level in the accumulator reached the cut-off point on the control. The
column would then be on total reflux. If, instead, the feed is not lost, but switched to the
flare, the feed signal still passes through the feed meter, so the Distillation Column
Control completely. In either case, the operator should physically shut in the overhead,
and bottom products to prevent leakage down stream. The column bottom liquid level
will continue to keep the right amount of steam in the reboiler for equilibrium.
When ready to go back on stream, ease the feed back into the column, and put back on
feed forwards control or, in the case of temperature control, simple open the product
streams, and re-adjust the column trim as necessary.
8. Power Failure.
In a total failure all motors will go down. The electronic instruments will operate off the
batteries and the emergency generator will furnish power to keep the batteries charged,
but the process will be down. The equipment usually will start pressuring up due to loss
of reflux over top of the tower and the effect of latent heat in the bottom. The steam will
automatically shut off, but if it does not, block it in anyway. The worst thing about power
failure other than the initial shock of it is knowing the duration of it. In any case, the
equipment is down, and must be treated as a total shut down and act accordingly. If the
feed is still coming in (which it probably wont be) switch it to the flare. BLOCK in the
product stream to conserve levels as much as possible in the tower bottom and
accumulator.
When the power is restored, start up the cooling fans and reflux pump as quickly as
possible, then put the feed back in (if available) and switch the product streams back out
(either to flare, or storage depending on duration of power outage, and the column
conditions).
Another type of power failure is the "skip" type-in this case not all equipment is lost.
Usually it is caused by a "dip" in power, but whatever the cause the affect can be
dangerous. Try immediately to re-start the downed motor-it may need to be re-set, or in
some cases not. Get them started, however, as quickly as possible-as speed counts
here. If the reflux pump, for instance, goes down and nothing else, try to get it or the
spare pump back on line at once.
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If it is impossible to get it re-started, shut down the column. A condensate pump,
however, can be down for one reason or another, and not require the column to be down-
as the condensate can be "ditched" to the drain temporarily.
It is very difficult to write down the exact actions to take during a power failure due to the
different situations it can cause, but more than likely it will be either a total failure of your
section, a total Plant failure, or a "spot" type as mentioned above.
9. Instrument Air Failure
An instrument air failure will result in the loss of the air supply between the control output
transmitter to the control valve diaphragms, rendering the valves inoperative. In this
case the control valves will "fail" either open, or closed. As outlined before, in paragraph
8, the control valves were placed in their respective location with this idea in mind so that
if the air is lost they except for attempting to use by-passes and go on complete hand
control. This is almost impossible with the amount of controls in the unit.
Approved By:
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
0
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN DEPROPANIZER -No.1
5-T-09
SERVICE SIZE No.
TRAYS
TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY SPACING
MM
REBOILER 505-40-
20/21
DE-PROPANIZER 2900
x
34,620 T/T
50 VALVE
TRAYS
610 all except
48th-1220
Internal-horizontal
U-TUBE, Z PASS
240 1" OD Carbon
Steel
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
(tray no)
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET PRESS
RELIEVES TO
28 12.5 Bar G
98
o
C
PSV-51095
PSV-51096
6 x 10
6 x 10
17.4
20.7
Warm Relief
ATMOS
ACCUMULATOR
5-T-19
RELIEF VALVES SIZE
(MM)
TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE PRESS RELIEVE
TO
2900
x
8700
HORIZ. 11.5 Bar G
38
o
C
PSV-51047 3 x 4 Warm
Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
SIZE (MM) TYPE WORKING PRESS
760
x
1525 T/T
HORIZONTAL 3.5 Bar-g
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
136 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No.1 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-09
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
LIC-51223
FIC-51101
FPV-51101
PIC-51330
PPV-51330
PIC-51332
PPV-51332A
PPV-51332B
HIC-51055
5-T-09
COLUMN BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONTROL
LP STEAM TO
REBOILERS
5-E-20/21
L.P. STEAM
CONTROL VALVE TO
REBOILERS
5-E-20/21
5-T-09 OVERHEADS
PRESS CONTROL
5-T-09
OVERHEADS
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR 5-D-
19
PRESS CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR 5-D-
19
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR 5-D-
19
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
FIN-FAN
CONDENSER
5-E-24
E
3-15psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
O.A.F
O.A.F
C.A.F
FIC-51101
FPV-51101
PPV-51330
PPV-51332A
&
PPV-51332B
HPV-51055
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
137 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-09
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
HPV-51055
LIC-51227
FIC-51103
FPV-51103
HIC-51073
HPV-51073
FIC-51102
(COMPUTE
R RESET)
HIC-51030
HPV-51030
OVERHEADS FIN-FAN
CONDENSER LOUVRE
CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-19
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-19
LEVEL CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-19
LEVEL CONTROL VALVE
OVERHEADS PRODUCT
TO COLD RELIEF
OVERHEADS PRODUCT
CONTROL VALVE TO
COLD RELIEF
5-T-09
COLUMN REFLUX
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
FIN FAN CONDENSER
5-E-41
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
FIN FAN CONDENSER
5-E-01
CONTROL
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
NOT
USED
3-15 psi
NOT
USED
START UP
SHUT DOWN
EMERGENCY
C.A.F
O.A.F
FIC-51103
FPV-51103
HPV-51073
FPV-51102
HPV-51030
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
138 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-PROPANIZER
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
TIC-51284
TPV-51284
FIC-51104
(COMPUTER
PRIMARY
CONTROL)
FPV-51104
TIC-51283
(4th TRAY
OFF) (505-
950-09)
HIC-51028
HPV-51028
FIC-51105
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
FIN-FAN CONDENSER
5-E-41
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
FIN-FAN CONDENSER
5-E-41
5-T-09
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
EX-5-E-41
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
EX-5-T-09
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
RUNDOWN CONTROL
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
EX-5-E-41
5-T-09
BOTTOMS PRODUCT
EX-5-E-41
CONTROL VALVE TO
WARM RELIEF
5-T-09
K.P. INTERCHANGES
505-5-E-26-29
E
NOT USED
3-15 psi
NOT USED
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
E
WHEN OFF
PRIMARY
CONTROL
START UP SHUT
DOWN
EMERGENCY
O.A.F
C.A.F
C.A.F
PV-51284
FPV-51104
FPV-51104
HPV-51028
FPV-51105
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
139 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 1 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-09
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESULTS
FPV-51105
r. FIX-51105
(RATIO CONTROL
FOR No.1&2 DE-
PROP. COLUMNS)
5-T-09
K.P. INTERCHANGES
5-T-09/10
K.P. INTERCHANGER
CONTROLLER
3-15 psi
E
LOCKS
FIC-51105
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
140 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
No. 1 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-09
VALVE NO. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
TEMP. CAP SIZE MATERIAL RELIVE TO:
PSV-51095
PSV-51096
PSV-51097
PSV-51098
PSV-51099
5-T-09
COLUMN OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
5-T-09
COLUMN OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
5-D-19
DEPROPANIZER
REFLUX
ACCUMULATOR
5-E-26 TO 29
DEPROPANIZER K.P.
INTERCHANGES TUBE
SIDE
5-E-26 TO 29
DEPROPANIZER K.P.
INTERCHANGES
SHELL SIDE
17.4 BAR-G
20.7 BAR-G
18.0 BAR-G
17.9 BAR-G
NOT USED
17.9 BAR-G
NOT USED
6" x 10"
6" x 10
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
PROPANE
PROPANE
PROPANE
BUTANES
(DRIED)
BUTANES
(WET)
WARM RELIEF
ATMOS.
WARM RELIEF
ATMOS.
WARM RELIEF
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
141 of 335
FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN
No. 2 DE-PROPANIZER - 5-T-09
SERVICE SIZE No. TRAYS TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY SPACING REBOILER
C
3
s
: (TRACE
: c
5
s
)
C
4
s
2,900mm
x
34,620mm
T/T
50
VALVE
TRAYS
24" SPACING
(610mm)
(FEED TRAY)
48"(1220 mm)
5-E-22/23
INTERNAL U-
TUBE BUNDLES
USING L.P STEAM
3.5 BAR-G
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES
(Tray No.)
WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE SET PRESS RELIEVES
TO
28 12.5 Bar G
TEMP 98
o
c
PSV-5110
PSV-51101
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
17.4 BAR G
20.7 BAR G
WARM
RELIEF
ATMOS
ACCUMULATOR
5-T-20
RELIEF VALVES SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE PRESS RELIVE TO
2,900 mm
x
8,700 mm
HORIZ 11.5 Bar G
TEMP. 38
o
C
PSV-51102 3" x 4" WARM
RELIEF
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
5-D-18
SIZE TYPE WORKING PRESS
760 mm
x
1525 mm
T/T
HORIZONTAL 3.5 BAR G
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
142 of 335
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
DEPROPANIZER TOWERS - 5-T-09/10
SIZE
SERVICE No.
SUCT DISCH
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED
RPM.
SUCTION
PRESSURE
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
DIFF.
HEAD
MINI
FLOW
MAX.
FLOW
DRIVE
Reflux Pump-
5-p-22/23/33/34
Condensate
Pump 5-p-
19/20/21/37
4
4
10"
3"
8"
1"
Ing. Rand
Cent.
Ing. Rand
Cent.
1460
2900
11.5 Bar
2 Bar 6.1 Bar
4.1 Bar
4.1 Bar
55 M
3
/hr
3.3 M
3
/hr
295 M
3
/hr
22 M
3
/hr
Elect. 100 H.P.
Motor
Elect 10 H.P.
Motor
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
143 of 335
OVERHEAD CONDENSERS
DEPROPANIZER O.H. CONDENSER
5-E-24/25
NO. SIZE TYPE WORKING
PRESS.
SOURCE OF
COOLING
2 36607 M
2
surface
area Length 12.28M
FINNED TUBES 14.5 BAR G AIR
OVERHEAD CONDENSER FANS
NO. BLADES M.F. DRIVE REMARKS FAN RPM
8 4 EACH 14 DIA
POLYESTER
STORK ELECTRIC;
BELT DRIVEN
CAST IRON
HUBS
209
DE-PROPANIZER BOTTOMS COOLER
5-E-41/42
NO. SIZE TYPE WORKING PRESS. SOURCE OF
COOLING
2 1049M
2
surface
area Length 5.660M
FINNED TUBES 4
PASS
12.1 BAR G
NOT USED
AIR
BOTTOMS COOLER FANS
NO. BLADES M.F. DRIVE REMARKS FAN RPM
2ea 4 EACH 5 DIA
POLYESTER
STORK
NOT USED
ELECTRIC 2
SPEED
DIRECT DRIVE
4 KW
CAST IRON
HUBS
720
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
144 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-10
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
LIC-51237
FIC-51107
FPV-51107
PIC-51355
PPV-51355
PIC-51357
PPV-51357A
PPV-51357B
HIC-51061
5-T-10
COLUMN
BOTTOMS
CONTROL
L.P. STREAM TO
REBOILERS
5-E-22/23
L.P. STREAM
CONTROL VALVE
TO REBOILERS
5-T-10
OVERHEADS
PRESS CONTROL
5-T-10
OVERHEADS
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
PRESS CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS FIN-
FAN CONDENSER
5-E-25
E
(4-15 MA)
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
C.A.F.
O.A.F
O.A.F
C.A.F
FIC-51107
FPV-51107
PPV-51355
PPV-
51357A
&
PPV-
51357B
HPV-51061
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
145 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-PROPANIZER - 5-T-10
INST. NO DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HPV-51061
FIC-51108
FPV-51108
LIC-51241
FIC-51109
FPV-51109
HIC-51074
HPV-51074
HIC-51031
OVERHEADS FIN-
FAN
CONDENSER
5-E-25
LOUVRE
CONTROL
5-T-10
COLUMN REFLUX
5-T-10
COLUMN REFLUX
CONTROL VALVE
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
LEVEL CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
LEVEL CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-20
LEVEL CONTROL
VALVE
OVERHEADS
PRODUCE TO
COLD RELIEF
OVERHEADS
PRODUCTS TO
COLD RELIEF
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONDENSER
5-E-42
LOUVRE
CONTROL
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
4-15 MA)
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
NOT USED
O.A.F
C.A.F
C.A.F
FPV-
51108
FIC-51109
FPV-
51109
HPV-
51074
HPV-
51031
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
146 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
No. 2 DE-PROPANIZER - 5-T-10
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HPV-51031
TIC-51295
TPV-51295
TIC-51294 (4th
TRAY OF 5-T-D)
FIC-51110
(COMPUTER
PRIMARY
CONTROL)
FPV-5110
HIC-51029
HPV-51029
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONDENSER
5-E-42
LOUVRE
CONTROL
5-E-42
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONDENSER
5-E-42
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
CONDENSER BY-
PASS CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
RUNDOWN
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT TO
COLD RELIEF
5-T-10
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT TO
COLD RELIEF
CONTROL VALVE
3-15 psi
NOT USED
E
(4-15 MA)
NOT USED
3-15 psi
NOT USED
E
(4-15 MA)
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
E
(4-15 MA)
3-15 psi
WHEN OFF
PRIMARY
CONTROL
O.A.F
C.A.F
C.A.F
TPV-51295
FIC-51110
FPV-51110
HPV-51029
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
147 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
No. 2 DE-PROPANIZER 5-T-10
VALVE No. LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET PRESS. TEMP. CAP SIZE MATERIAL RELIVE TO:
PSV-51100
PSV-51101
PSV-51102
PSV-51103
NOT USED
PSV-51104
NOT USED
5-T-10
COLUMN
OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
5-T-10
COLUMN
OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
5-T-20
DE-PROPANIZER
REFLUX
ACCUMULATOR
5-E-30 TO 33
DE-PROPANIZER K.P.
INTERCHANGES
TUBE SIDE
5-E-30 TO 33
DE-PROPANIZERS
K.P. INTERCHANGES
SHELL SIDE
17.4 BAR G
20.7 BAR G
18.0 BAR G
17.9 BAR G
17.9 BAR G
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
PROPANE
"
"
BUTANES (DRIED)
BUTANES (WET)
WARM RELIEF
ATMOS
WARM RELIEF
ATMOS
WARM RELIEF
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
148 of 335
6. BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR TREATING SYSTEM:
53-T-33/34/35/36/37
P & ID Ref: 7809-519-D00-005
a. The Butane treater receives mixed as its feed from the bottom product of the
depropanizer Fractionating towers, and removes the water and sulphur compounds to
provide a suitable product for refrigerated storage and sales.
Specifications for the treated butanes are: 2 ppm maximum, and volatile sulphur
compounds 15 grains/100 cu. The water specifications are required to prevent freeze
ups when the temperatures are reduced to permit storage in atmospheric pressures
refrigerated storage tanks, and the sulphur must be reduced so that it can meet sales
specifications.
The systems required for this operation include the following equipment:-
(1) Two Butane Dehydrator Feed Pumps (53-p-09/10)
(2) Five Butane Treating Towers (53-T-33/34/35/36/37)
(3) One Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Separator (53-D-38)
(4) One Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Cooler (53-E-12)
(One of the Propane Treater Coolers is connected as a common spare).
(5) Two Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Separator Pumps (53-P-11/12)
(6) Two sets of Regeneration Gas Heaters (53-E-15/16/19/20/21/22)
The system begins with the Dehydrator Feed Surge Tank and ends, for the liquid stream,
at the inlet to the Depropanizer Kettle product heat exchanger. The regeneration gas
system ends with the back pressure controller on the line to the feed system.
Flow Description The wet liquid mixed butanes flow from the bottom of the depropanizer
towers through the shell side of the DEC-3 kettle product heat exchangers 53-E-
30/31/32/33 and out through a 6" line into an air fin cooler (5-E-41) where it is cooled to
around 38
o
C. It is then routed through a 4" line through the Depropanizer bottoms
product control valve where it joins up with the No. 2 Depropanizer bottoms product. The
combined streams enter a 6" line from this point on into the Butane Treater Surge Tank.
The liquid from the surge tank is then pumped tot he treaters on line where it enters the
bottom, flowing upwards through the beds where it makes contact with the ALUMINA
balls and MOL SIEVE fill material. Moisture and sulphur is removed in this process by
absorption in the beds. The liquid then flows out of the top of treaters into a common
outlet header where it is routed through the tube side of the Depropanizer kettle product
heat exchangers described above and on out to become the feed for the butane splitter
column. A continuous sulphur analyser (AR 51017) has been installed on the common
outlet header, which will sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the butanes becomes
high or if the analyser fails. Since water is more strongly absorbed by the desiccant that
sulphur compounds, the sulphur will break through long before the water. Consequently
only sulphur content is monitored to determine the effectiveness of treating and
dehydration.
Regeneration As the Butane is being treated in the Treating Tower the desiccant is
gradually being saturated with water and sulphur and will reach a point where it will no
longer function. It must then be taken off the line re-generated.
Regeneration is process of "cleaning up" the beds enabling them to be used again. This
process is accomplished by taking a stream off of the High Pressure Fuel gas header
(Demethaniser overhead gas), heating it to 316
o
C with superheated steam in the
vaporisers and passing it through the beds from the top, and out the bottom. The
elevated Regeneration Gas temperature vaporises the moisture and sulphur from the
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
149 of 335
mol-sieves and sweeps them on out with the gas. The gas, along with the moisture and
sulphur is then routed through an air fin condenser (53-E-12) where the temperature is
lowered to around 38
o
C (100
o
F) before entering the Regeneration Separator (53-D-28).
The moisture is condensed, along with the heavier hydrocarbons and drops out to the
bottom of the vessel where the water is drawn off (manually) and the liquid hydrocarbons
are pumped back to the feed tank. The Regeneration Separator is automatically pumped
back to the beds now on line. Tank (53-D-32) where it enters with the fresh feed coming
in to the beds now on line. The feed tank has a Liquid level control that resets the feed
to the Butane Splitter Tower which should maintain a level at all times, but is equipped
with a low level shut down switch in case of problems upstream of the Depropanizer,
which will shut down the feed pump.
After the heating step has been completed the Bed must be cooled before putting it back
in service. This is accomplished be taking a side stream of the liquid feed and pumping
it back through the Bed in an UPWARD flow. Part of this liquid will flash, or vapourize
when it first hits the hot bed but will eventually cool down, condense in the condensing
air fin condenser (53-E-12) and drop out in the bottom of the Regeneration Separator
(like the heating step) and then be pumped back to the Feed Tank (53-D-32).
The Dehydrator Regeneration Pumps provide enough pressure to prevent any "flashing"
of liquids in the Beds, which can damage the desiccant, as well as adequate pressure
to get cooling Butane into the Regeneration Separator against the Regeneration Gas
pressure even at times when the Feed Tank pressure is low. In order to properly feed
these pumps, the Feed Surge Tank (53-D-32) is provided at the Pumps suction. This
tank has about 12 minutes of residence time when half full.
The Regeneration Separator (53-D-38) is made large enough to hold all the liquid from
one Treater/Dehydrator Tower and still provide for gas/liquid separation. This is
designed this way so that the liquid in a tower can be pushed out by the Regeneration
Gas as fast as the gas comes in without regard to the pump-out rate from the separator.
Process Variables and Controls The primary process variables, such as feed to the
Treaters temperature, pressure flow rate, water and sulphur content are controlled by the
operation of other units and cannot b directly changed at the Butane Treater. The Feed
low is controlled by a liquid level control on the Butane Treater Feed Tank, LIC-51263
which re-sets the amount of feed going to the Butane Splitter Column. This results in
varying the Butane Splitter column feed to maintain a working level in the Butane Treater
Feed Tank. The operator must, however, keep the feed equally distributed through the
Beds by manually adjusting the inlet valves to the beds. The temperature of the Feed
is a result of operations and conditions upstream of the Butane Treater.
During the Regeneration process the gas flow rate and temperature are the primary
variables. The design regeneration gas flow rate is 8,000 NM
3
/Hr with tower inlet
temperature of 315
o
C. If the regeneration gas flow rate, or temperature is too low, the
desiccant will not be completely regenerated. Upon initiation of the regeneration heating
cycle the outlet temperature will be low but will come up in stages as the bed is
regenerated.
The heat for the Regeneration Gas is supplied by passing 55.2 Bar G steam through the
shell side of the Regeneration gas vaporisers. The exit gas temperature is controlled by
split range temperature controller TIC-51391 which receives its signal from temperature
transmitters on the inlet gas to the bed, an outlet gas from the bed. The signal is
transmitted to a steam bleed valve off the top of the vaporiser TPV-51331-B and a three-
way control valve (TPV-51331-A) on the regeneration gas stream. The tree-way valve
controls the relative amount of Regeneration gas flowing through or by-passing around
the vaporiser. If additional heat is needed, with all gas going through the vaporiser, the
steam bleed valve (TPV-51331-B) vents steam off the super heater portion of the
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
150 of 335
vaporiser thereby increasing the amount of heat available. During normal operation the
three-way valve is expected to be in control.
Cooling the Regenerated Bed is accomplished by pumping Butane Treater feed UP
through the Bed.
Cooling During the cooling of the towers the butane flow and separator temperature are
the primary variables. The design flow rate of cooling butane is 5M
3
/hr with a
Regeneration Separator temperature of 38
o
C. The flow rate is low enough that there is
no danger of fluidizing the bed when all the butane vaporises as it will during the firs part
of the cooling step. Higher flow rates could damage the bed, yet if the rate were too low
the bed will not be sufficiently cooled. If the Regeneration Separator temperature is
much above 38
o
C an excessive amount of dissolved water will recycle back from the
separator to the Feed Surge Tank, causing additional moisture to be removed with the
beds on stream. The Regeneration Separator temperature is normally controlled by the
louvres on top of the condensing coils, (53-E-12) automatically by a temperature sensing
point (TE-51436) in the inlet line to the separator, which controls the louvres. Additional
control is provided by having a two-speed motor driving the fans.
Any water accumulated in the Regeneration Separator will de drawn off manually to the
drain system.
The normal cycle for the towers is controlled by an automatic sequence timer. Since the
same source of regeneration gas is used for both the Butane, and Propane Treaters the
timing cycle for heating-cooling, etc. for both treaters must be inter-locked. The cycle
times cannot be altered on one Treater without being compensated on the other.
Automatic Sequencing Timer - the standard cycle for a tower is:
ON STREAM - 24 hours
HEAT - 4 hours
COOL - 4 hours
STAND-BY - 4 hours
This is accomplished automatically with the "Automatic Sequence" timer which is
programmed in such a manner as to open and close the valves required to have three
towers on stream, one bed regenerating (either heating or cooling) and one bed on
stand-by.
The sequence of valve operation during a tower cycle is:
STATUS Towers No. 5-T-33,34 and 35 on stream.
Tower No. 53-T-36 on stand-by.
Tower No. 53-T-37 cooling.
NB. Because of the change in specification of the butane products the treaters are now
changed over manually from the sequence controller sub panel.
Instructions for the frequency of changes will be issued on the daily operating
instructions.
Valve Positions: Valves open: Main inlet and outlet vales for tower No. 53-T-33/34 and 35
number XPV-51137,40,41,44,45,48 and outlet valve No. XPV-511488
from tower No. 53-T-36 (stand-by); Regeneration valves No. XPV-51154
and 55 on tower No. 53-T-37. Cooling Butanes valve No. XPV-51160 and
XPV-51159, cooling regeneration gas line valves to air fins, and
regeneration separator.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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Sequence No.1- Valve XPV-51149 opens, establishing Butane flow through Tower No. 4
53-T-36
Sequence No. 2- Valves XPV-51154/55/60 and 56 close, shutting cooling gas out of No.4
tower, and valve No. XPV-51156 (53-T-37 tower main outlet) opens,
placing it on stand-by condition.
Sequence No. 3- Main inlet and outlet valves (XPV-51140/XPV-51137) to No. 1 tower (53-T-
33) close to take the tower off stream. At the same time, valves No. XPV-
51138/39 open, as well as XPV-51158 which lines up the regeneration
gas through the vaporiser and starts hot gas to the bed Regeneration
then commences.
Sequence No. 4- At the end of the heating cycle, valves No. XPV-51158/62 close, stopping
the flow of hot regeneration gas through No. 1 tower 53-T-33.
Sequence No. 5- Valves No. XPV-51160/59 open, starting the flow of Butane UP through
the bed to cool it.
Final Status
Tower No. 2,3 and 4 (53-T-34/35 and 36).
Tower No. 5 (53-T-37) - On STAND-BY.
Tower No. 1 (53-T-33) - Cooling.
START-UP After purging has been done, and feed is available, start the steam system up
through the steam side of the treaters, and start a regeneration cycle. After they have been
regenerated, and cooled, feed may be introduced.
1. Fill towers 1 through 4- (53-T-33-34-35-36) and the product line to the Butane Splitter with
liquid butanes.
2. Close the inlet valves on towers 2,3 and 4.
3. Set the automatic sequencing controller to the start of the on-stream cycle for
Tower 1. Start butane flow through Tower 1 at a flow-rate no lower than 75gpm
(this is to prevent bed "channelling").
4. Open block valves on Tower 5- (53-T-37). See that the automatic valve sequencing
control is on "AUTOMATIC".
5. Open the outlet block valve on Tower 4, to place it on "stand-by".
6. If after 8 hours the flow rate is below 150gpm, place Tower 2 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 1.
7. If after 16 hours the flow rate is below 150gpm, place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
8. As soon as the flow rate is above 150 gpm, two towers may be placed on stream
in parallel. If the flow rate is above 225 gpm, three towers may be placed on
stream.
NOTE: For a detailed Description of the Automatic Valve Sequencing control for the
Butane Treaters, see under "Propane Treater/Dehydrator" section in this manual.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Electrical Failure In case an electrical failure occurs, the regeneration gas cooler fans, Feed
pumps, and Regeneration gas separator liquid pump will stop. All switching valves controller by
the Automatic Sequence controller will remain in the position they were in at the time the failure
occurred. Shut off the steam leaving the regeneration gas heater, otherwise there will be a
continuous loss of 55 bar steam from the system. Block in the feed pumps and their minimum
flow line to prevent emptying the Dehydrator on stream towers and depressuring back to the
Surge tank in case any of the check valves should leak.
Instrument Air Failure
All switching valves controlled by the Automatic Sequence Control will stay in the position they
were in at the time the failure occurred. Shut off the Regeneration Separator Pumps because
the valve on the pump discharge line will close on air failure. All control valves will close and
stop the steam bleed from the heaters, regeneration gas flow to the towers, and butane flow
leaving them. Shut down the feed pumps and block them in as well as the minimum flow by-
passes.
Miscellaneous
Sampling probes have been installed in each tower two feet below the top of the desiccant.
These should be used for periodic testing of the beds capacity.
A continuous total sulphur analyser has been installed on the outlet product (AR-5107) that will
sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the butanes become too high. Since water is more
strongly absorbed by the desiccant than sulphur compounds the sulphur compounds the sulphur
will break through long before the water.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR 53-E-15/16/19/20/21/22
EXCHANGERS/HEATERS/COOLERS
PRODUCTS SHELL TEMP TUBE TEMP PRESSURE
EQUIP. No. DESCRIPTION
SHELL TUBE IN OUT IN OUT SHELL TUBE
No. TUBES & 512C
53-E-15
16,19,20,21
& 22
REGEN. GAS
HEATERS
800
STEAM
BUTANES 800
o
C 520
o
C 100
o
C 620
o
C 800 275 48 "/UNIT 20' LONG
REGEN. GAS COOLER
FANS
EQUIP. No. DESCRIPTION TYPE PRESSURE
COOLING
SOURCE
NO/UNIT-DESCRIPTION
COOLER
IN
TEMP
OUT
53-E-12 REGEN.GAS
COOLER
FINNED TUBE
AIR FIN-4 PASS
(DESIGN)
21.6 Bar G
AIR 3-2 SPEED. 2' DIA 4 BLADES
EACH ELECTRIC DRIVE-RPM,
960/480
288
o
C 38
o
C
VESSELS/DRUMS
EQUIP. No. SERVICE DESCRIPTION CAPACITY DIMENSION
(mm)
MATERIAL
DESIGN
PRESS
DESIGN
TEMP.
53-T-33
34,35,36,37
53-D-38
53-D-32
TREATER
TOWERS
REGEN. GAS
SEPARATOR
FEED SURGE
TANK
VERTICAL
VERTICAL
HORIZONTAL
13.1M
3
9.2M
3
57M
3
1370 x 8840
1220 x 7620
274 x 9145
CARBON
STEEL
CARBON
STEEL
CARBON
STEEL
20.2 Bar G
20.2 Bar G
6.9 Bar G
343
o
C
344
o
C
58
o
C
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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BUTANE TREATER/DEHYD. 53-T-33/34/35/36 AND 37
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
SIZE
SERVICE No.
SUCT DISCH
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED
RPM
SUCTION
PRESSURE
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
DIFF.
HEAD
MINI
FLOW
MAX
FLOW
DRIVE
FEED PUMPS
53-P-9/10
DEHYDRATOR
COOLING
PUMPS
53-P-11/12
2
2
8"
1
4"
1"
ING. RAND.
(CENT).
HAYWARD
TYLER
(CENT).
2980
2900
2.9 Bar G
3 Bar G
17.3 Bar G
5 Bar G
14.4
Bar G
2 Bar G
30M
3
/hr
1.9M
3
/hr
140M
3
/hr
5M
3
/hr
ELECT 180
hp
ELECT 2 hp
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR
53-T-33,34,35,36,37
INSTRUMENTATION
INST. TAG
NUMBER
PURPOSE
CONT. VLV
OPERATED
LOCATION
Action on
Air Failure
PIC-51426
LIC-51270
LIC-51263
FIC-51129
TIC-54136
TIC-51331A
TIC-51331B
AR-51017
AE-51036
AE-51038
AE-51040
AE-51042
REGEN.SEP.PRESSU
RE CONTROL
REGEN.SEP.LEVEL
CONTROL
FEED SURGE TANK
LEVEL CONTROL
REGEN. GAS TEMP.
HEATERS
REGEN.GAS.TEMP.
CONTROL
TEMP. OF REGEN
GAS TO
DEHYDRATORS
CONTROLS STEAM
TO REGEN HEATER
DEHYDRATOR
OUTLET LINE
SULPHUR
ANALYSER
SULPHUR
ANALYSER
ELEMENTS
PPV-51426
LPV-51276
FPV-51131
FPV-51129
TPV-51436
TPV-51331A
TPV-51331B
INFORMATION
ONLY
REGEN.SEP.OUTLET
GAS TO FUEL
LIQUID OUTLET
BUTANE SPLITTER
FEED LINE
REGEN. GAS
SUPPLY LINE
REGEN. COOLER
LOUVRES
REGEN. GAS
COOLERS
REGEN. GAS
HEATERS
LOCAL TO EACH
DIRER OUTLET
CLOSES
CLOSES
CLOSES
CLOSES
OPENS
CLOSES
CLOSES
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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Approved By:
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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SETTING (mm)
INST No. DESCRIPTION
HIGH LOW
ACTION
hhLA-
51269
ILLA-51316
hiLA-51267
llLA-5136
XA-51165A
XA-51165B
XA-51165C
HIG LIQUID LEVEL IN
REGEN.SEP.
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL UN
REGEN.SEP.
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL IN
REGEN.SEP
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL IN
REGEN.SEP
VIBRATION SWITCHES
ON COOLER FANS
2800
750
600
300
-
-
-
-
ALARMS
SHUTS DOWN COOLER
FAN/FANS WITH EXCESS
VIBRATION, AND GIVES ALARM
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR-
53-T-33/34/35/36/37
ALARMS & SHUTDOWN
NUMBER DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
hLA-51308
lLA-51309
llLNS-51301
hiLA-51265
IFA-51138
hTA-51331
hhLA-51269
llLA-51207
hTA-51436
lTA-51436
hANS-51017
FEED TANK HIGH LEVEL
FEED TANK LOW LEVEL
FEED TANK LOW LEVEL
HIGH H
2
O LEVEL IN
WATER BOOT ON FEED
TANK
LOW FLOW FROM DEC
3 BOTTOMS TO THE
TREATER FEED TANK
HIGH TEMPERATURE
ALARM-REGEN. GAS
REGEN. SEPARATOR
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL
REGEN. SEPARATOR
HIGH WATER LEVEL
HIGH REGEN. COOLER
INLET
LOW REGEN. COOLER
INLET TEMP.
HIGH SULPHUR
1830 mm
920 mm
7800 mm
600 mm
915 mm
460 mm
ALARM ONLY
ALARM ONLY
SHUTS DOWN
CHARGE PUMP
TRIPS FEV-51138 AND
OPENS CHARGE
PUMP MINIMUM FLOW
LINE VALVE, FPV-51138
ALARMS AT
o
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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RELIEF VALVES
NUMBER LOCATION SIZE SET PRESS BELIEVE TO:
PSV-51120
PSV-51121
PSV-51122
PSV-51123
PSV-51124
PSV-51125
PSV-51126
PSV-51127
PSV-51128
FEED SURGE TANK
No. 33 DRIER
No. 34 DRIER
No. 35 DRIER
No. 36 DRIER
No. 37 DRIER
REGEN. HEATER
OUTLET
REGEN. HEATER
OUTLET
REGEN.SEP.
4" x 6"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
3" x 4"
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
6.9 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
21.7 Bar G
21.7 Bar G
20.2 Bar G
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
ATMOSPHERE
ATMOSPHERE
WARM RELIEF
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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E-Butane Splitter
5-T-11
1. Purpose and Service
The purpose of the Butane Splitter is to take as feed, the bottoms product from both De-
propanizer towers and separate the mixed butanes into iso-butane and normal butane
products for sales. The iso-butane is produced overhead, the normal butane from the
5th tray outlet, and the remaining "heavies" from the bottom draw, or "drag" stream.
The overhead product will be routed directly to IC4-STORAGE (VIA Refrigeration), the
side-draw to C-4 STORAGE, and the drag stream to stabilized crude storage or Deoiler
for further refining.
a. Feed
The feed to the Butane Splitter is the combined bottom product from the two De-
propanizer after passing through the Butane Treater- Dehydrator mol sieve beds for
removal of traces of hydrogen sulphide and water. The calculated composition is
approximately 0.3 mol % propane, 29.4 % iso-butane, 70.2% normal butane and 0.1%
pentanes-plus. The propane content, however, could run much higher if the De-
propanizers are, for one reason or another, not making a good separation. Further, the
proportions of butanes and pentanes-plus depend largely on the drag stream off the
bottom of the tower, and the normal Butane stream to be taken off the side-draw product.
The feed from the treater Dehydrators is warmed by heat exchange with the De-
propanizer bottom products to the treater dehydrators; wet feed/dry feed temperature
exchange. The only control on the Butane-Splitter feed temperature is with the three-way
control valve TPV-51264 & TPV-51265, which directs more or less De-propanizer
bottoms product through, or around the De-propanizer bottoms coolers, 5-E-41/42. The
feed temperature at this point is around 38
o
C (100
o
F). The stream remains liquid up to
the feed riser to the feed control valve FPV-51131 located at the elevation of the feed
entry to the column. About 18% flashes to vapour upon entering the column.
b. Overhead Product
The overhead Product is high-purity iso-butane which must be at least 95 LV% iso-
butane and meet the N.G.P.A. specifications for commercial butane, which include 4.8
bar-g (70 psig) maximum vapour pressure at 38
o
C (100
o
F) and 2.0 LV % maximum
pentanes-plus. With low propane content feed the composition should be approximately
1.3 mol% propane, 95.5 mol% (95.7 LV%) isobutane, and 3.5 mol % n-butane with
vapour pressure of 4.0 bar-g. at 38
o
C. (58 psig @ 100
o
F). When these specifications are
met it may be pumped directly to the chiller, and isobutane storage.
c. Sidedraw Product
The sidedraw (5th tray) is high purity normal butane which must be at least 95 LV %
normal butane, and also meet the N.G.P.A. specifications for commercial butane
including maximum vapour pressure of 4.8 bar-g. (70 psig) at 38
o
C (100
o
F) and the feed,
is expected to be approximately 1.3 mol % iso-butane, 98.6 mol % (98.6 LV %) normal
butane, and 0.1 mol % pentanes-plus. The vapour pressure must be about 2.6 bar-g.
against sudden slugs of pentanes in the feed, but if pentanes-plus in the feed are
persistent, then the bottom draw (drag stream) must be used constantly at varied rates.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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d. Bottoms Product
(DRAG STREAM) The "drag" stream is necessary to remove heavies such as pentanes
and heavier from the system. It is cooled in an airfin cooler and then pumped to either
the stabilizer bottom product line to stabilized crude oil storage or to the stabilizer bottom
product recycle line to the crude booster pump suction or to the deoiler.
Note: Provisions are made to send either normal butane off the side-draw product, or
iso-butane off the overhead product to the fuel system.
e. Separation
The key components to be separated are iso-butane and normal butane in the main
portion of the column. With the normal butane product being taken out if the side-draw,
then the separation between the normal butane and heavies is in the bottom five trays.
With good feed-low propane and pentane-plus content, about 97% of the iso-butane
from the feed will be taken out over-head, and 98% of the normal butane from the feed
will go out the side-draw.
With the high propane content feed (De-propanizers not making a good cut) virtually the
same recoveries are required to make 95 LV % minimum iso-butane from the iso-butane
Depropanizer bottoms and 95 LV % minimum normal butane out the splitter side-draw.
With high Pentanes-plus feed (assumed to be 0.5 mol %) of the Stabilizer Overhead part
of the butane must be "wasted" out the bottom draw to reject the heavies. The trays
below the side-draw will concentrate the heavies about ten-fold. In this case the heavies
in the bottom will be about 16 mol %. When they reach the 2 LV % (1 in 50) maximum
allowable in the side-draw product above. Approximately 9% of the normal butane from
the feed will have to go out the bottom draw to insure that pentanes-plus do not exceed
2.0 LV % in the side-draw, and 90% of the normal butane is recovered from the feed to
the side-draw. Iso-butane recovery still needs to be 97% from the feed to the overhead.
2 Process Equipment and Flow Arrangements
a. The feed to the column comes directly from the outlet of the Butane Dehydrator
Treaters through a 6" line, through the Butane-splitter feed control valve FPV-
51131 which is controlled by the liquid level control transmitter LNT-51263
located on the Butane Dehydrator Treater feed surge tank 53-D-32 and enters
the column through nozzles on the 60th tray level. (Provisions are also made to
use the 48th, and 54th tray level if necessary). The feed line is also carried on
to the discharge piping of the side-draw product pump, 5-P-27/28 which can be
used as a complete feed by-pass around the column. The energy required to
pump the feed is provided by the Butane Treater Dehydrator feed pump.
The feed is warmed by the Depropanizer K.P. interchanges 5-E-
26/27/28/29/30/31/32/33 to around 85
o
C before entering the column. The feed
flow control valve is located as near to the feed entries as possible to avoid a
two-phase flow in the vertical riser. The feed enters through the respective
nozzles into a feed distribution system on the inside which is designed to permit
an even distribution over the tray.
The feed rate is determined by the flow of feed through the Butane Dehydrator
Treaters, thereby taking the swing. The by-pass line around the feed valve is a
power actuated valve, HPV-51036 actuated by a hand controller, HIC-51036
located on the board. It is also possible to switch the feed to the warm relief
system by operating power actuated valve HPV-51035 with controller HIC-51035.
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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b. The column is 4270 mm (140") diameter and 61460 mm in height (about 201 feet
tall), and has 89 four-path valve trays on 610 mm (24 inch) vertical spacing
except for the feed and side draw trays. These trays are different in that extra
space is provided in the feed trays, which have 1220 mm (48 inch) vertical;
spacing to allow room for the feed distribution piping, and the sidedraw tray-
which has a vertical spacing of 915 mm (36 inches) to provide room for the
collection troughs and draw off sumps at the end of each trough.
Liquid from the four-path bottom tray No. 1 flows into two side down-comers and
one centre downcomer which effectively partitions the vapour space below. A
chimney tray is provided 48" below tray No. 1 with vapour chimneys on each side
of the downcomer to distribute the reboiler vapours evenly to the two sides of the
centre. The liquid which comes down to the chimney tray flows across it without
interfering with the vapour and pours into the two side downcomers extending
down beside the reboiler heater. The tower has a design pressure of 11.4 bar-g.
and temperature of 90
o
C (195
o
F). It is provided with a 4" drain off the 10"
bottoms line. Provisions are made for 3.5 bar-g steam or purge gas to be
admitted to the bottom for cleaning purposes.
The re-boilers are two internal horizontal two pass U-tube bundles located side-
by-side in the bottom of the column. The bundles contain 512 1" OD carbon
steel tubes each. Total heating area is 1340 square feet. The reboilers
vapourize about 98% of the liquid reaching the bottom of the column when the
side-draw is used to remove normal butane, or about 86% when the normal
butane product is allowed to come off the bottom. The rest of the liquid is drawn
off as bottom product.
c. The column overhead vapours flow from the top of the column through the 24"
overhead vapour line through the main column back pressure control valve, 24"
- PPV-51439 on through another pressure control valve, PPV-51413-A an don
out through the overhead vapour condensing coils (5-E-37) and into the
accumulator, (5-D-22). The accumulator pressure maintenance line tees off the
main column overhead vapour line at point Between PPV-51439 and PPV-
51443A and goes through another pressure control valve 8" PPV-51443-B, and
on into the top of the accumulator. Valves PPV-51443-A accumulator pressure
transmitter calls for additional hot make-up gas PPV-51443-A pinches back
against the main tower overhead vapour flow, and with the same signal, opens
PPV-51443-B, forcing more hot gas around the overhead condenser through the
by-pass and straight to the top of the accumulator.
In order to be able to perform maintenance work on the main column back
pressure controller, PPV-51439, a 20" by-pass line was installed with a pressure
control valve, 20" PPV-51433 installed in to which can be used for column
pressure control while the maintenance is being done. in order to have control
on the accumulator pressure during this time, an 8" cross-over line, with PPV-
5144D installed in to, is tied across from the main 20" by-pass line to the regular
10" accumulator pressure maintenance line (See Fig. 1).
d. The vapours are totally condensed and slightly sub-cooled, and collected in the
accumulator 5-D-22 which is a horizontal vessel 10,550 mm long by 3,500 mm
in diameter. It is made of carbon magnesium steel, has a design pressure of
11.7 bar-g. (173 psig) and temperature rating of 80
o
C maximum (176
o
F) and -
10
o
C (14
o
F) minimum. Operating temperature is 38
o
C (100
o
F) and pressure 5
Bar G. The vessel has a capacity of 108 M
3
and will provide about six minutes
of surge time when half full of liquid.
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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e. The Overhead Product is taken off the discharge of the reflux pump through a
six inch line where the overhead product can be switched to two different places.
If it is specification iso-butane it is sent to the iso-butane chillers and storage. It
can also be routed to the butane fuel vaporiser and used for plant fuel.
f. The Reflux Pumps 5-P-29/30 are both electrically driven centrifugal pumps with
a rated capacity of 654M
3
/hr., 115M head and rated discharge pressure of 11.7
bar-g. They are driven by a 200 k.w 3 phase 50 cycle electric motor at 1450
RPM.
The sidedraw product leaves the column from the 5th tray level through two 8"
nozzles and manifold into the 10" main sidedraw product line. It is routed to the
suction of the Butane Product pump 5-D-27/28 (No. 28 being the stand-by for No.
27) and discharges from the pump through a 6" line and routed through the
Butane product air fin cooler 5_e-38 (Four Fans). From here, it goes through the
5th tray product control valve FPV-51135 and on to the normal butane chilling
refrigerated storage area, or can be routed to the butane fuel vaporiser to be
used as plant fuel.
g. The "drag" stream is the residual heavies that leave from the bottom of the
tower through a 10 inch line to the suction of the Drag pump 5-P-26 where it
discharges into a 2" line through the Drag stream cooler, 5-E-44 for cooling. it
then goes through control valve FPV-51136 where it can be switched to the crude
product storage or be recycled to the stabilizers or used as deoiler feed.
3. Operating Conditions
The accumulator pressure is set at 5 Bar G to permit complete condensing of the
overhead vapour at 38
o
C (100
o
F) by airfin condensers at summertime conditions with
propane contents up to 51 mol %. With lower propane contents the overhead will be
somewhat subcooled at 38
0
C. The column top is calculated to operate at 6 Bar G and
55 to 57
o
C, (131
o
- 135
o
F) depending on the propane content. The bottom is to operate
at 6.6 Bar G (125 pisa) and 75
o
to 79
o
C (167-174
o
F), depending on the amount of
pentanes-plus content. The sidedraw tray when normal butane product is made from the
sidedraw should be about 75
o
C (167
o
F).
The re-boilers are heated with 3.4 bar-g. steam at 148
o
C (298
o
F) temperature. The
condensate return pump is capable of taking suction as low as atmospheric pressure
and pumping it to the condensate system at 6 Bar G.
The feed is pre-heated to 85
o
C (185
o
F) in the heat exchange with the De-propanizer
bottoms and then cooled to around 67
o
C (153
o
F) as it flashes around 18% vapour at the
column feed entry.
The overhead product is taken directly off the reflux pump discharge line at 38
o
C (100
o
F)
and 12.4 Bar g (194 pisa) which is sufficient pressure to go to the refrigerated isobutane
storage or to the butane fuel system.
The normal butane, whether taken from the side draw or the column bottom, is cooled
by air fin coils to 38
o
C and 6.9 bar-g or lower if the weather is cooler.
Pump number 5-P-26 is the regular bottoms drag stream pump. Pump number 5-P-27
is the normal side draw pump, but can be switched to be used as a booster pump, or
stand-by pump for the drag stream pump if no side draw is being removed. Pump
number 5-P-28 the stand-by for the regular side draw pump.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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The column and auxiliary equipment are sized to handle about 7% additional feed and
reflux than normal. According to calculations based on the original crude composition
and rates the feed rate would be around 126.6M
3
/hr. Reflux is calculated to be 514
M
3
/he @ 3811oC.
4. Control System
The feed to the Butane Splitter is controlled by the liquid level control LIC-51263 from the
Butane Dehydrator Treater Feed Surge Drum, 53-D-32. The level in the treater feed
surge tank remains constant with the feed rate tot he Butane Splitter taking the swing.
A power operated valve HPV-51036 is operated remotely be using the HIC-51036
mounted panel board. A check valve in the feed line near the column will prevent any
back flow from the tower to the warm relief system. This was done due to the location
of the feed control valve which is near the feed tray entry on the tower. The feed
temperature is controlled by adjusting the Depropanizer Kettle product cooler by-pass
control valve, 3-way TPV-51295 with TIC-51295, by adjusting the controllable louvres
(with HIC-51031) or by starting to stopping one of the fans.
Steam to the reboilers is on flow control FPV-51132 which is re-set by the column bottom
liquid level control LIC-51278 which is directly affected by the amount of side draw and
drag stream flow taken off. The condensate level in the condensate accumulator is
controlled by a liquid level controller which controls the amount of condensate being
pumped out to hold the level.
The Bottom Drag stream is on flow control, FIC-51136 which re-sets control valve FPV-
51136 located in the Drag stream line. The side draw product rate is on flow control FIC-
51135 which is re-set either by (1) tray No. 70 temperature control TIC-51353, or, (2) by
the Butane Splitter Distillation Column Control. The choice is made by a manual selector
switch. The Distillation Column Control works by maintaining a pre-set amount of
isobutane in the sidedraw product, and the tray temperature controller works be holding
a pre-set temperature on the control tray.
Power actuated valve, HPV-51040 is provided to switch all the bottom product to the
warm relief if necessary.
Column pressure is on back pressure control at the overhead vapour line upstream of
the condensers. A pressure transmitter, PNT-51439 mounted on the column overhead
vapour line transmits the pressure to the pressure controller PIC-51439 which resets the
control valve PPV-51439 located in the overhead vapour line.
Reflux temperature is not directly controlled, but the louvres on the air fin condensers are
adjusted by TIC-51351 to maintain 38
o
C inlet reflux accumulator.
Accumulator pressure is maintained by a pressure maintenance system utilizing a hot
gas line off the column overhead vapour line with two control valves, PPV-51443A and
PPV-51443B operating from a split range control signal from the accumulator pressure
transmitter. As the accumulator calls for pressure, PPV-51443B opens, and PPV-
51443A pinches back insuring vapour to by-pass the cooling coils directly to the
accumulator.
External Reflux rate is on flow control, FIC-51133 reset by the Distillation Column
Control, or can be controlled by straight "rate of flow" control.
The Overhead Product rate is on flow control, FIC-51134 reset by the accumulator level
control, LIC-51282.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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The Distillation Column Control employs a computer to implement feed forward and
feed back control of the Butane Splitter by using the input signals from the feed rate,
reflux and overhead temperatures, and the normal butane product composition. The
output signals from the computer are used to reset the reflux and normal butane flow
controllers. If the Distillation Column control is out of order for one reason or another,
the conventional tray temperature control may be used. The reflux is adjusted with feed
rate changes to maintain bottom-to-feed ratio, and with the normal butane analysis to
maintain specific composition.
An analyser is used to determine the composition of the normal butane product, and the
controlling factor for the Column Distillation Control is the percent of isobutane in the side
draw product. The overhead product must be monitored, however, either by laboratory
checks, or weathering samples to determine the amount of normal butanes carried over
along with the isobutane.#
5. Alarms-Safety Features
All control valves are designed to "Fail Safe" in case of instrument air, or power failure.
In case of the former, the valves will open or close to permit the column to block in the
feed, and product stream and allows the overhead vapour to carry on through to the
accumulator, to be refluxed back over the column. In case of power failure, the reflux
pump would be down-however, the controls would be active as long as the battery
powered back up units were active. In this case you would be able to utilize the
instruments until (1) either the power is restored, or (2) to shut down the column safety.
Column over-pressure devices are designed to have four stages of protection with
increasing pressure which are: (1) Alarm (2) Steam shut off, (3) Vent to relief system, and
(4) last resort, vent to the atmosphere from the top of the column. The tower has three
6 x 10 relief valves, PSV-51131A, PSV-51131B and PSC-51131C mounted on the
overhead vapour line with a set pressure of 13.7 bar-g. These are the last resort relief
valves mentioned above. The accumulator also has a relief valve; PSV-51132, A 4" x 6"
with a set pressure of 11.7 bar-g that relieves into the enclosed warm relief system. Also,
relief valves PSV-51130 A and B, 6" x 10" set at 10.8 bar-g., PSV-51130C-6" x 8" set at
10.4 bar-g are mounted on the overhead vapour line, and relieve to the warm vent
system.
Automatic shut-offs with alarm are also provided on the following:
Sidedraw product control valve shut-off on low liquid level-IILNS-51273
Reflux and overhead product pump shut-offs on low liquid level-IILA-51286
Condenser air fin shut offs on excessive vibration: butane cooler fans-XA-51168A
through D.
drag stream cooler fans-XA-51205 A through B
overhead condenser fans-XA-51167 A through M
Other alarms are as follows:
Column high level - hLA-51279
Column low level - ILA-51290
Column high differential pressure - hdPA-51435
Low steam condensate pot level - ILA-51276
Accum. high level - hLA-51283
Accum. low level - ILA-51284
Reflux flow low flow - IFA-51133
Normal butane low flow - IFA-51135
Pentane Drag steam low pressure - IPA-51463
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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6. Operating Procedures
Preparatory to start-up all utilities must be service, instrumentation checked out and all
rotating equipment tested. Steam supply must be warmed up and drained of liquid to the
control valve. One or both De-propanizers as well as the Butane Treater Dehydrator
must be operating to furnish suitable feed for the Butane Splitter. Also, all air must be
purged from the system with inert gas, fuel gas, or steam, but due to the cold conditions
the products will be subjected to during the refrigerated storage preparation, must be as
dry as possible.
a. A suggested procedure to purge the column of air follows:
The object is to displace the air from the tower and all associated piping vessel.
Purge gas is available to use as a purging agent simply by a quick swing hook
up from the tower bottom to the purge gas line-4"-651T73-525. The idea is to
displace the air with the gas from the bottom of the tower, out through the
overhead vapour liner, through each and every condensing coil separately, on out
through the liquid overhead run-down line, into the accumulator and out to the
atmosphere. Reflux piping must be backed through from the tower, out through
the reflux pump bleeders.
After the gas is hooked up, make sure all unauthorized personnel are out of the
area, chain gates up, and everyone involved notified. Open the 4" bleeder on top
of the column, and the 3" bleeder on the overhead vapour line near the control
valves. Have all but one overhead condenser coils blocked in. Have inlet lateral
bleeder open on the one that is open. Have the blind plate removed and the 3"
bleeder, as well as the gauze glass and float barrel bleeders open reflux
accumulator. Open the 10" suction valves to the overhead and reflux pumps, but
leave the discharge valves closed as this time. Open the reflux valve, FPV-
51133 with the control and open the down stream isolating valve, block upstream
side. Open reflux pump case bleeder, and bleeder on the reflux control valve.
Open all the bleeders on the column bottom level control and gauge glasses.
Open the 10" suction line from the side draw tray through the suction valve of the
side draw, and stand by side draw pumps-5-P-27/28 but leave the discharge
valves closed at this time and open pump case bleeders. Do the same with the
drag stream pump, 5-P-26.
Admit gas -or nitrogen-slowly at first until a good flow established. Start checking
bleeders immediately around the column bottom level, and bottom product pump
case bleeders-shut off bleeders when no air is evident. (do the same with all
bleeders as no air is evident). The next spot will be the bottom gauge glasses
and the float barrels-block off bleeders needed. Continue monitoring bleeders,
especially the reflux control valve bleeder as vapour, or nitrogen will show up
here shortly before, or about the same time as it does on the top-close off top
bleeders when vapour or nitrogen is evident here, continue through the normal
flow path checking bleeders, and blocking bleeders off as air is expelled. When
purge gas is evident as the overhead vapour condensing coils sweep out he first
coil, then open and sweep out he next one until all have being cleared. By this
time, some vapours (N2 or gas) should be showing up on the accumulator vents.
Block in when you are well satisfied that all the air has been expelled here.
When the reflux pumps are cleared, open the vents. On the overhead product
line at the motor valve setting; go through the inlet valve, and out the bleeder.
Open the by-pass line around the control valve also, and clear it. Block in the
reflux motor valve isolating valve on the down-stream side-(next to column), and
open the upstream block valve and bleeders. Open the reflux pump discharges
valves. This should clear the other half of the long reflux line.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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Clear the side stream and drag stream lines, purge, etc. From the column
through the purger and through the purger and through the up stream isolating
valves, and out the bleeders of the control valves-FPV-51136 and FPV-51135.
If the product lines on down-stream have not been purged then the purging
procedure will have to continue to the next piece of equipment-which will be
taken up by their individual write-ups. Block off the purge gas when completed
and remove the temporary connection.
b. Start-up
After all precautions mentioned above have been taken and the column purged
of air and it is ready to start.
Open the column back pressure control valve, PPV-51439 by-pass valve PPV-
51443. Open through all overhead condenser fans, and set the accumulator
pressure make-up valve control on a low pressure valve so as to force most of
the overhead vapour through the condensers. Start the air fin fans and set the
air control louvres wide open. Open the feed valves next to the column, and start
cutting back on the amount of feed going into the flare by slowly closing HPV-
51035, which will direct the feed into the column instead of the flare. Crack a
small amount of steam through the re-boiler and through out the bleeders on the
condensate outlet lines, between the column and condensate pot, just enough
to keep re-boiler warm at present.
As a liquid level appears in the bottom start slowly increasing the steam to the re-
boiler with the by-pass valve around the steam motor valve, FPV-51132. Have
the steam bleeders closed now, and all the condensate direct to the condensate
accumulator, and when a working level appears, open the condensate pump
discharge into the condensate system and start the condensate pump, 5-P-24
or 25.
Slowly bring up the temperature and pressure of the column-makings sure some
of the vapours are carrying on through the condensates to help warm them up.
Continue this process keeping closed watch on the bottoms level at all times-
and when the column pressure gets up to about 6.0 Bar G which back to
pressure control to "auto", and close the by-pass around it. The accumulator
pressure should be starting to increase, as well as a liquid level to begin to show
up. As soon as the level gets high enough to pump safely, start the reflux pump,
and set the rate as a low flow. By this time you should be able to switch the
steam over to tray temperature control if the temperature is pretty close to normal
somewhere around 57
0
C on the top. (These temperatures are strictly calculated-
and only a suggestion until actual on line operational conditions are found).
Increase steam pressure and reflux as possible and put the reflux accumulator
pressure maintenance controls on "auto" as soon as possible.
Switch the products out as soon as possible, and with the steam, column
pressure, and accumulator pressure on control line out the column.
The butane make steam can go to the flare as well as the overhead product until
on, or near specifications. When on spec, switch out to their respective
destinations, overhead to the iso butane storage side draw to normal butane
storage. The drag stream will be routed to either the stabilized crude or recycled
to stabilizer feed.
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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c. Shut-down
When it is necessary to completely shut down the column and purge the system
for repair work the following procedure is suggested:-
Notify Boiler House
Take the Column Distillation Control out of service. Switch the feed to flare or spike and keep
it Over head and Bottoms products to storage as long as practicable - then return to spike until
levels are reduced to minimum. Shut off all steam. Lower the column back pressure motor
valve setting to keep the valve in the open position as the column pressure decreases-lower
accum. Pressure control pointer to low pressure valve to make certain as much liquid as
possible is pushed out of the overhead air fin coils-shut down fans, shut down the side draw
pump as soon as it gasses off.
Note: The low level shut down devices for the side draw pump and low flow shut down for the
reflux may have to be temporarily by-passed to completely empty the column. Get rid of all liquid
possible, then open the vents, and depressure. Drain any residual to the respective drains.
d. Vapour Purge
After the tower and equipment is depressured, tie-in steam to the bottom of the
tower, and begin steaming it out.
Open the vents on the top of the column, overhead vapour line, accumulator and
begin to steam out. When vapour free, shut in the steam. The column in now
ready for blinding. After blinding (using butterfly flanges next to blinds) steam the
system once more, depressure, and open up as necessary.
Note: It will be necessary to steam through the coils separately to completely
insure them being clear.
e. Refluxing and Column
When the column is to be taken off steam for a short period of time it can be put
on total reflux. If the reason is loss of feed, the feed meter will go to zero and
cause the Distillation Column Control to shut off the side steam flow and will
reduce reflux to a low rate. In this case, all that is necessary to do is to manually
block in the product isolating valves to prevent any leakage. The column will
continue to operate.
If however, the reason for refluxing the column is due to the flare-(in case it is off
spec, for instance) the feed meter will still see a feed flow, and consequently
would eventually empty the column as the Distillation Column Control would
keep the sidedraw product flowing. The Distillation Column Control, in this case,
would have to be taken off control and substituted for with tray temperature
control. It would still be manually block in all the product isolating valves-
especially the drag steam.
f. Power Failure
As outlined previously, the column id designed to "fail" safe during a power
failure-but many times the power failure will be a "dip" type-just long enough to
shut down the pump motors. In some cases, the failure will be scattered-that is
some pumps down, and others still running. In any case, however, the first thing
to do is to get the air fin fans started again followed by the reflux, and the
products. (if you still need feed). Speed is essential in a assessing the situation,
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John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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and making the proper moves at the right time.
If the failure is complete, and does not come back on very quickly, then treat the
situation as a complete shut down and start blocking the product lines. The
column will no doubt overpressure and "pop" due to the sudden loss of top
cooling, and heat in the bottom. Get the steam out as soon as possible.
g. Instrument Air Failure
In case of total instrument air failure, the controls will fail safe, as outlined in the
previous section. But in most cases, if this ever happens, the entire plant will be
affected resulting in erratic, and off-spec. feed to the column. Switch the feed,
and products to the flare and shut the steam out of the column if not already out.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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FRACTIONATION EQUIPMENT
COLUMN-BUTANE SPLITTER
5-T-11
SERVICE SIZE
mm
No. TRAYS TRAY
DESIGN
TRAY SPACING REBOILER
5-E-35/36
BUTANE
SPLITTER
4270 x
61460
89 Double Cross
Flow, Valves
Trays
610mm (Tray No.
48 1220mm)
Two internal, "U" tube 2
pass 256 1" OD carbon
steel tubes
RELIEF VALVES FEED
ENTRIES (tray
no.)
DESIGN
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE PRESS RELIEVES TO
60
54
48
11.4 Bar G
@ 90
o
C
PSV 51131A
PSV 51131B
PSV 51131C
PSV 51130A
PSV 51130B
PSV 51130C
6 x 10
6 x 10
6 x 10
6 x 10
6 x 10
6 x 8
13.7
13.7
13.7
10.8
10.8
10.4
Atmos.
Warm Relief
Warm Relief
Warm Relief
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
RELIEF VALVES SIZE
mm TYPE
DESIGN
PRESSURE
NUMBER SIZE PRESS RELIEVE TO
3500 x 10500 Horizontal 11.7 @ 80
o
C PSV-51132 4 x 6 11.7 Warm Relief
CONDENSATE ACCUMULATOR
SIZE mm TYPE WORKING
PRESSURE
760 x 1525 Horizontal 3.5 Bar G
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
LIC-51278
FIC-51132
FPV-51132
LIC-51263
FIC-51131
FPV-51131
HIC-51035
HPV-51035
PIC-51439
PPV-51439
5-T-11
BOTTOMS CONTROL
LP STEAM TO
REBOILERS
5-E-35/36
LP STEAM CONTROL
VALVE TO
REBOILERS 5-E-35/36
BUTANE TREATER
FEED TANK
MIXED BUTANE FEED
TO
5-T-11
MIXED BUTANE FEED
CONTROL VALVE TO
5-T-11
MIXED BUTANE FEED
TO WARM RELIEF
MIXED BUTANE FEED
TO WARM RELIEF C
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
COLUMN PRESSURE
CONTROL
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
PRESSURE
CONTROL
E
E
3-15
E
E
3-15
E
3-15
E
3-15
CAF
CAF
CAF
OAF
FIC-51132
FPV-51132
FIC-51131
FPV-51131
HPV-51035
PPV-51439
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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Page:
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
HIC-51037
HPV-51037
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
CONDENSER
5-E-37
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
CONDENSER
5-E-37
LOUVRE CONTROL
E
3-15
HPV-51037
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
PIC-51443
PPV-51443A
PPV-51443B
PPV-51443C
PPV-51443D
FIC-51133
FPV-51133
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
PRESSURE
CONTROL
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
CONTROL VALVE
CONDENSER
5-E-37
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
BY-PASS CONTROL
VALVE OVER
CONDENSER
5-E-37
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
CONTROL VALVE TO
CONDENSER
5-E-37
OVERHEADS
ACCUMULATOR
5-D-22
BY-PASS CONTROL
VALVE OVER
CONDENSER
5-E-37
5-T-11
REFLUX CONTROL
5-T-11
REFLUX CONTROL
VALVE
E
E
3-15
OAF
CAF
OAF
CAF
OAF
PPV-51443A
PPV-51443B
PPV-51443C
PPV-51443D
FPV-51133
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Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
LIC-51282
FIC-51134
FPV-51134
5-D-22
ACCUMULATOR
LEVEL CONTROL
5-D-22
ACCUMULATOR
LEVEL CONTROL
5-D-22
ACCUMULATOR
LEVEL CONTROL
VALVE
E
E
3-15 CAF
FIC-51134
FPV-51134
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air
Failure
RESETS
HIC-51038
HPV-51038
TIC-51353
(TRAY 70
5-T-22)
FIC-51135
FPV-51135
HIC-51075
HPV-51075
FIC-51136
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT TO WARM
RELIEF
5-T-11
OVERHEADS
PRODUCT TO WARM
RELIEF CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-11
NORMAL BUTANE
RUNDOWN
5-T-11
NORMAL BUTANE
RUNDOWN
5-T-11
NORMAL BUTANE
RUNDOWN
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-11
NORMAL BUTANE
RUNDOWN TO WARM
RELIEF
5-T-11
NORMAL BUTANE
RUNDOWN TO WARM
RELIEF CONTROL
VALVE
5-T-11
PENTANE DRAG
RUNDOWN
E
3-15
E
9-15
E
3-15
E
WHEN FIC-51135
OF PRIMARY
CONTROL
CAF
CAF
HPV-51038
FIC-51135
FPV-51135
HPV-51075
FPV-51136
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th
November 2000
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INSTRUMENTS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No.
DESCRIPTION
SIGNAL ACTION
Air
Failure
RESETS
FPV-51136
HIC-51040
HPV-51040
5-T-11
PENTANE DRAG
RUNDOWN
CONTROL VALVE
5-T-11
PENTANE DRAG
RUNDOWN TO WARM
RELIEF
5-T-11
PENTANE DRAG TO
WARM RELIEF
CONTROL VALVE
3-15
E
3-15
CAF
CAF
HPV-51040
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th
November 2000
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PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
INST No. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION Air Failure RESETS
PSV-51130A
PSV-51130B
PSV-51130C
PSV-51131A
PSV-51131B
PSV-51131C
PSV-51132
5-T-11
COLUMN
OVERHEADS
VAPOUR LINE
" "
" "
" "
" "
" "
5-D-22
ISO-BUTANE
COLUMN REFLUX
ACCUMULATOR
10.8 Bar G
10.8 Bar G
10.4 Bar G
13.7 Bar G
13.7 Bar G
13.7 Bar G
11.7 Bar G
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
6" x 10"
4" x 6"
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
ISO-BUTANE
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
ATMOS
ATMOS
ATMOS
WARM RELIEF
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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COOLERS/CONDENSERS/EXCHANGERS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
BUTANE PRODUCT COOLER 5-E-38
TYPE SIZE
WORKING
PRESSURE
COOLING
Finned tube 2096 M
3
Surface
11.5 Bar G Air
FANS
No. SIZE/TYPE MF DRIVE RPM
4 4 blades each 5"
diameter
Polyester
Stork Elect
Motor Direct
720
BUTANE SPLITTER OVERHEAD CONDENSER, 5-E-37
No. SIZE TYPE WORK PRESS. COOLING
50550 M
2
Surface Area Finned tube 6.4 Bar G Air
FANS
No. SIZE/TYPE MF DRIVE
12 4 blades 14" diameter
Polyester
Stork 30 Kw Elect. Motor
BUTANE DRAG STREAM COOLER 5-E-44
No. TYPE
SIZE
WORK
PRESS.
COOLING
1 Finned tube 350 M
2
Surface
Area
7.6 Bar G Air
FANS
No. SIZE/TYPE MF DRIVE RPM
2 4 blade- 3"-2"
diameter Aluminium
Aerex Elect. Motor 960
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
BUTANE SPLITTER 5-T-11
SIZE
SERVICE No.
SUCT. DISCH
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED
RPM
SUCTION
PRESSURE
BAR G
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
BAR G
DIFF.
HEAD
BAR G
MIN.
FLOW
M
3
/HR
MAX.
FLOW
M
3
/HR
DRIVE
BUTANE PROD.
5-P-27/28
REBOILER
COND.
5-P-24/25
BOTTOMS
(DRAG) 5-P-26
REFLUX
5-P-29/30
ISO-BUTANE
BOOSTER
5-P-31/32
2
2
1
2
2
6
4
4
14
6
4
3
2
8
3
ING. RAND
CENT.
ING. RAND
CENT.
ING. RAND
CENT.
ING. RAND
CENT.
ING. RAND
CENT.
2950
2950
2950
1470
2920
7.5
2
7.6
5.9
11.5
11.5
6.1
12.1
11.7
18.9
4
4.1
4.5
5.8
7.4
16.5
8
6
130
16
114
60
11.4
654
50
ELECT.
40 HP
ELECT.
20 HP
ELECT.
20 HP
ELECT.
270 HP
ELECT.
50 HP
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John Stead
Date:
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November 2000
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
PROPANE TREATERS/ DEHYDRATORS
53-T-26/27/28/29/30
P&ID Ref: 7809-519-D00-004
INTRODUCTION
The propane treaters/dehydrators are designed to remove water and traces of sulpher from the
liquid propane to provide a suitable product for refrigerated storage and sales.
The liquid propane is pumped from a surge tank, through three of five treater/dehydrators, which
will remove the water and sulpher, and is then routed to the refrigerated storage tanks: 7-TK-02
and 7-TK-63. Provision is made to route it direct to the fuel gas system if desired. Specifications
for the product are:
WATER: 1 ppm MAX.
SULPHUR: (H2S) 25 ppm
OTHER SULPHUR COMPOUND: COS 15 ppm COS
If any of the above specifications are not maintained, the product will be unsaleable, and in
addition, high water content could plug the propane chiller before storage.
This section includes the following equipment:
Propane Dehydrator Feed Surge Tank 53-D-25
Propane Dehydrator Feed Pumps 53-P-07/08
Propane Dehydrator Regeneration Separators 53-D-31
Propane Dehydrator Regeneration Coolers 53-E-17/18
(Common Spare for Butane Regen. Cooler) 53-E-18
Propane Dehydrator Regen. Separator Pumps 53-P-29/30
Propane Dehydrator Regen. Heaters 53-E-13/14/23/24/25/26
Flow Description
The wet liquid propane from the depropanizer reflux drum at 222m
3
/hr, 38
0
C and 12.4 Bar G is
collected in the propane surge drum. The propane is at its "Bubble Point" (just below boiling
point) and if it were introduced directly to the dehydrators, the pressure drop across the beds
could cause flashing, which would damage the desiccant in the beds. The dehydrator feed
pumps will raise the pressure to 20.0 Bar G, which will prevent this.
These pumps also provide enough pressure to get cooling propane (during cooling step) into the
regeneration separator against the pressure of the regeneration gas, even when the vapour
pressure in the surge tanks is low. In order to properly feed these pumps, the surge tank is
provided. When half full, this surge tank has about 25 minutes residence time during normal
flow.
The surge tank is a horizontally mounted vessel 60 x 12, with a water drainage boot near one
end to collect free water. The liquid propane enters the top of the vessel near one end, and the
entry pipe is situated in such a way that the liquid hits the end of the vessel, and runs down the
inside of the concave end, causing a minimum of disturbance in the liquid level. This end
section of the vessel is partioned off with a baffle plate to form a weir. The propane flows over
a weir, and any free water present filters out through small holes at the bottom of the weir, into
the water boot. The water will be drained off manually from this boot. The level in the surge
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drum is controlled by LIC-51250 which re-sets a control valve FPV-51114, situated on the
discharge of the dehydrator feed pumps. In the event of a low level, a signal will be transmitted
from FIC-51114, and open a recycle valve, FIC-51112, on the discharge of the feed pumps.
recycling propane back to the inlet of the surge drum. On a very low level the feed pumps will
stop. The pressure in the surge drum is controlled, at approximately 11.0 Bar G. The
temperature of the propane feed into the surge drum is set by the reflux condensers on the
Depropanisers, 5-E-24/25. These condensers must be operated to give a feed temperature to
the dehydrators of the propane leaves the surge drum through a vortex breaker and flows to the
suction of the propane dehydrator feed pumps 53-P-07/08. One will be in operation and the
other on stand-by.
Propane leaves the feed pumps at 20.0 Bar G and 38C, and design flow is 222 M
3
/hr to the
dehydrator towers. Before entry to the towers, flow indicators are supplied on the inlet lines to
each tower for ensuring even distribution of flow through each tower on line (to be adjusted
manually).
There are five dehydrator/treater towers. Two will operate in parallel, drying the propane, while
the other 3 are in different stages of regeneration.
The dehydrator towers are vertically mounted vessels 27' x 7'6" and filled with 1/16" LINDE 13x
molecular sieves. This bed is supported by a layer of 1/8" alumina balls, and that supported by
a layer of " alumina balls. As the propane flows through the desiccant bed, moisture and
traces of H
2
S will be absorbed in the desiccant. Normal flow is from BOTTOM TO TOP, when
on the drying step (in operation). The dry, treated propane leaves the top of the dehydrators,
and flows to the propane storage tanks, 7-TK-01 & 63 via the propane product chiller, 7-E-19
which drops the temperature of the propane product to -35.5C for storage. A continuous total
sulphur analyser AR 51016 has been installed on the common outlet product header, which will
sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the propane becomes high (or if the analyser fails).
Sine water is more strongly absorbed by the desiccant than sulphur compounds, the sulphur will
break through long before the water. Consequently, only sulphur content is monitored to
determine the effectiveness of treating and dehydration.
Regeneration
The various cycles for the dehydrators are controlled automatically by an automatic sequence
controller which will start and stop pumps, establish and maintain flows, temperatures, and
operate the orbit valves to change over the dehydrators, etc, at the end of each different cycle.
Normal cycles are as follows:
ON STREAM (DRYING) - 24 hours
HEATING - 4 hours
COOLING - 4 hours
STAND-BY - 8 hours
During normal operation the timers will be set for three dehydrators "ON-LINE" in parallel, one
on "REGENERATION" (heating or cooling) and one on "STAND-BY" at any time.
Because of the change in specification of the propane product the treaters are now changed
over manually from the sequence controller sub panel. Instructions for the frequency of changes
will be issued in the daily operating instructions one is off-line for any reason, the timers can be
set for shorter "drying" time or shorter "stand-by" time. High pressure fuel gas is used for
regeneration of this system (heating step only), and also for the butane dehydrators. The fuel
gas supply is not sufficient to enable both systems (propane and butane) to be on regeneration
(heating) simultaneously. Interlocks have been fitted to the auto sequence timers to ensure this
will never happen, therefore, this must be considered when times are being changed for
alternative operation on the propane or butane systems.
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John Stead
Date:
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th
November 2000
Revision:
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Heating Step
There are six regeneration heaters. They will operate in series of three when heating, i.e. 53-E-
13/14/23 will be in service in series and heating, while 53-E-26/25/24 are on stand-by, or vice-
versa.
Fuel gas is taken from the HP main header at 20.3 Bar G and 38C. The heaters will raise the
temperature to 316C with 55.2 Bar G steam. The regeneration gas flow is monitored and
controlled by FIC-51120 at 8,000 NM
3
/hr, and is situated before the heaters.
The regeneration gas temperature is controlled by a split range controller, TIC-51312 "A" and
"B". The "A" valve (3-way) is on the main regeneration gas flow situated at the inlet to the
regeneration gas heaters. This will control the relevant amount of gas flowing through or by-
passing the heater. When the by-pass port is closed (all flow through the heater), the "B" valve,
which controls a flow of 55.2 Bar G steam from the heater to the 5.2 Bar G steam system will
open, allowing more stem to pass through the heater, therefore heating up the gas quicker.
Once the temperature is raised to the set point (316) the "B" valve will close and the "A" valve
will then control the temperature by allowing more or less through the by-pass.
The hot regeneration gas will flow to the TOP of the dehydrator, and join the normal outlet line
and flow DOWN through the bed, picking up the moisture and H
2
S from the desiccant.
The wet regeneration gas exits from the BOTTOM of the dehydrator, and flows to the
regeneration coolers. The temperature of the gas is monitored at the common outlet line from
the dehydrators by TR-51311. This temperature must be maintained above 258C in order to
remove all traces of H
2
S from the desiccant, or the bed capacity for treating will be decreased
for the next drying step.
There are two regeneration gas coolers, 53-E-17 and 18.53-E-17 will be in operation for the
propane system, and 53-E-18 is a common spare for both the propane and butane systems.
Both are designed to run on a continuous basis while in operation. They have motor driven fans,
forcing air through a radiator-type table bundle. Adjustable louvres are fitted on top which can
reduce or increase the amount of air forced between the bundle tubes, allowing control over the
outlet temperature. Design temperature of the outlet is 38C. The adjustable louvres are auto
operated by remote control with TIC-51329 "A" for 53-E-18 and "B" for 53-E-31. The controls
are situated in the NGL Control Room.
High and low temperature indicators are fitted in the outlet bin and will indicate in the NGL
Control Room. Regeneration gas then flows to the regeneration separator.
The regeneration separator, 53-D-31 is a vertically mounted vessel, 25' x 6'7", with a demister
pad fitted near the top section. The gas enters the side and flows up through the pad and exits
from the top. Any liquid will adhere to the pad, and when the droplets become large enough, will
drop to the base of vessel. Level glasses and level indicators are fitted to the vessel, and
high/low levels will alarm in the NGL Control Room. A separate level indicator controller, LIC-
51257, is fitted, which will control the discharge flow from the pumps when the level is within its
range. The level will also actuate "extra high" "extra low" switches to start and stop the separator
pumps 53-P-29/30. Propane liquid will be pumped with these pumps from the separator back
to the inlet line of the dehydrator feed surge tank and join the normal flow again. One pump will
be in operation and one held as stand-by. Any water which may collect in the separator will be
drained off manually. The sour regeneration gas will exit from the top and return to the HP fuel
gas header under pressure control with PIC-51398. Design conditions at this point are 8,000
NM
3
/hr, 38C at 17.9 Bar G.
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Date:
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Cooling Step
After a bed has been fully heated, the regeneration gas flow is stopped. Liquid propane is taken
from the discharge header of the dehydrator feed pumps (2" line), through FIC-51121, which will
control the flow of cooling propane at 10M
3
/hr to the BOTTOM of the dehydrator. It will then join
the normal inlet line and flow UP through the bed, cooling the desiccant. Propane vapours and
liquid will exit from the top and will flow via the regeneration beds to the regeneration separator.
All liquid propane is then pumped back to the feed surge tank via the separator pumps.
The cooling liquid propane flow rate is low enough that there is no danger of fluidizing a bed
when the propane vaporises, as it will during the first part of the cooling step. If the flow rate is
too high, fluidizing could occur and would damage the desiccant due to the friction created.
During the cooling step, the temperature of the regeneration separator is also important. If the
temperature rises much above the design of 38C, an excessive amount of water could be re-
cycled back to the feed surge tank. If it is too low, then the water could freeze and plug up the
regeneration cooler. Therefore, the temperature must be checked regularly, particularly during
a cooling step. The TIC-51329 will indicate and alarm in the NGL Control Room. Initial set
points for the alarms are recommended as follows:
HIGH - 41C (105F)
LOW - 10C (50F)
Original Start Up
Purging of Air: Before any equipment can be started, wither from having been down for
maintenance purposes, or for the original start-up, all air must be purged from the piping towers.
Following is a suggested approach to that problem.
Original Start Up
1. Make a temporary tie-in off the nitrogen system into the Trtr. Feed Surge Tank.
2. Have all trtr tower isolating valves blocked.
3. Admit nitrogen to the surge tank, preferably through the 2" spool piece provided on the
bottom of the vessel.
4. Displace the air in the tank by bleeding the vessel at all bleeder points, such as gauge
glasses, and also the 3" temporary tanker loading line. (Remove clapper in check valve,
but make certain it is replaced afterwards).
5. After tests have been made, and the air content is down to an acceptable level, open up
the suction to the charge pump and displace air out the pump case bleeders. o the
stand by pump likewise.
6. Next, open up the inlet to one tower, and bleed through the bleeder valves provided on
the relief valve setting. Do all towers in this manner until clear.
7. Now start concentrating on the regeneration gas lines by opening the regeneration gas
inlet to the tower inlet lines one at a time, and bleeding off at the regeneration gas inlet
to the tower inlet lines one at a time, and bleeding off at the regeneration gas heaters.
Clear on through the heaters one at a time by clearing through the bleeders on the
regeneration gas temperature control valve.
8. After this line is clear, repeat the same exercise on the regeneration gas line from the top
of the towers.
9. Block in the bleeders on the temperature control valve, and begin clearing the lines to
the regeneration gas coolers, Regeneration gas separators, and on through the pumps.
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As stated above, this is just a suggested procedure, and other routes of nitrogen purge can be
figured out. The main idea, however, is to make sure all piping and vessels have been purged.
In some cases only parts of the treater may have been subjected to maintenance, such as a bed
change, which would require only the tower to be purged before start up. Specific instructions
will be issued in any case.
Original Start Up
The following procedure assumes that the unit has been pressure tested with the necessary
corrections made, purged of air and all rotating equipment and instruments checked out. All
towers are blocked in.
1. Fill towers 1 through 4 and the product line to storage with liquid propane. (Towers 26,
27, 28 and 29). This can be done by opening the outlet and inlet valves on one bed at
a time and checking at the one inch bleeder on the outlet of each tower for liquid. The
propane product back pressure control valve located at the storage area should be set
at 17.5 Bar G (225 psig) to insure that cooling propane can be delivered to the
regeneration separator, 53-D-31.
2. After filling the vessels, close the inlet manually operated block valve on towers, 2, 3 and
4.
3. Set the automatic valve sequencing controller to the start of the on stream step for Tower
1. Start propane through Tower 1 at a flow rate of 29.4M
3
/hr. (At least). The flow
through the individual towers must never be less than this rate.
4. Open the block valves on Tower 5 and start regeneration of Tower 5. Make sure the
automatic valve sequencer is on "Automatic".
5. Open outlet block valve on Tower 4 to place it on stand-by.
6. If after 8 hours the flow rate is below 58.8M
3
/hr., place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
7. If after 16 hours the flow rate is below 58.8M
3
/hr. place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
8. As soon as the flow rate is above 58.8M
3
/hr. two towers may be placed on stream in
parallel. If the flow rate is above 88.2M
3
/hr. the three towers may be placed on stream.
For further details pertaining to the operation of the "Automatic Valve Sequencer", see write-up
at the end of this section.
Valve Sequence Controller
Propane & Butane Treaters
Introduction
The propane and butane treaters treat the top and bottom products of the depropaniser
respectively to remove any hydrogen sulphide and moisture from the streams.
Each treater comprises five vessels, 53-T-26/27/28/29 and 30 for the butane treater and 53-T-
33/34/35/36 and 37 and for the butane treater. The vessels are referred to as bed 1 bed 2 bed
3 bed 4 and bed 5 for each treater in these instructions. (Refer to logic diagrams 5212 and
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5214 drawing number 7809.55J81-252 and 254).
The sequence controller (UC51024) is designed to switch the beds of each treater automatically
through their draining and regeneration sequences. It is designed so that only one of the ten
beds can be regenerated at any one time. At any one time a bed can be:-
a) Drying with product inlet and outlet valves open and regeneration valves closed.
b) Hot regenerating with product inlet and outlet valves closed, regeneration valves open
and hot gas passing through the heater down through the beds.
c) Cooling with the product inlet and outlet valves closed, regeneration valves open with
cooling liquid from the surge tank being passed through up the beds. The regeneration
gas is shut off during cooling.
d) Idling with the product outlet valve open and the product inlet valve and regeneration
valves closed.
The bed may also be taken out of service with all the product and regeneration valves closed.
The process requires that at any one time three beds on each treater are drying. The remaining
beds will be idling or regenerating. Only one bed may be regenerated at a time.
The regeneration of a bed will immediately follow its drying period. The operating sequence is
drying, hot regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, hot regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, hot
regeneration, etc. (See logic diagrams 4213 and 5215 drawing numbers 7809-552J81-253 and
255). Regeneration is achieved by passing heated regeneration time is fixed at 8 hours. (4
hours hot regeneration and 4 hours cooling). The idling time is dependant on the drying time
and is adjusted automatically.
Provision is made for the removal of any bed from service operation on the other beds. In this
situation the remaining beds will continue with drying and regeneration periods unchanged but
the idling time will be reduced automatically. The cabinet housing the sequence controller is
located behind the control room panel (See Fig. Nos. 5-10 to 5-12). Two operator control units,
one for each treater are mounted remotely in the control panel. (See Fig. Nos. 5-13 and 5-14).
In the automatic mode the controller maintains the correct sequence of operation by opening and
closing the product, regeneration and routing valves. The unit monitors the position of all valves
to ensure that each step of the sequence is done correctly. The status of each valve is displayed
continuously on the graphic panel.
Any discrepancy between te actual valve position and that required for correct operation will
suspend the sequence and initiate an alarm. The state of each bed e.g. drying cooling etc. is
also indicated on the graphic panel. The sequence of operation under normal conditions is
given later in this instruction.
The operator control units permit the operator to change the operation from automatic to manual,
open and close any valve and to remove a train from service as follows:-
a. Any valve can be opened or closed by selecting the valve number on the thumbwheel
switch and pressing the open or close button, as appropriate. The valve position will
be indicated on the graphic panel.
b. The temperature control valves on the regeneration gas heater can be closed or
controlled by the output of the temperature controller by pressing the appropriate button.
On start up it is necessary to preset the control valves on both treaters into one of five
operational patterns whilst the unit is in manual control prior to switching to automatic. These
operational patterns are shown on Fig. 5.1.
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If it is required to remove a bed from service the right hand selector switch must indicate that bed
and the out button are pressed. The effects of removing a bed from service are shown in Figs.
5.3 to 5.7 inclusive, at various times within the sequence. When removed from service all valves
associated with the out of service train will be closed. They can be operated locally without
affecting the auto-sequence. A bed can be returned to service by pressing the in button at any
time. The beds will automatically re-enter the sequence but only at their correctly appointed
time. (See Fig. 5.8). This is because the position of each bed within the sequence relative to
the other beds is always the same.
If a valve is operated locally whilst the sequence controller is in the Auto position the sequence
will automatically suspend and an alarm will be initiated.
The sequence control unit is fed from three power sources
a. 24v DC from the battery system
b. 110v DC from the battery system
c. 110v AC from the static inverter.
In the event of a failure of either or both of the DC supplies, the sequence controller will cease
to function. As all the valves fail closed on power failure which for process considerations is not
practicable a separate solenoid valve has been fitted on to the air header supplying the valves
of each treater which in the event of poor failure will vent the air out of the header. This will
ensure that all valves remain in the position they enhoued prior to the poor supply failure. In the
event of failure of the 100 volts AC supply, which is only used to drive the timing mechanism,
then the sequence will stop and hold the valves in the position they were at prior to the failure.
On return to normal operation following failure of the DC power supplies it is necessary to follow
the start up procedure. However, return of the AC supply will automatically restart the sequence.
All the control valves except the temperature control valves are tight shut-off valves (orbit)
powered by a double acting pneumatic diaphragm actuator. They are each fitted with a 4-port
solenoid valve, open and closed limit switches, restrictor, lock-up valve, lever operator pneumatic
valve and handwheel. Before placing the system in automatic operation it is necessary to
ensure that all handwheels are in neutral and that the lever operated valve s are in the normal
position.
The temperature control system on the regeneration gas heater has two control valves. Only
the steam valve is operated by the sequence controller via a solenoid valve. A 3-way control
valve is controlled by the output of the gas temperature controller during hot regeneration and
will open when the gas temperature required cannot be achieved by the usual steam supply.
The operation of the sequence controller is described in detail in this section. Reference should
also be made to the associated circuit diagrams at the back of the section.
.
Propane Treater
Normal Operating Sequence
1. Time 0 Hrs. (&40 Hrs) Open XPV.51111 Liquid Inlet 53-T-26
2. Time 0 Hrs. (&40 Hrs) Close XPV.51131 Cooling Liquid
3. Step 1 Complete and Close XPV 51119 Liquid Inlet 53-T-28
Step 45 Complete Close XPV 51122 Liquid Outlet 53-T-28
4. Step 2 Complete Close XPV 51116 Regen. Outlet 53-T-27
Close XPV 51117 Regen. Inlet 53-T-27
5. Step 4 Complete Open XPV 51118 Liquid Outlet 53-T-27
6. Step 4 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
7. Step 6 Complete Open XPV 51120 Regen. Outlet 52-T-28
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Step 3 Complete Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heater
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
8. Time 4 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
9. Step 8 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
10. Step 9 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
11. Time 8 Hrs Open XPV 51115 Liquid Inlet 53-T-27
12. Time 8 Hrs. Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
13. Step 11 Complete and Close XPV 51123 Liquid Inlet 53-T-29
Step 5 Complete Close XPV 51126 Liquid Outlet 53-T-29
14. Step 12 Complete Close XPV 51120 Regen. Outlet 53-T-28
Close XPV 51121 Regen. Inlet 53-T-28
15. Step 14 Complete Open XPV 51122 Liquid Outlet 53-T-28
16. Step 14 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
17. Step 16 Complete and Open XPV 51124 Regen. Outlet 53-T-29
Step 13 Complete Open XPV 51125 Regen. Inlet 53-T-29
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to
Controller Steam from Heaters
18. Time 12 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
19. Step 18 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
20. Step 19 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
21. Time 16 Hrs. Open XPV 51119 Liquid Inlet. 53-T-28
22. Time 16 Hrs. Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
23. Step 21 Complete and Close XPV 51127 Liquid Inlet 53-T-30
Step 15 Complete Close XPV 51130 Liquid Outlet 53-T-30
24. Step 22 Complete Close XPV 51124 Regen. Outlet 53-T-29
Close XPV 51125 Regen. Inlet 53-T-29
25. Step 24 Complete Open XPV 51126 Liquid Outlet 53-T-29
26. Step 24 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
27. Step 26 Complete and Open XPV 51128 Regen. Outlet 53-T-30
Step 23 Complete Open XPV 51135 Regen. Inlet 53-T-30
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
28. Time 20 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
29. Step 28 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
30. Step 29 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
31. Time 24 Hrs. Open XPV 51123 Liquid Inlet 53-T-29
32. Time 24 Hrs
33. Step 31 Complete and Close XPV 51111 Liquid Inlet 53-T-26
Step 25 Complete Close XPV 51114 Liquid Outlet 53-T-26
34. Step 32 Complete Close XPV 51128 Regen. Outlet 53-T-30
Close XPV 51129 Regen. Inlet 53-T-30
35. Step 34 Complete Open XPV 51130 Liquid Outlet 53-T-30
36. Step 34 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
37. Step 36 Complete and Open XPV 51112 Regen. Outlet 53-T-26
Step 33 Complete Open XPV 51113 Regen. Inlet 53-T-26
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
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38. Time 28 Hours Close XPV 51135 Regen. gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
39. Step 38 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
40. Step 39 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
41. Time 32 Hrs. Open XPV 51127 Liquid Inlet 53-T-30
42. Time 32 Hrs Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
43. Step 41 Complete and Close XPV 51115 Liquid Inlet 53-T-27
Step 35 Complete Close XPV 51118 Liquid Outlet 53-T-27
44. Step 42 Complete Close XPV 51112 Regen. Outlet 53-T-26
Close XPV 51113 Regen. Inlet 53-T-26
45. Step 44 Complete Open XPV 51114 Liquid Outlet 53-T-26
46. Step 44 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
47. Step 46 Complete and Open XPV 51116 Regen. Outlet 53-T-27
Step 43 Complete Open XPV 51117 Regen. Inlet 53-T-27
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
48. Time 36 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
49. Step 48 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
50. Step 49 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
51. Time 40 Hrs.
(&0 Hrs.) CYCLE REPEATS FROM STEP 1.
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BUTANE TREATER
NORMAL OPERATING SEQUENCE
1. Time 0 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
(& 0 Hrs.) Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
2. Step 1 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
3. Step 2 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
4. Time 4 Hrs. Open XPV 51137 Liquid Inlet 53-T-33
5. Time 4 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
6. Step 4 Complete Close XPV 51145 Liquid Inlet 53-T-35
& Step 48 Complete Close XPV 51148 Liquid Outlet 53-T-35
7. Step 5 Complete Close XPV 51142 Regen. Outlet 53-T-34
Close XPV 51143 Regen. Inlet 53-T-34
8. Step 7 Complete Open XPV 51144 Liquid Outlet 53-T-34
9. Step 7 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
10. Step 9 Complete Open XPV 51146 Regen. Outlet 53-T-35
& Step 6 Complete Open XPV 51162 Regen. Inlet 53-T-35
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
11. Time 8 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
12. Step 11 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
13. Step 12 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
14. Time 12 Hrs. Open XPV 51141 Liquid Inlet 53-T-34
15. Time 12 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
16. Step 14 Complete Close XPV 51149 Liquid Inlet 53-T-36
& Step 8 Complete Close XPV 51152 Liquid Outlet 53-T-36
17. Step 15 Complete Close XPV 51146 Regen. Outlet 53-T-35
Close XPV 51147 Regen. Inlet 53-T-35
18. Step 17 Complete Open XPV 51148 Liquid Outlet 53-T-35
19. Step 17 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
20. Step 19 Complete Open XPV 51150 Regen. Outlet 53-T-36
& Step 16 Complete Open XPV 51151 Regen. Inlet 53-T-36
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
21. Time 16 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
22. Step 21 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
23. Step 22 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
24. Time 20 Hrs. Open XPV 51145 Liquid Inlet 53-T-35
25. Time 20 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
26. Step 24 Complete Close XPV 51153 Liquid Inlet 53-T-37
& Step 18 Complete Close XPV 51156 Liquid Outlet 53-T-37
27. Step 25 Complete Close XPV 51150 Regen. Outlet 53-T-36
Close XPV 51151 Regen. Inlet 53-T-36
28. Step 27 Complete Open XPV 51152 Liquid Outlet 53-T-36
29. Step 27 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing valve
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30. Step 29 Complete Open XPV 51154 Regen. Outlet 53-T-37
& Step 26 Complete Open XPV 51155 Regen. Inlet 53-T-37
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
31. Time 24 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Haters
32. Step 31 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
33. Step 32 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
34. Time 28 Hrs. Open XPV 51149 Liquid Inlet 53-T-36
35. Time 28 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
36. Step 34 Complete Close XPV 51137 Liquid Inlet 53-T-33
& Step 28 Complete Close XPV 51140 Liquid Outlet 53-T-33
37. Step 35 Complete Close XPV 51154 Regen. Outlet 53-T-37
Close XPV 51155 Regen. Inlet 53-T-37
38. Step 37 Complete Open XPV 51156 Liquid Outlet 53-T-37
39. Step 37 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
40. Step 39 Complete Open XPV 51138 Regen. Outlet 53-T-33
& Step 36 Complete Open XPV 51139 Regen. Inlet 53-T-33
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
41. Time 32 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51131B Steam from Heaters
42. Step 41 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
43. Step 42 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
44. Time 36 Hrs. Open XPV 51153 Liquid Inlet 53-T-37
45. Time 36 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
46. Step 44 Complete Close XPV 51141 Liquid Inlet 53-T-34
& Step 38 Complete Close XPV 51144 Liquid Outlet 53-T-34
47. Step 45 Complete Close XPV 51138 Regen. Outlet 53-T-33
Close XPV 51139 Regen. Inlet 53-T-33
48. Step 47 Complete Open XPV 51140 Liquid Outlet 53-T-33
49. Step 47 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
50. Step 49 Complete Open XPV 51142 Regen. Outlet 53-T-34
& Step 46 Complete Open XPV 51143 Regen. Inlet 53-T-34
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
51. Time 40 Hrs.
(& 0 Hrs.) CYCLE REPEATS FROM STEP 1
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5. SEQUENCE CONTROLLER FOR PROPANE AND BUTANE TREATERS-CABINET UC
51024
5.1 General Description
The sequence controller consists of solid state circuit modules mounted on standard
cards in racks together with relays and other electromechanical devices, mounted within
a two-bay steel enclosure UC 51024, and two separate control sub-panels.
The racks are mounted on swing frames which allows access to the rear of the card
sockets and to the rear of the cabinet.
Connection to plant equipment is via screw-clamp terminals situated within the rear of
the enclosure, entry to which is by top and bottom entry gland plates.
The logic circuits are connected to the screw-clamp terminals through plugs and sockets
adjacent to the terminals. This enables the logic to be disconnected from the plant
switches and solenoids, and connected to the simulator (see Part IV) for testing and
fault-finding.
The propane and butane circuits may be electrically isolated by means of push-buttons
on the swing frame.
The logic circuits have been broken down into blocks to facilitate description, and the
propane circuits operate independently of the butane circuits with the exception of the
timing logic which is common. The sequences for the two treaters are the same, but the
butane sequence lags the propane sequence by four hours.
This means that only one bed is either on cold regeneration or hot regeneration at any
time.
5.2 Operational Description-Cabinet UC 51024
5.2.1 Start Up and Normal Operation
Before applying the supply to the circuits of wither treater the AUTO/MANUAL
switches on the sub-panels should be set to MANUAL.
The START push-button for propane may bow be operated, but at this point in
time all plant solenoids will remain de-energised. It is now possible to operate the
propane plant manually from the propane sub-panel.
Similarly the START push-button for butane may also be operated, to allow the
butane plant to be controlled manually from the butane sub-panel.
Valves, TPV 51312B (propane) and TPV 51331B (butane) may be opened or
closed by operating the appropriate push-buttons on the sub-panels.
Valves XPV 51111 to XPV 51133 and XPV 51135 may be operated by selecting
the last two digits of the valve number on the propane sub-panel thumbwheel
switches and then operating the OPEN or CLOSE push-button to the left of the
thumbwheel switches. The valve selected will remain in the state chosen even
though other valves may be selected.
Similarly, valves XPV 51137 to XPV 51156, XPV 51158 to XPV 51160 and XPV
51162 may be operated from the butane sub-panel.
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If it is required to operate the plant in AUTO, it is first necessary to set all propane
valves manually to one of five start points. These five points are shown in Fig.
5.1.
The rotary switch on the propane sub-panel headed BED TO START ON
REGENERATION AT START OF AUTO SEQUENCE should be set to the
corresponding position. The propane AUTO push-button may now be operated
and the propane plant will continue to operate automatically according to the
sequence shown in Fig, 5.1, and the manual controls will be rendered ineffective.
A similar procedure should be carried out for butane using the butane sub-panel
controls. However, since the butane sequence lags the propane sequence by
four hours of the propane sequence. As the time lag is set automatically the
butane AUTO push-button may be operated at any time within the first four hours
of the propane sequence.
Fig 5.1 shows a sequence where propane entered service at start point 4 and
butane at start point 2. Any start point between 1 and 5 in each case is
permissible.
In Fig. 5.1 the beds are shown as drying, idling or regenerating.
During drying, the LIQUID INLET and LIQUID OUTLET valves only are open.
During idling the LIQUID OUTLET valve only is open.
During regeneration the REGEN OUTLET and REGEN INLET valves only are
open.
For the first four hours of regenerating the steam valve is open.
The valves are designated as follows (X)V preceeds all valve numbers).
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PROPANE
DUTY COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN
53-T-26 53-T-27 53-T-28 53-T-29 53-T-30
Liquid Inlet 51111 51115 51119 51123 51127
Regen Outlet 51112 51116 51120 51124 51128
Regen Inlet 51113 51117 51121 51125 51129
Liquid Outlet 51114 51118 51122 51126 51130
Cooling Liquid - XPV 51131
Gas Routing Valve - XPV 51132
Liquid Routing Valve - XPV 51135
Regen Gas - XPV51312B
DUTY COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN
53-T-33 53-T-34 53-T-35 53-T-36 53-T-37
Liquid Inlet 51137 51141 51145 51149 51153
Regen Outlet 51138 51142 51146 51150 51154
Regen Inlet 51139 51143 51147 51151 51155
Liquid Outlet 51140 51144 51148 51152 51156
Cooling Liquid - XPV 51160
Gas Routing Valve - XPV 51158
Liquid Routing Valve - XPV 51159
Regen Gas - XPV 51162
Steam - TPV 51131B
The GAS ROUTING valve and REGEN. GAS valve are open for the first four hours of
regeneration, and the COOLING LIQUID valve and LIQUID ROUTING valve are open for the
remainder of the regeneration period.
Referring to FIG.. 5.1, it may be noted that a sequence can be broken down into equal sections
- in this case of 8 hours each.
This the drying period occupies 3 sections and regeneration and idle one section each.
During commissioning or other shut-down times the length of the sections may be set between
8 hours and 16 hours in 20 minute increments by setting the total drying time, which is effected
bu operation of two thumbwheel switches within the main enclosure (See Technical Description).
The thumbwheel should only be varied between 24 (which gives 24 hours drying time and 8 hour
sections) and 48 (which gives 48 hours drying time and 16 hour sections).
Fig 5.2 shows a sequence with 12 hours sections - that is 36 hours drying time. It will be noted
that drying still occupies 3 sections but regeneration time remains constant at 8 hours as in Fig.
5.1. The remainder of the section following drying is then taken up as idling. In this case the
propane and butane sequences have both entered AUTO operation at start point 1.
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5.2.2 Taking a Bed Out of Service
Once ion service the propane and butane sequences operate independently
although the length of each section of operation is not independent. This the
following applies equally to the propane or butane sequences.
During normal AUTO operation on bed only may be out of service at any one
time. Interlocking ensures that another bed may not be taken out when the bed
out push-button has been operated.
To take a bed out of service the sub-panel rotary switch designated BED TO BE
TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE is set at the appropriate position. The push-button
to the right of the rotary switch is then operated.
The sequence immediately following the action of taking a bed out will depend
on the point at which the bed is taken out. Figs. 5-3 to 5-7 show the resulting
sequences when Bed 3 is taken out during each of its section of operation. For
the purposes of discussion the section immediately following drying will be
referred to as regeneration even though the first 8 hours only are taken up the
regeneration.
The drying time is 30 hours in Figs. 5-3 to 5-7.
5.2.3 Returning a Bed to Service
This may be accomplished by setting the rotary switch of para. 5.2.2 to the
appropriate position and operating the push-button.
The push-button may be operated at any time, however the bed will not be
returned to service until the point is reached in the sequence at which it would be
entering its regeneration stage. This is shown more clearly in Fig. 5-8.
Instrument Air Failure: All switching valves controlled by the automatic valve
sequencer control will stay in the position they were in at the time of the failure,
but the Regeneration Separator Pump must be shut down because its outer
control will shut off. Shut down the Feed Pumps, 519-670-07 or 08 to stop the
minimum flow back to the feed tank. All control valves will close, thereby
stopping the propane, and regeneration flow to and from the Trtr. The bleed
steam from the heaters will also close.
Electrical Failure: All motors will stop. This will get the Regeneration Gas Cooler
Fans, Feed Pumps and Separator Pumps.
All switching valves controlled by the automatic valve sequencer control will
remain in the position they were in at the time the failure occurred.
Block in the steam leaving the Regeneration Gas Heater, otherwise there will be
a continuous loss of 55 bar g steam into the 17.2 bar g steam system.
Sulpher Analyser: A continuous total sulphur analyser has been installed (AR-
51016) on the treater outlet which will sound an alarm, (AR-51016), if the sulphur
content of the propane gets too high. This alarm will sound long before any water
gets through.
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
PROPANE DEHYDRATOR/TREATERS
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
EQUIP. NO. DESCRIPTION TYPE DRIVE CAPACITY DISCH.PRESS.SUB-STATION
DEOILER fractionator
5-T-08
HISTORY
Under the original design concepts this column was to be used as an iso-butane de-propanizer,
but shortly after the initial plant start up it became apparent that the column duty changed. It is
however worth pointing out it would be a fairly easy job to return the column duty back to its
original state if it were so desired.
The following write up is therefore for the column as we now operated i.e. a deoiler.
1. Purpose and Services:
The purpose of the deoiler is to remove the heavier C
5
(pentane) fraction from the normal
butane product ex the C
4
splitter column bottoms.
The system includes the fractionating tower, overhead condensing system (air cooled
condensing coils), accumulator and pumps.
a. Feed - the normal feed to the deoiler is the pentane drag stream from the bottom
of the butane splitter containing iso and normal pentane and normal butane. The
feed enters the column at a temperature of
60-65C at on of two inlet points either tray 28 or tray 34.
b. Overhead Product - the overhead product is normal butane which is to be added
to the main normal butane product from tray 5 (sidedraw) of the Butane Splitter,
and the combined streams are then sent to storage.
c. Bottom Product - the bottom product is the iso and normal pentane fraction which
ties in to the combined stabilised crude rubdown and then to Greatham storage.
2. Process Equipment and Flow Arrangement
a. The feed is pressured from the base of the butane splitter via a 4" line through
a fin fan cooler 5-E-18 (NB this cooler now has the fans shut-down as it was
originally a rundown cooler when the column was run as an iso-butane
depropaniser. The feed flow is controlled by FIC 51141 and from here it passes
to the column and enters via feed points on the 28th or 34th trays.
The reboiler is heated with a steam supply at 3.4 bar g (50 psig) and 148C
(298F). The steam pressure reduces to about 2.1 bar g (30 psig) across the
steam control valve PPV-51139 on its way to the heating element.
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Control System
a. Feed to the column is on flow control, FPV-51141
Steam to the reboiler is on flow control, FPV-51199 reset by Distillation Column
Control, or tray temperature control TIC 51368 from either the 5th or 45th tray
level. Condensate is on condensate accumulator liquid level control resetting
control valve PLV-51290 in the discharge of the condensate pump. Minimum
flow protection is provided for the pumps.
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The Bottom Product rate is on flow control FPV-51136. Bottom product
temperature has no control other than fan adjustments on the Bottoms cooler, 5-
E-44.
Column Pressure is on back pressure control PPV-51479 reset by PIC 51479
which receives its signal from pressure transmitter PNT-51479 located in the
overhead vapour line ahead of the back pressure control valve. The column is
controlled by top pressure.
Reflux Temperature is not directly controlled, but indirectly by louvre adjustments
on hand control HIC-51044, and by utilising the two speed fans provided.
Accumulator Pressure is controlled by adjusting PIC-51482, which controls the
three way valve PPV-51482 located in the overhead vapour line ahead of the air
fin condenser. This allows a controlled amount of hot vapours to by-pass the
overhead condensers, 505-410-19 and go straight to the accumulator. A
pressure point on the accumulator transmits the accumulator pressure to t he
PIC-51482.
External Refuls is controlled by FPV 51140.
Accumulator Level is controlled by drum level LIC 51297 resetting. FPV 51142A
normal butane product.
In the event that the column has to be taken off stream, the feed, overhead
product and bottom product may be switched to the relief system by full-opening
ball valves. These are:
Feed - HPV 51043 to warm relief
OHP - HPV 51071 to cold relief
Bott. Prod. - HPV 51040 to warm relief (suction of drag
pump 5-P-26)
7. Alarms and Safety Features
The column over-pressure devices are designed to have four stages of protection with
increasing pressure: (1) ALARM, (2) steam shut-off, (3) Vent to the enclosed relief
system, and (4) last resort, vent to the atmosphere from the top of the column. The
accumulator also has a safety valve that will relieve to the relief system. A list of alarms
and safety valves follow:
1. High press. alarm hhPa-51477
2. Steam shut-off hhPNS-51477
3. Col. vent to warm relief system PSV-51090 set at 17.4 bar g
4. Accum. vent to warm relief system PSV 51093 set at 18 bar g
5. Col. vent to atmosphere PSV 51091 set at 21.4 bar g
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INSTRUMENTS
DEOILER 5-T-08
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION
AIR
FAILURE
RESETS
LIC-51293
FIC-51141
FPV-51141
FIC-51139
FPV-51139
PIC-51479
PPV-51479
PIC-51482
PPV-51482
HIC-51044
HPV-51044
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III
NGL REFRIGERATION, PRODUCT CHILLING,
STORING AND LOADING
OPERATORS MANUAL
A. INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the NGL Refrigeration System is to provide the liquid feed and reflux
necessary for the ultimate production, storage and loading of the ethane product, as well
s the chilling, storage and loading of iso-butane, normal butane and propane products.
The system utilises two types of refrigerants; propane and ethane, each having its own
equipment and functions, nut utilising a cascading effect between the two in some cases.
Three gas turbine driven three-stage compressors are used in the propane refrigeration
system, three steam driven compressors in the ethane refrigeration system, three
electrically driven compressors in the ethane tank pressure maintenance and three
electrically driven compressors in the propane tank pressure maintenance system.
The process utilises heat exchange between the product to be chilled and the refrigerant
used - whether propane or ethane. The refrigerant is pressured from the refrigerant
surge drum (ethane or propane) to the various exchangers and equipment involve,
where it exchanges heat with the process to be chilled. The vapours created from this
exchange are picked up by the refrigerant surge drum to be circulated again for
additional use. The heat is removed and eventually dispersed via the propane
refrigeration system, condenser coils, where heat is exchanged with air.
Briefly, the propane refrigeration system makes possible the cooling required to
condense the de-ethaniser columns reflux, chill the demethaniser columns feed, chill the
propane product and help maintain the propane storage tanks, condense all ethane
refrigerant vapours, chill the ethane product before going into storage, chill the iso-
butane, normal butane, before going to refrigerated storage, and maintain the
refrigerated storage.
The ethane refrigeration system is used as the coolant to provide reflux for the
demethaniser tower and for chilling the ethane product for refrigerated storage. It also
is used for re-condensing the boil-off vapours from the ethane storage tank.
The NGL loading systems have been computerised for automatic or remote loading of
either cold or hot product. Ethane loading, however, is not computerised and must be
done under manual control.
Additional details of the refrigeration system, refrigerated NGL storage system and
product loading is presented in the following discussion.
METHANOL INJECTION POINTS
No. 1 De-C2 Twr. O.H. line upstream of PPV-51133 1
No. 1 De-C2 Twr. O.H. to O.H. condensers. One to each core 3
C3 refrig. to No. 1 De-C2 O.H. condensers. One to each core 3
C3 refrig. to No 1 De-C2 T.S.D. upstream of LPV-51074 1
No. 2 De-C2 Twr. O.H. upstream of PPV-51152 1
No. 2 De-C2 Twr. O.H. to O.H. condensers. One to each core 3
C3 refrig. to No.
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B. PROPANE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
1. Description
The N.G.L. unit includes two types of fractionators which cannot normally use air or water
for condensing reflux for separation of Methane and Ethane from the N.G.L. stream.
Pure Ethane cannot be liquified above its critical temperature of 32C and pure Methane
cannot be liquified above its critical temperature of -82C. The condensers for the two
De-Ethaniser columns and the De-Methaniser column, operate at -12C and-73C
respectively.
The N.G.L. unit produces Ethane, Propane, Isobutane and normal Butane as saleable
products, which are stored under refrigerated temperature and atmospheric pressure.
Storage refrigeration temperature varies according to the product.
Ethane requires a temperature of -89C; Propane -43C; Isobutane -12C; and normal
Butane -1C.
It can be seen from the previous statement, that refrigeration must be provided at various
temperature levels ranging from -1C to -89C.
It was decided to use two refrigerants at Teesside, one level to operate between -1C to
-43C and the second between -43C to -89C.
Some type of refrigeration system had to be designed as it was not possible, using air
or water directly, to get these low temperatures, hence the choice of Propane and
Ethane. Propane selected as the high temperature range refrigerant to operate between
-1C to 43C and Ethane as low temperature refrigerant to operate between -43C to -
89C.
The entire refrigeration system will operate at five temperature/pressure ranges to
maximise efficiency of the units.
Each refrigerant is handled by separate units and will be known as the (Propane
Refrigerant) and (Ethane Refrigerant) Systems.
PROPANE REFRIGERATION
To get a better understanding of how the system will operate, let us first consider and
define what the unit must do.
a. Condense reflux at 12C on De-Ethaniser Columns.
b. Chill De-Methaniser column feed from 10C to -35C.
c. Chill Ethane product from De-Ethaniser columns from -4C to -35C.
d. Chill Propane product from 38C to -35C.
e. Maintain Propane product in refrigerated Storage Tanks at -46C.
f. Chill Isobutane product from 38C to -12C.
g. Maintain Isobutane product in Storage Tank at -12C.
h. Chill normal Butane from 38C to 1C.
i. Maintain normal Butane in Storage Tank at -1C.
j. Condense all Ethane refrigerant at -35C.
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To sustain the plant for continuous 100% operation, three 50% compressor units were
installed, with each compressor unit rated at 9,315 BHP, having the same capacities and
control systems built into them. It is expected that two compressors will be in service
under normal design-load conditions.
The propane refrigeration system will operate at three pressure and temperature ranges.
High stage refrigerant will operate at 4.8 Bar G and 7.2C. Intermediate stage refrigerant
will operate at 1.7 Bar G and -16C. Low stage refrigerant will operate at 0.1 Bar G and
-40C.
Suction to the compressors 706-160-10/11/12, at the level stated above is supplied from
the various users in the system, collected into individual headers and introduced to the
compressors.
The combined discharge vapours at a temperature of 70C and pressure of 13.5 Bar G
are condensed in thirty (30) air fan coolers 706-410-20 at a temperature of 38C. On third
of the fans having two speed motors, these being staggered, every third set having a two
speed motor.
Exact control is not necessary, any numbers of fans can be run to achieve a temperature
or read across the cooling bundles of 29C to 38C on condensing. A suitable number
of fans should be run to condense the compressors at various load conditions.
The condensed vapours are routed to two surge tanks 706-950-35/46 which will normally
operate in parallel at a pressure of 13 Bar G.
Provision is made to take one tank our of service should it become necessary for
maintenance.
Refrigerant make-up is routed to both surge tanks directly from the Propane product line
ahead of all the chillers. Normal make-up is expected to be about 10bls/day, any sudden
increase could indicate a leaking relief valve.
The automatic shut-down valve for the refrigeration system is situated at the outlet of
surge tanks in the 20" line leading to the common header that supplies the various users
in the system. This is a positive shut-off valve and will close automatically if all the
compressors are shut-down, to prevent leakage from filling flash drums and flash tanks
in the system.
At this point it may be better to deal with the compressor recycle system separately.
Prior to going to the air fan coolers, provision is made to route from 0-100% of the
compressors discharge flow to the recycle system.
This flow is split under flow control to the appropriate recycle drum depending on
compressor suction conditions at each stage, i.e. H.S. - I.S. - L.S., the amount of each
flow being governed by the anti-surge control settings built into the system.
Recycle flow is controlled to provide and maintain a minimum flow through each of the
three compression stages.
Each recycle drum has individual temperature, pressure and level controls incorporated,
and is designed to produce generated vapours going to their respective suction
scrubbers hot enough to prevent liquid condensing and slugging into the compressors.
The recycle drums are fitted with a fractionation type tray plate, hot vapours from the
compressors are introduced via a sparge type header beneath this plate, liquid Propane
under level control from the surge tank is fed to the drum above the tray at the top of the
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vessel. This arrangement provides intimate contact of the liquid and vapours peculating
the vapours through the tray to give even temperature control on the vapour outlet.
Should a high level condition arise, the level control will override temperature and
pressure controllers until conditions return to normal.
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One of the surge tanks is supplied with a vent condenser 706-410-31 for removal of light
ends that will tend to build up in the surge tanks, this will be evident by a slow build up
in pressure while the temperature of the surge tanks remains virtually the same.
Provision is made to route Propane refrigerant from the outlet of the surge tanks via an
H.I.C. to control the flow through the coil in the condenser. Vapour flow exit the
condenser should be such that a temperature differential of about 4C is obtained
between the surge tank temperature and the condenser vapour outlet temperature.
Ethane vapour exit the condenser is under H.I.C. control and routed to Ethane storage.
Propane vapours, exit the coil, flow to the compressor suction scrubbers. Provision is
made to direct this flow to whichever suction is desirable, it is important therefore, to
ensure that excessive liquid refrigerant is not used as this may result in unvapourised
liquid winding up in the compressor suction scrubbers.
Flow to the condenser will automatically be shut-off if all three compressors shut-down
and the automatic shut-down valve closes.
Refrigerant flow exit the surge tanks via the main 20" header is now split and routed to
the various users. For the purpose of this description they have been separated into four
groups.
First of these users is the Iso and Normal Butane chiller. Both of these products are
chilled from 38C to 12C in separate exchangers but, in the same vessel, known as the
H.S. Propane Evaporator 706-410-18.
This vessel is designed to operate with an evaporating pressure of 4.8 Bar G and
temperature of 7.2C.
Refrigerant make-up to the vessel is under level control, the vapourised liquid being
vented to the high stage suction header of the compressors. In addition to chilling duty,
the H.S. evaporator acts as a reservoir for Propane refrigerant feed to the interstage
evaporator, 706-410-17.
The intermediate stage evaporator contains three exchanger coils, Isobutane chiller,
Normal Butane chiller, Normal Butane tank heat leak recycle chiller. All these products
are chilled from 12C to -12C with the evaporator working at a temperature of -17 and
an evaporating pressure of 1.7 Bar G. Refrigerant flow is on level control, this vessel
acting as a reservoir also for the low stag evaporator, 706-410-16. Vapourised liquid
being vented to the interstage suction header of the compressors.
The low stage evaporator contains a single coil, for chilling Isobutane recycle from the
storage tank heat leak to maintain a tank temperature of -12C, the vessel operates with
an evaporating pressure of 0.10 Bar G and temperature of -40C. Propane refrigerant
flow is on level control and vapours are routed to the low stage suction header of the
compressors.
Components heavier than Propane will tend to build up in this vessel, and will be seen
by a slight, but gradual rise in temperature of the evaporator liquid. When this occurs the
vessel should be drained of heavy ends to accumulator tank 706-950-49 and pressured
to the Propane Storage Tank.
Facilities have been provided to bypass both refrigerant and product sides of the high
stage and interstage evaporators, so the equipment can be taken out of service for
maintenance. If these facilities are used it may be necessary to vent some product from
the storage tank.
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The next take-off from the 20" header supplies the Propane product and tank vapour
condenser 706-410-19 which is a plate type unit, this condenser contains three coils for
the refrigerant, the product and tank vapours flowing between a series of plates.
This exchanger utilises all three stages of refrigeration. Refrigerant flows to the high
stage flash or thermosyphon drum 706-950-13 under level control, the refrigerant flowing
through the exchanger coils and vapourised, returning to the drum where the vapour is
vented to the compressor suction header. The high stage is designed to operate at 4.8
Bar G and 7.2C.
Refrigerant from the high stage flash drum is letdown under level control to the interstage
drum 706-950-14 which operates at 1.7 Bar G and -16C, refrigerant from the interstage
drum is letdown in the same manner to the low stage drum 706-950-15 which operates
at 0.1 Bar G and -40C. Both of these loops operate in the same way as the high stage,
the generated vapours being routed to their respective suction headers.
Propane product and tank vapours enter the condensor at 38C and 27C respectively,
flowing through the refrigerant coils from high stage through to low stage in that order.
Outlet product temperatures are 35.6C and product and condensed vapours are routed
to storage.
This condenser is enclosed in an insulated box and provision is made for a continuous
N
2
purge to prevent build up of hydrocarbon gasses.
Each flash drum can be bypassed and taken out of service if required for maintenance
repairs, heavy ends that may build up in the low pressure drum can be drained to an
accumulator tank and pressured to the Propane storage tank. The flash drums must be
operated at the design levels otherwise loss of efficiency will result. Low levels will give
insufficient heat transfer and result in higher tank vapour and product temperatures.
Alcohol injection points have been provided to dissolve water plugs that may occur.
The next propane refrigerant take-off supplies the Ethane product chillers and Ethane
refrigerant condensers.
Refrigerant is flashed down from 12.9 Bar G via level control to the high stage flash drum
706-950-10 which operates at 4.8 Bar G and 7C. Vapours from this drum are routed to
the compressor high stage suction header. It is expected that approximately 20% of feed
will flash off in this vessel.
Liquid refrigerant from the high stage flash drum flows to the interstage evaporator 706-
410-09 via level control the temperature and pressure being letdown across this valve
to 1.7 Bar G and -16C.
The interstage evaporator contains on e chiller coil, known as the Ethane product chiller
Vapours from the evaporator are routed to the interstage compressor suction header.
Ethane product enters the chiller at -3.3C and is chilled to -12C.
Refrigerant leaves the interstage evaporator and enters the low stage flash or
thermosyphon drum 706-950-09 under level control which also lets the pressure and
temperature down to 0.1 Bar G and -40C. Vapours from the flash drum are routed to
the low stage suction header of the compressor.
The refrigerant liquid is routed to the plate type exchanger unit 706-410-08 and flow is
through the coil in the bottom section of the exchanger. The top section of the
exchanger is used as a vapour economiser, utilising the high stage and low stage
vapours from the Ethane refrigerant system to chill the circulating Ethane refrigerant.
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High stage Ethane vapours enter the chiller box at -59C, low stage vapours at -77C,
and leave at 26.7C. Ethane refrigerant enters the exchanger at 38C.
The chilled Ethane refrigerant passes down to the bottom section of the exchanger
where it is further cooled by the low stage propane refrigerant coil and leaves at a
temperature of -35.6C.
In addition to the above mention duties an extra plate exchanger is incorporated in the
bottom section which further chills Ethane product exit the Ethane product chiller from
-12C to -35.6C.
In N
2
purge is supplied with this unit for a constant purge of hydrocarbon vapours from
the insulated box around this exchanger.
The final take-off from the main 20" header supplies the overhead condensers for the
two De-Ethaniser columns and the De-Methaniser feed chiller.
Refrigerant flows to the high stage flash drum 706-950-12 under level control which
reduces the pressure and temperature across the valve to the operating pressure of 4.8
Bar G and -16C temperature.
Vapours from the flash drum are routed to the high stage suction header of the
compressors about 22% of inlet flow.
There are two outlets for liquid flow associated with this flash drum. One supplies the
two interstage flash or thermosiphon drums 521-950-01/02 on the De-Ethaniser columns
overheads, the other outlet is routed to the interstage flash drum 706-950-11 which
supplies the low stage refrigerant drum 521-950-03 connected to the De-Methaniser feed
chiller, 75% flows to De-Ethaniser, 25% flows to De-Methaniser.
Flow to the De-Ethaniser system is under level control, the level control valves operating
to maintain operating levels in the two interstage thermosyphon drums reducing the
pressure and temperature across the valve to 1.7 Bar G and -16C.
Vapours from both vessels are routed to the compressor interstage suction header.
Refrigerant is circulated through the overheads condensers chilling the overhead
vapours from 2.2C and condensing them at the outlet temperature of -12C and 28 Bar
G pressure.
Should heavy ends build up in these drums they should be drained to accumulator TKS
521-050-05/05 and heavy ends pressured to Propane storage.
Refrigerant for the De-Ethaniser feed chiller 505-410-12 is letdown to intermediate flash
706-950-11 drum under level control, and will be reduced to 1.7 Bar G and -16C. About
15% of the liquid is flashed off and routed to the interstage suction header of the
compressors. Liquid refrigerant is routed to the De-Methaniser feed chiller thermosiphon
drum 521-950-03 under level control and reduced in temperature and pressure across
this valve to 0.1 Bar and -40C. Refrigerant is circulated through the feed chiller
reducing feed temperature to the De-Methaniser from 9.4C to -35.6C. Vapours leaving
the drum are controlled by a T.I.C., which controls the outlet temperature of the chiller by
adjusting the rate of evaporation of the refrigerant in the drum. Vapours are routed to the
low stage suction header of the compressors. Once again heavy ends that may build up
are drained and pressured to the Propane storage tank via accumulator tank 521-950-
07.
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Provision is made to bypass both the high stage and interstage flash drums supplying
the two De-Ethaniser column refrigerants, should it be required for maintenance or
otherwise.
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ETHANE REFRIGERANT UNIT
1. Purpose
This unit will provide refrigerant requirements for the NGL and Storage Areas, the duty
being split almost equally between both areas.
In the NGL Process Area, refrigerant is supplied to condense de-methaniser overhead
vapours for reflux. In the Storage Area, refrigerant is required to condense ethane
product and re-condense storage tank heat leak vapours.
2. Unit Flow and Controls
Assume that the unit is in a "go" status, and ethane refrigerant levels are established in
the surge tank and other flash drums and vessels in the system.
Refrigerant in surge tank 7-TK-06 under normal design conditions of 8.8 Bar G and -
35C, leaves via a 6" line at the bottom of the vessel. The automatic shutdown valve for
the "unit" HPV-71102, is situated in this line and will automatically if all compressors are
shutdown, either in a planned manner or emergency trip situation.
The surge tank has a pressure control valve, PIC-71003 to vent excess vapours to the
cold relief system. The instrument is panel mounted in the NGL Control Room. A HI and
LO level alarm and level recorder for the surge tank are also panel mounted in the NGL
Control Room.
Make up refrigerant to the unit is routed to the surge tank from the ethane product line
downstream of the product chiller, 7-E-08.
Refrigerant leaving the surge tank via the 6" line separates downstream of the automatic
shutdown valve, HPV-71102, into separate 4" lines.
One stream flows to the high stage evaporate flash drum 7-D-08, supplying liquid
refrigerant to 7-E-01 cold box, for tank vapour condensing, the other stream goes to 7-
TK-05 acting as a head tank for 54-D-04 (De-methaniser overhead thermosyphon drum).
Flow to both these vessels is under level control, flow to 7-D-08 via LIC-71012 and flow
to 7-TK-05 via LIC 71008. Owing to the vessel being elevated and the LIC located at
grade, 7-TK-05 runs with only 0-5% level, the high level alarm now activated at 20%
(there is no low level alarm on this vessel).
The pressure and temperature of the refrigerant liquid is reduced across the level control
valves from 8.8 Bar G -35C to 2.95 Bar G 95C.
Both level controllers with HI and LO level alarm are panel mounted in the NGL Control
Room.
Each flash drum has a pressure control valve situated on the vapour outlet lines, PIC-
71001 on 7-TK-05 and PIC-71301 on 7-D-08, both controllers are panel mounted in the
NGL Control Room.
Vapours from both drums are combined in a common header, flowing to the high stage
suction "drip leg" prior to entering 7-E-08, the ethane refrigerant vapour economiser,
where the flashed vapours are heated from -59C to 26.7C to meet compressor suction
temperature design conditions.
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Prior to entering the vapour economiser, provision is made to vent vapours to the cold
relief system via HIC-710075 valve, which is remotely operated from the NGL Control
Room, A high pressure alarm is situated upstream of this valve and is panel mounted
in the NGL Control Room also.
This control should be used only when excessive pressure build-up is experienced in this
section of the unit, and not as a variable control during normal operations i.e. loss of all
compressors and circulation through the unit for such a period of time that heat leaks
from the atmosphere starts to vaporise the residual liquid in the system with the
possibility of lighting relief valves.
Liquid refrigerant from the high stage flash drum 7-TK-05 which serves the NGL
requirements is routed to the de-methaniser column overheads refrigerant thermosiphon
drum 54-D-04 under level control via LIC-51212 which is situated near the inlet of drum
54-D-04. There are two other valves situated in this section of line HPV-71187 on the
outlet of 7-TK-05 and HPC-71081 which is listed downstream of LIC-51212 on the inlet
of 54-D-04. All of these instruments are panel mounted in the NGL Control Room.
HPV valves 71187-51081 will give a positive shut off when closed and should be
switched to the closed position if the unit is shutdown or level control valve LIC-51212
opens due to a mechanical fault. This will prevent high pressure liquid filling the de-
methaniser overheads refrigerant thermosiphon drum and flooding the vapour return line
to the low stage suction of the compressors, giving rise to the possibility of tripping the
compressors due to low temperature suction conditions.
Liquid refrigerant flowing to thermosiphon drum 54-D-04 is reduced in pressure and
temperature across LIC-51212 from 2.95 Bar G -59C to 0.78 Bar G - 77C in the
thermosiphon drum. Refrigerant from the bottom of the drum is routed to the plate type
exchanger 5--15 where it cools the column overhead vapours from -45C to -72C.
Vapours returning to the refrigerant drum are routed to the common header for the low
stage suction of the compressors.
Liquid refrigerant from the high stage evaporator flash drum, 7-D-08, flows through the
middle section of the combined tank vapour economiser - condenser and ethane
produce chiller 7-E-01, vapours returning to the flash drum and flowing to the combined
high stage suction to the compressors. Refrigerant liquid from the bottom outlet of drum
7-D-08 flows under level control via LIC 71010 to the low pressure evaporator flash drum
7-D-08, pressure and temperature being reduced across the level controller from 2.95
Bar G at -59C to 0.78 Bar G at 77C.
The liquid refrigerant in this drum, 7-D-07, flows through the bottom section of the vapour
economiser and produced chiller 7-E-01, vapours returning to the low stage evaporator
flash drum being routed to the low stage suction header of the compressors via PIC
71002 and combine with the low pressure vapours from 54-D-04. The now combined
vapours flow to the low stage "drip leg" prior to entering the refrigerant vapour
economiser 7-E-08, at an inlet temperature of -77C and leave at a temperature of
26.7C before being routed to the compressors. Prior to entering the vapour economiser
provision is made for venting excess pressure that may occur via HIC-71076, as
explained previously on the high stage suction header.
All level and pressure controllers are panel mounted in the NGL Control Room, High and
Low level alarms, high level trips and high pressure alarms are also provided.
To sustain 100% plant operation three compressors each rated at 50% capacity were
installed. Each compressor being driven by 55 Bar G steam turbine, having its own
individual lube and seal oil systems.
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Each compressor is provided with the conventional lube and seal oil shutdown, turbine
overspeed shutdown systems. In additions there are low suction temperature trips on
each stage from the process area and high temperature trips on each discharge stage
of the compressors.
Each compressor has a pressure control valve situated in the LOW and HIGH pressure
suction lines downstream of the suction valves. These are mounted in the NGL Control
Room. In addition a pressure tapping is situated in the low stage suction of the
compressors feeding a PIC which operates the governor on the steam turbine.
The pressure controllers will be set to maintain 0.36 Bar G pressure at the low pressure
suction and 2.6 Bar G at the high pressure suction of the compressors, these controller
are left in wide open position in manual mode.
Flow from the discharge of the low stage compressor is routed through an air fan cooler,
cooling the compressed vapours from 102C to 38C, where it then passes through a
non return valve and combines with the high stage suction vapours. Provision is made
downstream of the air fan cooler and before the non return valve to recycle vapours to
the suction to prevent surge of the machine.
The recycle flow is governed b an FIC which monitors the discharge flow and will operate
a control valve in the recycle line. Pressure and temperature compensators are provided
and combine with the FIC to provide correct flow calculations. The second stage recycle
vapours are controlled in the same manner as stated for the low stage vapours.
The now combined discharge vapours from each compressor are routed to a high
efficiency mist extractor 7-D-36 which removed entrained seal oil in the discharge
vapours.
Great importance should be attached to this vessel and a constant check on the oil level
accumulated noted and the vessel drained to ensure as low a level present as possible.
Any oil carried over into the vapour economiser and produce chiller 7-E-08 will most
certainly freeze out and plug the exchanger.
Vapours leaving mist extractor 7-D-36 enter the vapour economiser/product chiller (7-E-
08) and are cooled in the top section by the high and low stage flashed vapours going
to the compressor suctions, they then pass downwards to the bottom section where low
stage propane refrigerant further chills them to an outlet temperature of -35.6C, also
in this bottom section ethane product is chilled from -12C to -35.6C. The condensed
vapours are routed to the surge tank 7-TK-06. Ethane product flowing to the tank vapour
economiser/condenser 7-E-01 where it is further chilled to a temperature of -72C at the
outlet. It is further cooled by passing through a pressure control valve, PIC 71005,
reducing the pressure from 15 Bar G to 25m Bar and a temperature of -96C.
The insulation boxes around vapour economiser/product chiller 7-E-08, and tank vapour
economiser/product chiller 7-E-01, called cold boxes, have a N
2
purge of 2m
3
/hr supplied
to prevent any excessive build up of hydrocarbon vapours.
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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The Rotor impellers, when rotating at high speed, impart energy into the gas which is flowing
through them. The gas enters the intake (suction) volute of the compressor and flows through
the first stage inlet vane which directs the gas at a suitable angle axially into the "eye" of the first
stage impeller at high velocity. The gas glows into an annular passage is increasing in area as
gas flows through the return bend; therefore converting part of the velocity energy of the gas into
pressure energy. The gas then flows round the return bend through a vented annular passage
in the diaphragm and into the second stage inlet guide vane and impeller. After subsequent
stages of compression the gas flows into the discharge volute of the compressor.
Due to the difference in area between the side walls of each impeller the axial thrust of the rotor
assembly is towards the suction end of the compressor. In order to limit this trust to a
reasonable but still positive value for long thrust bearing life, a balance piston is secured to the
discharge end of the rotor shaft. A mating labyrinth type seal is secured to the discharge wall.
The last stage impeller at the other side is externally piped (by means of a balance connector)
to either suction or interstage gas pressure. The difference in pressure either side of the piston
produces a thrust opposite in direction to that of the impeller.
Seal ports D (See fig 1, inner oil seals diagram) at inboard end of seal assemblies are
interconnected by a gas balance line to equalise pressure at inboard end of seals so as to
ensure that both HS and LS ends can be supplied by seal oil at the same pressure. Seal ports
C at outboard end of seals are vented to atmosphere to prevent any back pressure at the outer
seal rings. Therefore, both seal assemblies in a compressor are sealing against the same
pressures.
Process gas leakage into seal ports A is the actual gas pressure that has to be sealed against
(seal reference pressure or gas reference) and is used to establish the required seal oil supply
pressure to ports B. An overhead oil storage tank is mounted with a normal level approximately
15 feed above the compressor centre line to provide a head of seal oil to ports B at
approximately 5 psig above seal pressure. The gas reference pressure from the discharge end
port A is externally piped to the top of the seal oil head tank to ensure a positive seal oil supply
pressure to ports B at the 5 psig delta p.
Sealing oil enters ports "b" and flows between the seals rings/shaft clearance since design
clearance of this ring is greater than that of the inner ring and seal port "C" is at atmospheric
pressure. This oil drains from port "C" and is returned to the seal oil reservoir. The remainder
of seal oil flows between the inner ring/shaft clearance into seal port "A". Since the seal oil is
approximately 5 psi above gas pressure (Seal Reference Pressure) in port "A", gas leakage is
positively prevented. The slinger configuration machined in the shaft sleeve plus a small gas
flow between the inner labyrinth/shaft clearance prevents oil from entering the gas stream.
The mixture of oil and entrained gas drains from ports A into sour oil drain traps where the gas
is separated from the oil. The gas is vented to either hot vent header or the compressor, low
stage suction. The oil is routed to a degassing tank prior to going back to the seal oil reservoir.
ETHANE REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR CONTROLS
Vapours from the Ethane Refrigerant Vapour Economiser Condenser and Ethane Product
Chiller, 706-410-08, (Stream 6) leave the chiller through a 16" line which is then routed to the
machines 12" suction manifold.
The discharge from the low stage is routed from the machine through an air fin cooler and then
joins into the suction line to the high stage section of the machine. Pressure here is boosted to
about 3 Bar G to get into the suction of the high stage.
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The high stage main suction line is an 8" line which comes off the main 12" vapour line from
stream "7" of the same chiller, 7-E-08, as did the low stage. The pressure on this line is
calculated to be about 2.75 Bar G, at 26.7C.
Also, in both high and low stage sections, if the vapour load decreases to a certain point a
recycle flow from the discharges back to the suctions (Whichever the case may be) will be
induced through a 6" tie-over (In the low stage) and a 4" tie-over (In the high stage) which is
controlled by FIC's which measure the flow from the individual discharges from each section.
This is referred to as "Minimum Flow Recycle Control". The purpose of this is to guarantee a
pre-set minimum flow of vapour through each section of the machine at all times regardless of
the load. According to the P & ID's, the minimum flow rate for the machine is:
Low stage, 3254NM
3
/hr
High stage, 8496 NM
3
/hr
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ETHANE REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR STEAM TURBINE DRIVER
7-CT-04/05/06
The driver for the ethane refrigeration system compressor is a non condensing steam turbine,
built by Worthington.
A non condensing turbine is one which exhausts to a pressure greater than, or equal to
atmospheric pressure.
The turbine rotor is forged construction. The wheel baskets are inserted in dovetail grooves
machined in the rim of the wheel.
The rotor is carried by babbit lined bearings.
Axial location of the turbine rotor in the casing is maintained and thrust is absorbed be a single
thrust bearing located in the steam end bearing case, and operates in a continuous oil bath.
Labyrinth type packing is used in the end glands to seal the openings in the casing where the
turbine shaft passes through, which reduces to a minimum leakage along the shaft.
Speed control of the turbine is effected by a Woodward type governor. The governor controls
the steam inlet valve through a direct mechanical connection. The function of the speed
governor system is to maintain practically constant speed regardless of load by opening or
closing the inlet steam valve to the steam nozzles. The speed governor is equipped with a
pneumatic receiver which acts to change the speed setting the governor is equipped with a
pneumatic receiver which acts to change the speed setting the governor in response to the air
signal. The speed control element of the governor is in control at all times, however, during
such changes.
The turbine trip system enables the turbine to be shut down in the following ways:
1. Manually
2. As a result of overspeeding
3. As a result of de-energising the solenoid operated dump valve
Regardless of the means by which the turbine is tripped out, the end result is the same which
is the instantaneous closing of the trip and throttle valve.
Lubricating oil is taken from the oil reservoir an supplied to the bearings under pressure by a
positive displacement pump. From this pump the oil passes through the oil filter to the oil cooler.
From the oil cooler the oil is supplied to the turbine bearings at a pressure maintained by the
back pressure control valve located in the line. The excess oil from the control valve is drained
back to the oil tank.
Solenoid Dump Valve - The solenoid operated dump valve is mounted in a line taken from the
low oil pressure trip oil supply line. The purpose of the valve is to create an artificial low oil
pressure condition when the valve is open causing the turbine to be shut down by action of the
low lube oil pressure trip.
When the unit is in operation the valve is closed and oil pressure is maintained on the low oil
pressure trip bellows assembly holding the trip in its latched position. When the valve opens,
oil from the low oil pressure trip bellows housing is dumped to drain. The resultant loss of oil
pressure actuates the low oil pressure trip and the turbine is shut down through its tripping
device.
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Speed Governor - The speed governor is driven by a governor drive shaft located in the steam
end bearing case which, in turn, is driven by a worm on the turbine shaft, and a bronze gear on
the governor shaft.
Emergency Governor and Trip Mechanism - The purpose of the emergency governor is to stop
the turbine when its speed reaches a pre-determined value - usually 15% higher than its
maximum speed.
To reset the emergency governor, close the steam valve in the steam line to the turbine, relieve
the pressure in the steam chest by opening the drain valve connected to the bottom of the steam
chest. Release the latch spring and raise the valve lever so that it will latch with the trip lever.
Low Oil Pressure Trip - The purpose of the low oil pressure trip is to stop the turbine when the
bearing pressure drops below a safe level. It is mounted on the side of the steam end bearing
case, and consists of a spring loaded bellows acting to release a spring loaded plunger rod.
When released, the plunger rod strikes a trip finger. This action causes the release of the trip
throttle valve trip lever. Upon release of the trip lever the trip throttle valve closes, shutting the
steam supply to the turbine, shutting it down.
(Turbine drive for c-2 compr.)
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
a. Starting the turbine.
1. Prepare the driven compressor for starting.
2. Check the oil level in the main oil tank and in the speed governor.
3. Check general external condition of the unit. Check to see that the solenoid valve is
closed. (Energised).
4. Start auxiliary oil pump and check lube oil pressure.
5. Reset the overspeed trip device.
6. Open all drain in line valves from trip throttle valve, steam chest and casing.
7. Slowly open exhaust line shut off valve to admit steam from exhaust header to turbine
casing for the purpose of warming up the casing. Do not impose full exhaust line
pressure on casing when it is cold. If exhaust line shut-off valve is equipped with a
bypass line use this line for better control of steam. When casing is heated to saturation
temperature of exhaust line steam, or very nearly so, and when condensate no longer
shows from the drain lines, open the exhaust line shut-off valve wide open.
8. Set governor speed changer so that governor will assume control above critical speed
and below normal running speed. (See Data sheet for critical speed of turbine).
9. Reset trip throttle valve.
10. Open valve quickly so that a sudden rush of steam starts the rotor spinning. Adjust
throttle valve so rotor is kept rolling at a speed not to exceed 500 rpm.
11. Close all drain line valves when they blow steam and no condensate.
12. Listen for unusual noises which might indicate rubbing or other internal distress. If any
noises are detected the turbine should be shut down, and the trouble remedied. If such
noises are detected the turbine should be shut down, and the trouble remedied. If such
noises are not encountered, put gland seal system into operation as outlined. Under no
circumstances should sealing steam be admitted to packing glands when rotor is
stationary. This is important!
13. Maintain the speed at maximum of 500 rpm until the rotor and casing are evenly heated.
The time required for heating may vary but will be approximately one half hour. The
experienced operator will soon become acquainted with the turbine and understand its
requirements. During this period check bearings for overheating and check temperature
of oil leaving cooler. If this temperature exceeds 120F, admit cooling water to cool,
otherwise wait until unit is brought up to rated speed. The temperature of the oil leaving
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the bearings should be approximately 140F, and should never exceed 180F.
14. Manually trip the trip throttle valve using the overspeed trip device to see that it functions
properly. Reset the trip-throttle vale. Open valve and return speed to 500prm.
15. Slowly open the trip valve to gradually increase the speed to just below the critical speed.
Observe the vibration and noise of the turbine. Pass through the critical speed with a
minimum of delay, bringing the speed up to the point where the speed governor assumes
control. Open trip-throttle valve wide, then close at lease on-quarter turn. If any unusual
vibration or noise is encountered reduce the speed immediately and run a 500 rom for
further warming.
16. Raise the speed to normal, and adjust the load to normal.
17. Admit water to oil cooler, if not already on, and adjust the flow to maintain outlet oil
temperature of 120F.
SHUTTING DOWN THE TURBINE
1. Reduce the load to minimum.
2. Manually trip the trip-throttle valve.
3. Shut off gland seal steam immediately. Shut exhaust line shut off valve.
4. Open all drain line valves from trip-throttle valve, steam chest, casing, etc. and leave
open.
5. Check to see if the auxiliary oil pump is running.
6. Keep auxiliary oil pump running until rotor comes to rest.
7. Shut down water to oil cooler.
8. When shutting down auxiliary oil pump, check the operation.
9. Check gland seal and trip throttle valves to see that they are shut tight.
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ETHANE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM STEAM TURBINE
DRIVER
DATA SHEET
7-CT-04/05/06
No. Turbine Stages 1 Rateau
Driven Machine Centrifugal Compressor
Horse Power and Speed Max. - 13328 rpm 1.157 KW
Turbine Rotation Counter clockwise - Looking from the
governor side
Inlet Steam Conditions: Normal 53.8 bar 427C
Max. 57.8 bar 443C
Min. 52.4 bar 415C
Exhaust Conditions: Normal 3.8 bar
Max. 4.13 bar
Shaft Packing Steam end Labyrinths
Exhaust Labyrinths
Speed Governor Woodward PG Pl, 29ft/lbs.
Lubrication Forced feed
Emergency Overspeed Trip Setting 14,661 rpm
Low Oil Pressure Trip set @: 0.65 bar
reset @: 0.75 bar
Solenoid Valve Open when de-energized 110v DC
Sentenal Warning Valve Set to open @ 4.6 bar
Water Flow Requirement for Gland oil Condenser - 18m
3
/hr
CRITICAL SPEEDS 1st: 7,278 rpm
2nd: 14,228 rpm
Air Signal For Woodward Governor: Turbine Speed Air Pressure
8,885 rpm 3 Psig
13,328 rpm 16 Psig
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TROUBLE SHOOTING
The following table covers troubleshooting of turbines that have operated successfully an d develop
problems during the course of normal operation. Problems encountered during initial startup should be
referred to Worthington Turbine Division.
TROUBLE SHOOTING THE SINGLE-STAGE STEAM TURBINE
TROUBLE WHATS WRONG WHAT TO DO
Hand nozzle valves open
insufficiently.
The operator, after acquainting himself with the correct combinations
of hand valves are open for various loads.
Governor valve does not open far
enough.
Adjust linkage as recommended.
Steam strainer is obstructed. Clean the strainer and check the source of the foreign material. It
may be necessary to free blow the steam line an this should always
be done before starting up the first time.
Some nozzles plugged. Be removing the rotor, this may be checked with a piece of wire.
Load is greater than turbine rating. If load cannot be reduced, the turbine can be renozzled for a
reasonable increase in power. Consult Worthington Turbine Division.
Lack of Power
Steam pressure at inlet is low, or
the exhaust pressure is high.
In some cases the steam line may be too small, or pressure drop
through the valves and fittings too excessive. Check the pressure at
the inlet under maximum load conditions and at minimum boiler
pressure., If conditions cannot be corrected, turbine can be
renozzled to suit actual conditions of service.
Load greater than realized. If the turbine is overloaded, steps should be taken to decrease the
load or increase the horsepower of the turbine. (Consult Worthington
Turbine Division).
Speed below normal. Check steam pressure and back pressure. Make sure the governor
is fully opening the valve. Check and see if the hand valves are in
use as designed.
Too many hand nozzle valves
open.
This situation gives a turbine excessive capacity which requires
throttling by the governor valve to maintain the proper speed. This is
inefficient and uses more steam than necessary. Close the hand
valves to eliminate throttling.
Steam pressure low, or exhaust
pressure too high.
These conditions must be corrected if the turbine is to carry a full
load. Better boiler control will provide steam pressure correction.
Horsepower goes down as exhaust pressure goes up over designed
pressure.
Steam is wet, or the super-heat
low.
This condition not only causes loss of power, but is dangerous since
it causes excessive erosion on the nozzles and blades. Adjust steam
conditions as per manufacturerss recommendations.
Excessive
Steam
Consumption
Worn or damaged nozzles and
blades.
Efficiency of the turbine is adversely affected by this. Nozzles and/or
blades should be replaced or repaired at the earliest opportunity.
Misalignment with driven shaft. Check the alignment when the turbine is hot. If the turbine drives a
coupled gear, and the gears run together at the top, allow for the
pinion running in the top of its bearing when under load.
Unbalance. Remove any deposits in blades. Make sure turbine is thoroughly
drained during long shut-down periods to prevent uneven rust
formation. Bad vibration may result from loss of some blades or
shrouging.
Rubbing. Correct the axial position of the rotor. Adjust the thrust bearing as
required. Make sure that the driven machine cannot thrust against
the turbine shaft.
Vibration
Sprung shaft. May be caused by hot bearings (see "Bearing, Heating and Wear"),
tight glands (see "Glands Fitted Too Tightly"), or mechanical damage.
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TROUBLE WHATS WRONG WHAT TO DO
Loose wheels. It is extremely unusual, but may be caused by a runaway, excessive
steam temperature or shock loading.
Vibration
(Continued)
Glands fitted too tightly. Tight carbon rings may cause vibration and overheating. Refer to
Shaft Packing instructions for proper clearance.
Badly worn or broken carbon rings. Replace with new rings. Carbon rings should have a slight clearance
on the shaft when cold, as carbon expands much less with heat than
steel.
Carbon rings fouled by dirt or scale
carried over by steam.
The rings should be free to float axially, and the down-stream face of
the ring must seat perfectly against the smooth, true and clean
surface of the adjacent carbon ring spacer.
Leak-off line not freely open. Be sure the leak-off line cannot trap water and cause back pressure.
Excessive exhaust pressure. Packing cases are designed for a pre-determined back pressure.
Excessive back pressure causes leakage, which is a common cause
of water in the lubricating oil.
Excessive
Gland Leakage
Compound used to seal horizonal
joint has covered carbon rings.
When replacing carbon rings, use Turboseal compound carefully.
Excessive compound may foul the carbon rings, and the surfaces
against which they float.
Use of improper oil. Oil must be clean and of the proper viscosity. Refer to Section II
instruction s as to the correct lubricant.
Water cooling devices provided not
used; cooling water too hot.
This situation may cause a breakdown of the oil. It also will cause
the thrust bearing and main bearings to overheat excessively. Each
installation may have different cooling water requirements. Oil
should leave the oil cooler at 120F in forced feed units, with the
cooling water adjusted to give the proper temperature to the oil.
Water in the oil. This may result from gland leakage, cooler leakage, or condensation
from the atmosphere. To minimize condensation from the
atmosphere, shut off water from the oil cooler after shutting down.
This should be done as soon as the turbine casing has cooled
enough so excessive heat will not be transferred to the bearings.
Occasionally check oil reservoirs for water, and drain off any present.
Misalignment. Misalignment is a common cause of excessive bearing wear. The
Babbitt may be cracked or broken loose as a result of te pounding
from a misaligned shaft.
Unbalance. This is often due to deposits on buckets or wheels. In rare cases it is
caused by the loss of one or more buckets or a piece of shroug.
Inspect and clean the rotating element.
Rough journal surface. Journals can be stoned if not too seriously roughened. In extreme
cases journals will need to be chrome plated.
Thrust from driven shaft
transmitted through coupling.
Proper distance must be maintained between ends of the shaft and
the driven unit. Check this distance. make sure the coupling is free
to move laterally. The coupling can become full of dirt or sludge and
not be free to move laterally.
Excessive tension in spring type
speed changer.
The tension on the speed changer spring must be sufficient to hold
the governor lever firmly against the governor spindle correction
under all conditions. Avoid any unnecessary loading on this spring
as this would impose excessive load on the thrust bearing.
Speed governor trying to close a
leaking or stuck governor valve.
Leaking or stuck valve should be corrected as it constitutes a safety
hazard, besides being detrimental to the thrust bearing. Excessive
wear is also impose excessive load on the thrust bearing.
Bearing,
Heating and
Wear
Heavy slugs of water in the steam. This condition can be avoided through proper boiler control.
Damage to thrust bearings and wheels will result from water slugs.
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TROUBLE WHATS WRONG WHAT TO DO
Bearing,
Heating and
Wear
(Continued)
Rough or untru thrust collars.
(Shoe-Type Bearing).
Rough or untrue thrust collars on single-stage machines may cause
rapid wear on thrust facings of the sleeve bearings. This could
eventually increase thrust clearance at a point where the turbine
wheels would rub on the guide or reversing ring. Rough or untrue
collars should be replaced or repaired at the first opportunity.
No provision for exhaust pipe. A good expansion joint and proper pipe supports are needed.
Excessive steam pipe stresses. Stress can be overcome by the use of proper supports and hangers,
and the use of loops or bends in the steam line. An expansion joint
should be provided for the exhaust line, adjacent to the turbine.
Turbine casing supporting
members are hot due to poor
insulation.
Maintain insulation behind these members, but leave them open to
good ventilation.
Foundations of driver and driven
machine move.
If the turbine and driven unit are on separate foundations, any
movement will cause misalignment. If foundations arent adequate
to hold both units, a concrete cap should be poured over both to
assure operation on a similar plane.
Units Do Not
Stay in
Alignment
Baseplates exposed to heat from
steam pipes.
The distortion caused bu excessive heat on the baseplate may
cause misalignment. Pipes should be insulated or relocated away
from baseplates.
A leaky governor valve, or a leak
near governor valve.
This situation should be corrected by replacing or repairing
governor valve and seal, otherwise the turbine will continue to
receive steam even with the governor in closed position.
Governor responds slowly due to
worn parts or sticking.
Free the sticking valve and inspect all pivot points in linkage for
signs of sticking or binding or excessive wear.
Speed Rises
Excessively
With Loss of
Load
Governor does not fully close
governor valve.
Adjust linkage.
Sticking or excessive friction in
governor, valve or valve stem.
Generally due to dirt, wear or mechanical damage. Clean and
repair or replace.
Lost motion so the governor valve
doesnt always follow motion of
governor.
This is usually the result of excessive wear at the pivot points in the
linkage. Bearing in the linkage should be replaced, as well as the
linkage pins.
Hunting
Governor knife edges worn. These must be replaced if badly worn. There is no effective repair
for these parts.
(Same causes as "Hunting"). Slow
Response
Turbine carrying very heavy load,
little reserve power.
Open necessary hand valves to increase horsepower.
Improper adjustment or poor
condition of tripping mechanism,
springs or latches.
The trip valve should be tested frequently. To test the valve, trip the
overspeed mechanism by hand. Make sure the trip valve closes
promptly and stops the turbine.
Trip Valve
Excessive friction in trip valve
spindle packing. Scaling, wear or
mechanical damages in trip valve
or its supports.
These serious faults should be corrected by cleaning, repairing or
replacing parts so that this important safety device can operate
effectively.
Overspeed
Governor
(Mechanical
Shaft)
Governor does not trip at or near
the proper speed.
Remove the governor cover and examine the Overspeed Governor.
Make sure it is clean, in good order, and that the emergency weight
can be easily and freely moved in the governor cup by a small
screw-driver or similar tool. Adjust as described in Section VI.
Test unit by actually overspeeding. If it still doesnt trip at the proper
speed, adjust the setting of the emergency governor as required.
If low oil pressure trips, solenoid trips, high back pressure trips, or
similar devices are provided, check them at the same time.
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PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
ETHANE REFRIG.
Equip. Number Description Type Drive Capacity Disch. Press. Sub Station
7-C-01
7-C-02
7-C-03
7-C-04
7-C-05
7-C-06
7-BL-01
7-BL-02
Ethane storage tank
compressor
Ethane storage tank
compressor
Ethane storage tank
compressor
Ethane Refrig. compressor
Ethane Refrig. compressor
Ethane Refrig. compressor
Ethane tank blower
Ethane tank blower
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
elec
elec
elec
steam
turbine
steam
turbine
steam
turbine
elec
elec
3300NM
3
/HR
3300NM
3
/HR
3300NM
3
/HR
1st stage 7467NM
3
/HR
2nd stage 12420NM
3
/HR
1st stage 7467NM
3
/HR
2nd stage 12420NM
3
/HR
1st stage 7467NM
3
/HR
2nd stage 12430NM
3
/HR
6600NM
3
/HR
6600NM
3
/HR
10 Bar G
10 Bar G
10 Bar G
3.14 Bar
3.14 Bar
3.14 Bar
0.414 Bar
-
-
-
-
-
-
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Equip. Number Description Speed Criticals Overspeed Inlet Exhaust
7-CT-04
7-CT-05
7-CT-06
Steam turbine for
ethane refrig.
comp.
Steam turbine for
ethane refrig.
comp.
Steam turbine for
ethane refrig.
comp.
Press.
53.8 Bar
Temp. 427C
Press. 53.8 Bar
Temp. 427C
Press.
53.8 Bar
Temp. 427C
3.88 Bar
238.8C
3.88 Bar
238.8C
3.88 Bar
238C
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EXCHANGERS
Products Shell T1 Tube T1 Equip. No. Description
Shell Tube
Pressure
7-E-01 Section 1
Stream 1 - 115C - +65C
Stream 2 - 115 - +105C
11.8 Bar
12.0 Bar
Section 2
Stream 2 - 115C - +105C
Stream 3 - 96C - +65C
Stream 4 - 96 - +65C
12.0 Bar
30.2 Bar
11.8 Bar
Tank vapour
economiser and product
chiller
Section 3
Stream 2 - 115C - +105C
Stream 3 - 96C - +65C
Stream 5 - 96C - +65C
12.0 Bar
30.2 Bar
11.8 Bar
Section 1
Stream 6 - 96C - +65C
Stream 7 - 95C - +65C
Stream 8 - 96C - +105C
11.8 Bar
11.8 Bar
16.0 Bar
7-E-08
Ethane refrigerant
vapour economiser and
ethane product chiller
Section 2
Stream 8 - 96C to +105C
Stream 9 - 96C to +65C
Stream 10 - 96C to +65C
16.0 Bar
30.2 Bar
14.5 Bar
7-E-02
7-E-03
7-E-04
I.S. air coolers on 7-C-
01/02/03
air ethane - - 118C
118C
118C
2.5 Bar
2.5 Bar
2.5 Bar
2.2 Bar
2.2 Bar
2.2 Bar
7-E-05
7-E-06
7-E-07
Ethane Storage
compressors air coolers
air ethane - - 10 Bar
10 Bar
10 Bar
9.4 Bar
9.4 Bar
9.4 Bar
7-E-10
7-E-11
7-E-12
Ethane refrig.
compressors discharge
air coolers
air ethane - - 9.6 Bar
9.6 Bar
9.6 Bar
8.9 Bar
8.9 Bar
8.9 Bar
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EXCHANGERS
Products Shell T1 Tube T1 Equip. No. Description
Shell Tube In Out In Out
Pressure
54-E-15 Demethaniser overheads chiller Methane Ethane -45.6C -72C -7C -77C 22.4 Bar .78 Bar
7-E-13
7-E-14
7-E-15
Ethane Refrig. compressors I.S. air coolers Air Ethane - - 102C
102C
102C
33.3C
33.3C
33.3C
3.1 Bar
3.1 Bar
3.1 Bar
2.7 Bar
2.7 Bar
2.7 Bar
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TANKS
Equip.
Number
Description Capacity Op. Temp. Overflow Height Pressure
7-TK-01
7-TK-05
Ethane Storage tank
H.S. Flash tank
Ethane Surge tank
Accumulator drain tank
Accumulator drain tank
25,500 M
3
-
-
-
-
-96C
-59C
-35C
-77C
-96C
-
-
-
-
-
0.014 Bar
2.95 Bar
8.8 Bar
13.0 Bar
design press.
30.2 Bar
DRUMS
Equip.
Number
Description Op. Temp. Op. Press. Water Boot
7-D-07
7-D-08
54-D-04
Low stage evaporator flash drum
High stage evaporator flash drum
Low stage thermosiphon drum
demethaniser O/Hds
-77C
-59C
077C
0.79 Bar
2.95 Bar
0.78 Bar
-
-
-
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INSTRUMENTS
ETHANE REFRIG.
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL LOCATION AIR
FAILURE
RESETS
PIC-71001
PIC-71102
PIC-71003
PIC-71004
PIC-71005
PIC-71006
PIC-
71007A
PIC-
71007B
PIC-71043
PIC-71050
PIC-71055
PIC-71057
PIC-71062
PIC-71189
PIC-71190
PIC-71192
Pressure control on
7-TK-05
Pressure control on
7-TK-07
Surge Tank
7-TK-06
Pressure Control
Pressure Control
suction ethane tank
blowers
Ethane product to
storage tank
Ethane storage
pressure mtce.
Ethane storage
overpressure control
L.S. Suction
7-C-04
H.S. Suction
7-C-04
L.S. Suction
7-C-05
H.S. Suction
7-C-05
L.S. Suction
7-C-06
H.S. Suction
7-C-06
Speed control
7-C-04
Speed control
7-C-05
Speed control
7-C-06
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
-
-
-
FPV-71101 VIA LO
SIG. SELECT RELAY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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INSTRUMENT
ETHANE REFRIG.
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL LOCATION AIR
FAILURE
RESETS
LIC-71108
LIC-71010
LIC-71012
LIC-51212
FIC-71001
FR-7102
FIC-71103
FIC-71006
FIC-71007
FR-71008
FIC-71009
FIC-71010
FR-71011
FIC-71012
FIC-71013
FR-71014
FIC-71015
Refrig. make-up to
7-TK-05
Refrig. make-up to
7-TK-07
Refrig. make-up to
7-TK-08
Refrig. make-up to
54-D-04
Tank 7-TK-01 recycle
control for blowers
Ethane to storage flow
Recycle flow control
tank comp.
Recycle flow control
tank comp.
Recycle flow control
tank comp.
Steam flow to refrig.
7-C-05
L.S. recycle flow
7-C-04
H.S. recycle flow
7-C-04
Steam flow to refrig.
7-C-05
L.S. recycle flow
7-C-05
H.S. recycle flow
7-C-05
Steam flow to refrig.
Turbine
7-C-06
L.S. recycle flow
7-C-06
7-C-05
Speed control
7-C-06
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
-
-
-
-
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
AFO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Approved By:
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Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
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INSTRUMENTS
ETHANE REFRIG.
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL LOCATION AIR
FAILURE
RESETS
FIC-71016
FI-71005
HIC-71075
HIC-71076
HIC-71113
HIC-71114
HIC-71116
HIC-71117
HIC-71117
HIC-71119
HIC-71115
HIC-71118
HIC-71121
HIC-71121
HIC-71068
HPV-71102
HIC-71253
HIC-71107
HIC-71108
TIC-71110
HIC-71111
H.S. recycle flow 7-C-06
N
2
Purge to 7-E-08
H.S. Suction header pressure relief
L.S. Suction header pressure relief
H.S. Suction isolation 7-C-04
H.S. Suction isolation 7-C-04
L.S. Suction isolation 7-C-05
L.S. Suction isolation 7-C-06
Discharge isolation 7-C-04
Discharge isolator 7-C-05
Discharge isolator 7-C-06
Tank spray control 7-TK-01
Main shutdown valve for unit
Tank compressor discharge to L.P.
fuel system
Suction isolation tank comp
Discharge isolation tank comp.
Discharge isolation tank comp.
7-C-05
Steam flow to refrig. Turbine
7-C-06
L.S. recycle flow
7-C-06
7-C-05
Speed control
7-C-06
3-15 psi
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
NGL control room
-
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
NGL control room
Local
NGL control room
Local
AFO
-
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
AFC
-
-
-
-
Valve tripped by
TNS-71040C
TNS-71041A
L.O. Suction
temp.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
245 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
ETHANE REFRIG.
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL LOCATION
AIR
FAILURE
RESET
HIC-71112
HNS-51081
HNS-71176
Discharge isolation tank comp.
Isolation valve on inlet 54-D-04
Isolation valve on outlet bottom of 7-TK-05
Open/Cl
Open/Cl
Local
NGL Control Room
NGL Control Room
AFC
AFC
AFC
-
-
-
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
246 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
ETHANE REFRIG.
VALVE NO.
LOCATION
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEF
PSV-71004
PSV-71005
PSV-71006
PSV-71007
PSV-71008
PSV-71009
PSV-71010
7-TK-05 Pressure Relief
7-D-07 Pressure Relief
7-D-08 Pressure Relief
7-TK-08
Ethane Product rundown line
Ethane tank comp return line to
tank
Ethane tank comp return line to
tank
7-TK-01 Pressure Relief
Suction to ethane loading pumps
Discharge of comp loading pumps
Discharge of comp 7-C-01
Discharge of comp 7-C-02
Discharge of comp 7-C-03
Steam Exhaust 7-C-04
Discharge of comp 7-C-04
11.8 Bar
11.8 Bar
11.8 Bar
16.0 Bar
40.0 Bar
18.0 Bar
18.0 Bar
13.8 Bar
18.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
4.5 Bar
16.0 Bar
-59C
-77C
-59C
-35C
-72C
-72C
-72C
-96C
-96C
139C
139C
139C
238C
110C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1" x
3"
1" x
3"
1" x
3"
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x
3"
1" x
3"
1" x
3"
6" x 8"
4" x 6"
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
vapour
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
steam
ethane
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
TK-01
TK-01
TK-01
Atmos.
TK-01
TK-01
hot vent
hot vent
hot vent
Atmos.
hot vent
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
247 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
ETHANE REFRIG.
VALVE NO.
LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEF
PSV-71004
PSV-71005
PSV-71006
PSV-71007
PSV-71008
PSV-71009
PSV-71010
PSV-71011
PSV-71012
PSV-71013
PSV-71014
PSV-71015
PSV-71016
PSV-71017
PSV-71018
7-TK-05 Pressure Relief
7-D-07 Pressure Relief
7-D-08 Pressure Relief
7-TK-08
Ethane Product rundown line
Ethane tank comp return line to tank
Ethane tank comp return line to tank
7-TK-01
Pressure Relief
Suction to ethane loading pumps
Discharge of comp loading pumps
Discharge of comp 7-C-01
Discharge of comp 7-C-02
Discharge of comp 7-C-03
Steam Exhaust 7-C-04
Discharge of comp 7-C-04
11.8 Bar
11.8 Bar
11.8 Bar
16.0 Bar
40.0 Bar
18.0 Bar
18.0 Bar
13.8 Bar
18.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
12.0 Bar
4.5 Bar
16.0 Bar
-59C
-77C
-59C
-35C
-72C
-72C
-72C
-96C
-96C
139C
139C
139C
238C
110C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1" x 3"
1" x 3"
1" x 3"
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 3"
1" x 3"
1" x 3"
6" x 8"
4" x 6"
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
vapour
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
steam
ethane
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
Cold Relief
TK-01
TK-01
TK-01
Atmos.
TK-01
TK-01
hot vent
hot vent
hot vent
Atmos.
hot vent
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
248 of 335
PRESSURE SAFETY VALVES
ETHANE REFRIG.
VALVE NO.
LOCATION/
DESCRIPTION
SET
PRESS.
TEMP. CAP. SIZE MATERIAL RELIEF
PSV-71019
PSV-71020
PSV-71021
PSV-71022
PSV-71173
PSV-71174
PSV-71175
PSV-71176
PSV-71064
PSV-71061
PSV-71161
PSV-71180
PSV-71243
PSV-1244
VSV 71196
VSV 71197
VSV 71198
VSV 71063
Steam exhaust 7-C-05
Discharge of comp 7-C-05
Steam exhaust 7-C-06
Discharge of ethane cooldown
pump
7-P-38
Discharge of ethane cooldown
pump
7-P-39
Discharge of ethane cooldown
pump
7-TK-01
Discharge of ethane loading pump
7-P-02
Ethane product line ex 706-41
7-E-01
7-TK-01
vaccum
safety
valves
Cooldown Return
Ethane product bypass
7-TK-55
Pressure relief
Ethane refrig. to surge tank
Tank compressor discharge
7-C-01
4.5 Bar
16.0 Bar
4.5 Bar
16.0 Bar
13.8 Bar
13.8 Bar
13.8 Bar
13.8 Bar
18.0 Bar
40.0 Bar
30.2 Bar
11.8 Bar
12.0 Bar
30.2 Bar
-
-
-
238C
110C
238C
110C
-96C
-96C
-96C
-96C
-73C
-72C
-35C
-72C
-72C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4" x 6"
4" x 6"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
1" x 2"
-
-
-
-
-
-
steam
ethane
steam
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
ethane
-
-
-
Atmos.
hot vent
Atmos.
hot vent
Discharge
of load
pump
7-P-02
Discharge
of load
pump
7-P-02
7-TK-01
7-TK-01
7-TK-01
7-TK-01
Cold vent
Cold vent
Cold vent
Cold vent
-
-
-
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
249 of 335
ALARMS & SHUTDOWNS
ETHANE REFRIG.
ALARM NO.
DESCRIPTION
HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
HPA-71203
HPS-71024
HPA-71189
HPA-71190
HPA-71192
HPA-71107A
LPA-71007B
dPA-71107A
dPA-71107B
LPA-71008
HPA-71009
HLA-71008
LLA-71008
HLA-71010
LLA-71010
HLA-71012
LLA-71012
HLA-71014
LLA-71014
HLA-71016A
LLA-71016A
HLA-71016B
High Pressure on H.S. vapour header
High pressure on L.S. vapour header
High pressure on L.S. suction 7-C-04
High pressure on L.S. suction 7-C-05
High pressure on L.S. suction 7-C-06
High pressure 7-TK-01
Differential pressure alarms 7-TK-01
Low pressure 7-TK-01
High pressure 7-TK-01
High Level 7-TK-05
Low Level 7-TK-05
High Level 7-D-07
Low Level 7-D-07
High Level 7-D-08
Low Level 7-D-08
High Level 7-TK-06
Low Level 7-TK-06
Storage 7-TK-01
low level
Storage 7-TK-01
low level
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1520 mm
-
1600 mm
-
1620 mm
-
2130 mm
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarm in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
250 of 335
ALARMS & SHUTDOWNS
ETHANE REFRIG.
ALARM NO. DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
LLA-71016B
HLA-51213
LLA-51214
HTA-71003
HTA-71004
HTA-71005
HTA-71006
HTA-71007
HTA-71008
HTA-71009
HTA-71010
HTA-71011
HTA-71012
HTA-71013
HTA-71014
LTA-71040
A,B,C.
LTA-71041
A,B,C.
LTA-
71001/41
Storage TK-01 low level
High level 54-D-04
Low level 54-D-04
High temp. L.S. discharge tank comp.
7-C-01
High temp. H.S. discharge tank comp.
7-C-01
High temp. L.S. discharge
7-C-02
High temp. H.S. discharge
7-C-02
High temp. L.S. discharge
7-C-03
High temp. H.S. discharge
7-C-04
L.S. discharge refrig. comp.
7-C-04
H.S. discharge 7-C-04
L.S. discharge 7-C-05
H.S. discharge 7-C-05
L.S. discharge 7-C-06
H.S. discharge 7-C-06
Low temp. H.S. Suction of 7-C-04/05/06
Low temp. L.S. Suction of 7-C-04/05/06
Low temp. H.S. Suction of 7-C-04
-
1500mm
900mm
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
251 of 335
ALARMS AND SHUTDOWNS
ETHANE REFRIG.
ALARMS NO. DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
LTS-71001/47
LTA-71001
LTA-71047
LTA-71025
A,B,C.
Low temp. H.S. Suction 7-C-05
Low temp. H.S. Suction 7-C-06
Low temp. suction of comps. 7-C-
01/02/03
Low temp. suction of comps. 7-c-01/02/03
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Alarms in NGL control room
Comp. shutdown Alarms in
NGL control room
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
252 of 335
ISOBUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING, STORAGE AND LOADING
(Ref. Drawings, P&ID No. 706-D00-011, 012 and 505-D00-004)
Flow Description
Isobutane is produced as a overhead from the butane splitter where after being coded by twelve
fin fan air condensers-5-E-37/1-12 it flows through the tune side of the high stage chiller 7-E-18
where the temperature is dropped from 38C to 12C. From here it flows through the tube side
of another evaporator, iso and Normal Butane Chiller Interstage Propane Evaporator, 7-E-17,
also through the tube side where the temperature is lowered on down to -12C. Both above
mentioned chillers are dual purpose in that both Isobutane and Normal Butane products are
chilled simultaneously in the same chillers. By-passes are provided to enable either one of the
chillers to be by-passed for maintenance. Also, the product can be by-passed around the first
chiller directly into the isobutane refrigerated storage tank to provide a means of pressure
maintenance on the tank. Provisions also are made to load from this hot by-pass directly to the
jetties, as well as be used for crude oil blending. (This will be discussed more in detail later).
The chillers mentioned above are both tube-in-shell type and both use propane as the
refrigerant. The first evaporator, 7-E-18, flashes propane vapour to the suction of the High Stage
section of the propane refrigeration compressor, and the second evaporator, 7-E-17, flashes
vapours back to the suction header of the interstage section of the propane refrigerant
compressor. There is no control other than liquid level controllers which hold a fixed liquid level
in the shells of each exchanger by allowing only enough liquid propane to be admitted to the
shell as needed to replace the amount of propane boiled off by the heat of the product going
through the tubes. The suction pressure of the compressor is held the same by varying the load
on the compressor. Pressure in exchanger 7-E-18 is calculated to run about 4.8 Bar G and 1.7
Bar G in the second exchanger, 7-E-17.
The Isobutane needs no further chilling after leaving exchanger 7-E-17, and is ready for storage
but a back pressure control valve, 4" - PPV-71086 is provided in the line just prior to entry into
the tank. This valve is set to hold a back pressure on the line of 7.6 Bar G to prevent the product
from "flashing" in any of the chillers which could cause poor heat transfer.
The product is metered ahead of the back pressure control valve by FNT-71022 which transmits
to a flow recorder FR-71022 located in the control room.
The Isobutane then enters the tank at the top, and empties out below the wooden suspended
roof.
Refrigerated Storage Tank 7-TK-03
The Isobutane storage tank is designed to hold 140,000 barrels (22,260m
3
) of product at 10F(-
12C) at atmospheric pressure. Actually, the tank pressure will be about 16 inches water (40
millibar-g). It is a single wall tank, insulated with foam glass on the outside, and has a
suspended internal roof. The tank is equipped with the necessary fire relief valves, process
relief valves, and vacuum relief valves.
Two types of level indicators are used; the DP cell and the digital. The level from the DP cell
transmitter is recorded in the NGL Control Room. (LR-71026). The DP cell transmits both high
and low level alarms to NGL Control Room and the Jetty Central Control Room. The digital level
is transmitted to both the NGL and Jetty Central Control Room. Both level types transmit signals
to the loading computer.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
253 of 335
A single pressure control loop is used to control tank operation. The loop is taken off as a signal
from one of two parallel tank pressure transmitter, (dPNT-71093A and B). One of the
transmitters is a spare. A malfunctioning transmitter will send an alarm, (dPA-71093A), to the
NGL Control Room and when this happens, the spare transmitter is placed in service. Two sets
of high and low tank pressure alarms are included on the NGL panel board. One set operates
directly off the tank pressure and the other set operates off the pressure transmitter in the
pressure control loop. The tank pressure is continuously recorded in both the NGL and the Jetty
Central Control Room.
Isobutane Tank Pressure Maintenance (7-TK-03)
Unlike the ethane and propane refrigerated tanks which use tank vapour compressors to control
tank pressures, the isobutane storage tank uses an external liquid circulation system., As tank
pressure tends to increase above the set pressure, the circulated liquid is chilled by diverting it
through the isobutane chiller low stage propane evaporate 7-E-16, and as the tank pressure
tends to fall below the set point the liquid is heated, by diverting the circulation from the chiller
to the Glycol heater 7-E-24.
As the tank pressure increases, pressure controller PIC-71093C located on the tank, will open
PPV-71093C1 which established the circulated Isobutane through the chiller. If this is not
enough cooling to bring the tank pressure back down, then another pressure controller, PIC-
71093B, will open the 18" valve PPV-71093B to the refrigerated flare system. If the pressure
continues to increase, then pressure switch PNS-71093 will block in the Isobutane product make
stream to the tank. This will result in having to go to either the flare, fuel system, or stabilised
crude oil blending with the isobutane product until the pressure is alleviated.
On decreasing tank pressure the circulation of Isobutane will be directed through the heating
circuit by diverting it to the heater and back to the tank. This is done automatically by the same
controller which controls the chilling circuit. If this does not satisfy the tank pressure, then a low
pressure controller, PIC-71093A will open PPV-71093A allowing the isobutane product to by-
pass all the chillers, and go directly into the tank hot. If this still is not sufficient to stop the falling
tank pressure a pressure switch, PNS-71093B, will shut down the loading pumps to the Jetty.
This is most likely to happen only when loading two ships simultaneously, Isobutane production
rate low and the circulating heating system malfunctions.
Two circulating pumps are provided, 7-P-07/08 one for service, the other for a stand-by. A pump
runs continually with a flow controller, FIC-71049 maintaining a constant flow back to the tank.
A part of the flow is diverted to either the chiller or the heater but not both at the same time. All
of the flow is diverted back to the tank if neither chilling, nor heating is required. Pump
circulation is 165m
3
/hr at about 7 Bar G pressure. The pump discharge headers and piping back
to the tank is 6 inch pipe, but a 4" line takes off the header for the heating or cooling circulation.
A 4" return from either the heater, or cooler is utilised to recycle back to the top of the tank.
At maximum tank pressure change, up to 40% of the circulation flow is routed to either the chiller
or heater by the split range controller. The control will be between 3 and 9 PSI on decreasing
tank pressure, and between 9 and 15 PSI on increasing tank pressure.
The chilled, or hot Isobutane is routed to the top of the tank where it is sprayed as a fire mist
through four equally spaced spray nozzles.
The cold product will tend to condense the tank vapours to low the pressure, likewise the hot
isobutane mist will evaporate quickly to raise the tank pressure as required. Filters are provided
in the line ahead of the spray nozzles and may have to be cleaned from time to time.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
254 of 335
The heaters use hot glycol for heating source, and is designed to also take care of the vapour
demands when loading two refrigerated ships at the same time, providing the Isobutane
production rate is up to normal. The temperature of the heated Isobutane is controlled by
varying the amount of glycol circulated through the heater with TIC-71039, which controls a 3-
way control valve TPV-71039 in the glycol line. This valve functions by by-passing part of the
hot glycol around the heater.
Circulation Pumps
Two David Brown Bingham electric driven centrifugal circulation pumps are provided on for
service and the other as stand-by. They are driven by 100 hp motors. Having a rated capacity
of 182m
3
/hr. The pumps operate at 1460 RPM. Bearings are lubricated by pumpage - product
mechanical scales are provided.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
255 of 335
UNIT DATA
TYPE OF SERVICE Iso-butane tank/circulating tank LIQUID ISO C
4
@ -12C P.T.
CAPACITY 182M
3
/hr GPM HEAD
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
256 of 335
Hot Isobutane Loading
In addition to refrigerated Isobutane loading facilities have been made to load hot Isobutane
product at Jetties 3, 6, 7 or 8. This system is designed to load one maximum size ship at any
one time. It will load a 2880 cu. meter ship in 10 hours or less.
Two Goulds. Mode VIC 3 stage vertical "can" type pumps, 7-P-31/32 are provided for loading
ht isobutane directly to the ships. They are driven with 200 hp electric motors at 1450 RPM, and
are designed for a minimum flow of 91m
3
/hr at 13 bar G. Maximum flow is 310m
3
/hr.
The pumps take suction off a 14 inch line coming off the bottom of the tank through 8" suction
laterals. The pumps discharge through 8" laterals into the main 8" discharge line going to the
isobutane loading heater, 7-E-23, where by using hot glycol, the isobutane is heated to around
20C. The heated Isobutane then is routed to the Jetties through the 8" loading line, 8" 551L90-
080.
Temperature of the Isobutane is controlled by TIC-71079 which operates TPV-71079 in the hot
glycol line. This is a three way valve, which by-passes the desired amount of hot glycol around
the heater to attain the desired loading temperature., These controls are located in the Jetty
Control Room.
Hot Isobutane can be routed directly to the Jetties off the main make stream before it has been
chilled if necessary.
Refrigerated Isobutane Loading
Cool Down
Refrigerated Isobutane can be loaded at either Jetty No. 3 or 4, or may be loaded simultaneously
to both jetties. The entire loading system is kept in a cold state by circulating a small amount of
Isobutane from the tank through the loading system to the jetties and then returning through a
separate line back to the tank.
Two loading cool down pumps 7-P-42/43 are provided, one of which is a spare they are
centrifugal David Brown Bingham pumps using 215 HP 2960 RPM motors for power. Rated
capacity is 23m
3
/hr. Outboard end bearings are lubricated by pumpage. Drive end is in the
motor.
The cooldown system can be automatically controlled and sequentially routed through the
metering stations and meter provers by the Hetty Control Room computer. The cooldown pumps
should be shut down during loading operations, and the cooldown return control valve shut in
at the Jetty being used for loading. The Jetty not being used for loading can remain open for
cooldown but the cooldown flow will then be taken out of the refrigerated loading pumps.
Loading
Four refrigerated Isobutane loading pumps, 7-P-12/13/14 and 48 have been provided to allow
for simultaneous loading to Jetties 3 and 4, as stated above. Each Jetty system had been
designed to load a maximum size ship of 15,000 cubic metres in 12 hors. There is sufficient
storage capacity to load 15,000 cubic meter ships at the same time.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
257 of 335
Each pump is designed for 470m
3
/hr at 6.6 bar g discharge pressure. Three pumps should be
used when loading the maximum 15,000 meter ship. The pumps are controlled from the Jetty
Control Room. Low tank pressure will automatically shut down the loading pumps, or they can
be shut down remotely either by the operator, or during an ESD situation. The main valve in the
suction header, 24" - 751L90-040, is remotely operated, as well as the individual pump discharge
valves, but the individual pump suction valves must be hand operated at the pumps site.
The pumps take suction out of the 20" common header, and discharge through 8 inch discharge
laterals into a common 20" loading line to he jetty area. A flow meter, FI-71045, is used to
control minimum and/or excess flow back to the storage tank through HPV-71042 in the 4"
recycle line, 4" 751L90-057 back to the top of the tank.
Provisions for relieving hydrostatic pressure build up in all pumps here is made by installing a
2" by-pass with a drilled orifice plate in it between the discharge block valves and pumps to the
4" cooldown return line from the Jetties. The pump "cans" are also vented in the same manner.
These valves should remain open at all times.
The permissive logic lever switch at the Jetty must be activated before loading can be started.
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Date:
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th
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PRE-STARTING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Clean-up the unit and check the auxiliary piping to see that it is installed properly. If
possible, install a suction strainer.
2. Check the piping. Make a thorough inspection of all piping including strainers, if installed.
Also check auxiliary piping such as seal liquid and cooling water piping.
3. Check the alignment. See alignment and coupling instructions.
4. Check the driver rotation before coupling to the pump to make certain that it will rotate
in the same direction as indicated by the arrow on the pump.
5. Mechanical seal - refer to seal drawing and G.A. drawing.
STARTING THE PUMP
Use the following procedure:
1. PRIMING
Before starting a centrifugal pump, the casing and suction piping must be completely
filled with liquid. The rotating parts within the pump depend upon this liquid for
lubrication and nay seize if the pump is operated dry.
2. If used, turn on cooling water services and sealing liquid to the stuffing box.
3. Close the discharge valve, if it is not already closed, and check that the suction valve is
fully open. Sometimes it is helpful to slightly crack the discharge valve to help provide
for the removal of vapours at start-up.
4. Start the driver. As soon as the pump is up to rated speed, open the discharge valve
slowly to avoid abrupt changes in velocity and surging in the suction line. DO NOT
OPERATE THE PUMP AGAINST A CLOSED DISCHARGE VALVE FOR ANY LENGTH
OF TIME, as the liquid in the pump will be heated until it vapourises. This will cause your
pump to seize by running dry.
5. Check for vibration. Vibration indicates improper alignment, and the unit should be shut
down and realigned.
6. Check for any increase in pressure drop across the suction screen, if used. The screen
should be cleaned if such a drop occurs. Leave the screen in the line for 24 hours
before removing.
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OPERATION
LOCATING TROUBLES
IMPORTANT - First check ratings shown on pump nameplate.

FAILURE TO DELVER LIQUID Pump not primed. Insufficient speed.
Impeller or suction
strainer plugged
up.
Wrong direction of
rotation.
Air leaking into
suction.

PUMP LOSES PRIME AFTER STARTING Leaky suction line. Air or gases in
liquid.
Liquid seal line
plugged.
Opening
discharge valve
too rapidly.

MOTOR RUNS HOT Head lower than
rating - pumping
too much liquid.
Liquid pumped of
greater specific
gravity or viscosity
than that for which
motor is rated.
Rotor binding.
Defective motor.
Lack of ventilation.
Low voltage.
Impeller rub.

INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY AND PRESSURE Air leaks in suction
line or stuffing
boxes.
Speed too low.
Head higher than
pump rating.
Impeller or suction
strainer partially
plugged.
Insufficient suction
head for hot
liquids or volatile
liquids.
Mechanical
defects: Wearing
ring worn.
Impeller damages.
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PUMP VIBRATES, OR IS NOISY Misalignment.
Foundation not
sufficiently rigid.
Impeller partially
plugged, causing
unbalance.
Mechanical
defects in pump or
driver:
Shaft bent
Rotating element
binds.
Suction or
discharge pipe not
anchored.
Vapour-bind
(pump noisy).
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ISOBUTANE CHILLING AND STORAGE
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
INST NO SERVICE SIGNAL AOAF CONTROLS
PIC-71086
PPV-71086
PEV-71086
PNS-71093
PIC-71093A
PIC-71093B
dPNS-71093B
dPNS-71093A
FR-71023
PPV-71093B
PPV-71093
XPV-71212
XEV-71212
PR-71093
PIC-71093C
PPV-71093
PPV-710831
Isobutane prod. To
stg.tk 03 pressure cont.
Control valve
Solenoid inst. air dump
valve to PPV-71086
Tank Pressure control
sw.
Hot isobutane bypass
to tk.03
Tank vap. to flare
Tank pressure control
trx
Tank pressure control
trx
Isobutane prod to stg.
tk.03
Pressure release to
flare from tk. 03
Control Valve
Remote op v/v
Solenoid to XPV-71212
Tank 03 press
Tank 03 press control
C2 Isobutane circ
C1 Isobutane circ
E
3-15 psi
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
E
E
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
-
Closes
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Opens
Closes
-
-
-
-
Closes
Closes
PPV-71086
Back pressure on
isobutane prod.to stg.
line.
PPV-71093A
Controls vap to flare
Recorder
Vapours to flare.
Control valve in hot
isobutane to loading
line
Block valve on hot
isobutane loading line
to Jetty (Jetty CR)
Operated from Jetty
CR
Recorder
PPV-71093 C1, C2
(Isobutane circ
through circ heater 7-
E-24 and chiller no
7-E-16
Tank press v/v to
410-24
Tank press v/v to
410-16
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ISOBUTANE CHILLING AND STORAGE
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
INST NO SERVICE SIGNAL AOAF CONTROLS
PIC-71325
PPV-71325
HIC-71042
PPV-71042
HIC-71042
PPV-71042
LR-71026
LNT-71025
HIC-71041
PPV-71041
FIC-71043
Cooldown return from
Jetties to tank
Control valve in
cooldown return line to
tank
(Jetty CR) control for
isobutane recycle from
loading line to tank
Control valve in
cooldown return line to
tank
(Jetty CR) control for
isobutane recycle from
loading line to tank
Recycle isobutane from
loading to tank control
valve
Tank level indicator
Digital tank level
indicator
(Jetty CR) Hot
isobutane loading
pump recycle back to
tank
Discharge from
isobutane hot loading
pump recycle to tank
Isobutane circulation
rate back to tank level
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
Closes
Opens
-
Opens
-
Opens
-
-
-
Opens
Opens
Tank press return
from Jetties to tank
Cooldown flow
PPV-71042
Cooldown flow
-
-
PPV-71041
FPV-71043
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ISOBUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING AND STORAGE
INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE
PANALARMS
ITA-71102A Isobutane Glycol Heater Low Temperature
hIA-71026-A Isobutane Storage Tank High Level
ILA-71026A Isobutane Storage Tank Low Level
hPA-71093A Isobutane Storage Tank High Pressure to flare
IPA-71093A Isobutane Storage Tank Product by-pass open
hPA-71092 Isobutane Storage Tank High Pressure
IPA-71091 Isobutane Storage Tank Low Pressure
hdPA-71093A Isobutane Storage Tank Storage pressure fault
hsPA-71093B Isobutane Storage Tank Storage pressure fault
IPA-71093B1 Isobutane Storage Tank Loading Pump Shut Down
ESD-6 Esd initiated, Isobutane Product Shut Down
IPA-71094 No Isobutane to Storage
PANEL BOARD INSTRUMENT
Pr-71093A Isobutane Stg. Tank Pressure Recorder
LR-71026 Level Recorder on Isobutane Tank
FR-71022 Isobutane Product to Storage Tank
PIC-71093A Isobutane Storage Tank Pressure Controller
PIC-71093B Isobutane Storage Tank Pressure Controller
PIC-71212 Hot Isobutane to Loading Pressure Controller
PIC-71093C Isobutane Storage Tank Pressure Control
PIC-7108C Isobutane Storage Tank Pressure Control
PNS-71093 Hand Selector Switch between the two separate control systems
ESD SWITCHES
ESD-4 Ethane Product Shutdown
ESD-5 Normal Butane Product Shutdown
ESD-6 Isobutane Product Shutdown
ESD-7 Propane Product Shutdown
Miscellaneous
Isobutane Circulating Pumps, 7-P-07/08 - Capacity; 165m
3
per hour
Head 132 M
Rated Discharge Pressure 7.4 Bar g
Specific Gravity 0.57 at -12C
Motor Power 76.6 KW
Service; Pumps from tank to Heater 7-E-24 and back to tank, or from tank to Chiller, 7-E-16 and
back to the tank. Control valves PPV-71093C2 opens to the heater, and Control valve PPV-
71093 opens to the Chiller. Both return to the tank. Both valves operated by PIC-71093C
located on top of the tank.
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IC4 LOADING PUMPS, 7-P-12/13/14 and 48 Capacity; 1725 Imp. Aal/min.
4 stage centrifugal, Deep well or can type
Motor Power, 210 HP motor
24" Suction piping from tank, 8" discharge laterals
20" Loading Line
Power operated discharge valves, HPV-71156,57,58 and 59
Manually operated Suction valves
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NORMAL BUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING, STORAGE AND LOADING
(Ref. drawings:P&ID 7809-505-D00-007; 706-D00-011.-12)
A. NORMAL BUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING AND STORAGE
1. Introduction
The normal butane is produced as a kettle product (5th tray) from the butane splitter
tower, 706-950-04, in the NGL area. Normal production to refrigerated storage should
be approximately 1991 m
3
/Day at 38C and 7.9 Bar G pressure. The Butane leaves the
column and is pumped through an air fin cooler and then routed through a series of
chillers, where the temperature is reduced to -1C before being admitted at the top of the
tank. Refrigerated normal butane can be loaded to tankers at either Jetty No. 3 or 4, or
simultaneously to both. Hot normal butane may be loaded to Jetties 3,6,7 and 8. It can
also be routed to crude oil blending (P&ID No. 78098-706-D00-014). Hot normal butane
may also be loaded directly off the make line by-passing the chilling and storage areas
completely. Refrigerated normal butane may be heated and loaded to tankers as a hot
product also.
2. Flow and Equipment Description
Normal butane is pumped with pumps no. 706-670-27 or 28 through a 6" discharge line
through an air fin cooler, 706-410-38, where the temperature is lowered from 72C to
around 38C. No control is supplied here other than stopping or starting fans.
The product then flows on to the chilling section where it is routed through the tube side
of an exchanger located on the inside of the iso and normal butane chiller high stage
propane evaporator, 706-410-18, which is a shell and tube type exchanger using high
stage propane refrigerant boiling at 7C, 4.8 Bar G pressure.
Just prior to entering this exchanger, however a 6" line (6" 751L80-007) takes off the
product line and is tied directly into the tank to be used for tank pressure maintenance
if necessary. Another line, 6" 751L80-160, takes off of the line 007 and goes directly to
the Jetties for normal butane blending. Also, a means to switch the butane to the flare
is provided downstream of the air fin fan cooler.
The exchanger mentioned is a dual type exchanger, that is, it also serves the purpose
of chilling the iso-butane make stream. The only control is the liquid level control which
maintains a constant liquid level of propane over the two heat exchangers on the inside.
The vapours from the evaporator are routed to the high stage suction of the propane
refrigeration compressor.
The normal butane product leaves this exchanger at 12 C and then is routed through
the tube section of another exchanger located inside of the iso and normal butane chiller
inter stage propane evaporator 706-410-17. Like the proceeding evaporator, this is dual
service as it also chills iso-butane. Propane boiling at-16C at 1.7 Bar G pressure to the
suction of the inter stage section of the propane refrigeration compressor supplies the
cooling here. It also is equipped with a liquid level control to control the level of liquid
propane in the shell side of the evaporator.
This chiller normally operates at -16 to 17C, and since the storage temperature for
normal is -6C, it is not necessary to put all the normal butane through it. About half of
the normal butane is routed through the chiller with an outlet temperature of -12C; the
remaining half is by-passed around the chiller and blended back into the chilled effluent
to come up with a resultant temperature of -1C. This split range flow is obtained by
utilising a three-way temperature control valve, TPV-71015 controlled with TIC-71015.
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The control valve is located in the product stream upstream of the chiller, and the
controller is on the NGL panel board. Temperature here should be set at about 5C to
1C below the storage tank temperature. This amount of sub-cooling is to prevent
flashing when admitted to the tank.
The normal butane product now leaves this exchanger and is routed to the top of the
tank where it is actually emptied out of the line just below the suspended wooden inner
roof. A back pressure motor valve, PPV-71072, is located in the product stream on top
of the tank where it is actually emptied out of the line just below the suspend down inner
roof. A back pressure motor valve, PPV-71072, is located in the product stream on top
of the tank, and is designed to hold a back pressure of about 6.2 Bar g on the butane
system to prevent flashing across any of the exchangers or metering equipment. This
is controlled by PIC-71072 located in the NGL Control Room. (This pressure may have
to be increased in the event of direct hot loading off the make line). The product flow
rate is metered and recorded in the NGL Control Room with FR-71019.
Refrigerated normal butane can be loaded at either Jetty 3 or 4 or may be loaded
simultaneously at both. The entire loading system is kept at a temperature of-1C by
circulating a small volume of product from the bottom of the storage tank through the
loading system to the jetties and returning through a separate line back to the storage
tank (details later).
Loading hot butane to unrefrigerated tanks is also possible to Jetties 3,6,7 and 8. The
system is designed to load a maximum sized ship of 2,880 cubic metre capacity in 10
hours. Hot loading is accomplished in two ways - 1) byre-heating refrigerated butane
and pumping to the ships, and 2) loading directly off the make-line.
3. REFRIGERATED STORAGE TANK, 706-950-04
A. Description
The normal butane storage tank is designed to hold 46,000 m
3
of product at -1C and
atmospheric pressure. It is a single wall tank, insulated on the outside with foam glass
and has a suspended wooden internal roof. The tank dimensions are 44,500 mm
diameter x 30,758 mm in height. It is designed for a butane mixture with an average
temperature of -4C at atmospheric pressure.
Two types of level indicators are used; the DP cell and the digital. The DP cell is
transmitted into the NGL Control Room and is displayed in millimetres.
The following tank pressure relief valves are provided:
PSV-71233-10"-Relieve to atmospheric at
PSV-71026-10"-Relieve to atmospheric at
FSV-71227-10"-Relieve to atmospheric at
FSV-71228-10"-Relieve to atmospheric at
FSV-71229-10"-Relieve to atmospheric at
Vacuum relief valves:
VSV-71230-10"-Relieve at
VSV-71231-10"-Relieve at
VSV-71232-10"-Relieve at
In addition to the above, an 18" valve, PPV-71081B controlled from PIC-71081A, is set
to relieve to the refrigerated cold ground flare at
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Hydrostatic relief is supplied for lines subject to occasional blocked in conditions.
Tank temperature near the bottom is transmitted into the Control Room - T1001/85.
A single pressure control loop is used to control the various tank operations. The loop
is taken off as a signal from one of the two parallel tank pressure transmitter, dPNT-
71081A and dPNT-71081B. One transmitter is a spare. A malfunction of a transmitter
will alarm in the NGL Control Room (hdPA-71081A and hdPA-71081B), at which time the
spare transmitter is placed in service and actions taken to repair the malfunction. Two
sets of high and low pressure alarms are provided. One set operates directly off the
tank, hPA-71079, and the other off the tank pressure transmitted, hPA-71081A for high
pressure and IPA-71078 and IPA-71081A for the low pressure alarm. The tank pressure
transmitted off the control loop is continuously recorded in the NGL and Jetty Control
Rooms.
b. Tank Pressure Control
The tank pressure is controlled as follows:
On increasing tank pressure the circulation system flow will automatically be routed
through the chilling unit by the split rane tank pressure controller, PIC-71061. Another
separate pressure controller in the control loop PIC-71081 will vent to the refrigerated
cold ground flare any excess vapours above the capacity of the circulating system to
handle. If the pressure continues to rise, then pressure switch PNS-71080 will
automatically shut odd the normal butane product into the storage tank. If this happens,
then alternate means of disposing of the normal butane must be found to dispose of the
product. It can either be routed to the plant fire, stabilised crude oil blending, or go
directly to hot loading if a ship is available. If the fuel system could handle it, it could be
switched there temporarily.
On decreasing tank pressure, the circulation system will automatically be routed the
heater circuit by the same split range tank pressure controller which controls the chilling
circuit. If this does not satisfy the falling tank pressure, then a low pressure controller,
IPNS-71081A, will open PPV-71081A and allow hot product from upstream of all chillers
to go directly into the tank. If the pressure still declines, then pressure switch PNS-
71081B will shutdown the loading pumps.
c. Tank Pressure Maintenance
The normal butane will normally be entering the storage tank at a degree or so below the
tank storage temperature of -1C which will result in no flashing inside the tank.
However, due to heat leak and atmospheric barometric changes, vapours will be
generated. The heat leak will vary with ambient conditions. Falling barometric pressures
will tend to increase boil-off as opposite to rising pressure, which will negate the boil-off
to a certain degree. In a loading situation, vapours will be needed to displace the liquid
being pumped out.
d. Normal Butane Recycle System
A tank pressure maintenance system is supplied that consists primarily of a circulated
stream of normal butane from the bottom of the tank through either a heater, 706-410-27,
or a chiller, 706-410-17. Since this pump must run at all times, a recycle flow back to the
tank is maintained. The circulation rate back to the tank is controlled by FIC-71020,
which operates the tank recycle control valve, PPV-71020, in the discharge of the
circulation pumps. Circulation is around 246m
3
/hr.
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The circulating pumps, 706-670-17 or 57, take suction through a 10" line off an 18"
suction header from the bottom of the tank. The pumps pick up the butane and pump
it through an 8" discharge line where part of it is recycled back to the tank (as stated
above) and the remainder going either through the heater 410-27 if the tank pressure is
high. In some cases neither heat or cooling will be required, and only the recycle back
to the tank will be going.
Control of the above process is provided from a pressure controller, PIC-71081C, located
in the NGL Control Room. The pressure point is located on the tank. This is a split
range controller wherein on tank increasing pressure, the circulated butane will be
directed through the chiller, 410-17, through PPV-71081C1, and the flow through the
heater, if any , blocked. The chilled butane leaves the chiller and is returned to the top
of the tank where it is admitted through four spray nozzles. The cooling effect here
should start the tank pressure back down.
On decreasing tank pressure the circulation flow is directed though the heater, 410-27
with control valve PPV-71081C2 where it is heated, and returned to the tank through the
same line as the chilled steam mentioned above. Hot glycol is used here for heat. The
temperature of heated butane should be about 12C, and is controlled by a locally
mounted temperature controller, TIC-71038. Control of heat is made by-passing all, or
part of the heated glycol stream around the heater.
The heater, 706-410-27 is a tube-in shell type heater, having 176 19.05 mm diameter
carbon steel tubes. The hater is 5789 mm long from head to back end. Design pressure
are: shell 6.9 bar @ 93C, 11.4 bar g at 66C. Test pressures carried out was to 10.3 bar
g to 17.1 bar g respectively.
The chiller 706-410-17 is described in the previous paragraphs.
Up to 50% of the circulation flow is to the chiller or heater and at least 50% of the flow
recycles back to the tank. This should help stir, and keep the product blended.
Circulation Pumps
Two pumps are supplied for the normal butane circulation system, 706-670-17 and 52.
They are 6 stage, vertical "can type" centrifugal pumps having a capacity of 270m
3
/hr,
107m head and powered with 100hp electric motor at 1460rpm. (See under Isobutane
circulation pumps for running procedure).
4. REFRIGERATED NORMAL BUTANE LOADING
a. Introduction
Refrigerated normal butane can be loaded at either Jetty No. 3 or 4, or simultaneously
to both. The entire loading system from the tank to the Jetties is kept in a cooled down
state at all times. Temperature is kept at -1C by circulating a small volume, about
35m
3
/hr from the storage tank through the loading system and back to the tank. This is
done to remove heat leak and to have the system in a "go" condition at all times.
b. Description
The cool down pumps, 706-670-56 and 57 take suction through a 4" line coming off of
the main 36" loading pump suction line, but ahead of the loading pump suction. The rate
of cool down flow is controlled by PIC-71313 which operates control valve PPV-71313
located in the 3" cool down return line from the Jetty. The valve is located on the tank
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roof. About 34m
3
/hr at 1.06 bar g at 0.06C is calculated to be the specifications on this
stream.
The cool down pumps are 3 x 4 x 8 vertical can type centrifugal, having a capacity of
35m
3
/hr. They are driven with 30 hp electric motor at 2960 rpm. These pumps are
automatically controlled from the Jetty Control Room. The cool down.
c. Loading Pumps - 706-670-49-50-51-63
The refrigerated loading pumps allow for simultaneous loading to both Jetties 3 and 4.
Each Jetty loading system has been designed to load a maximum ship of 30,000 cu.ft.
capacity in 12 hours, although there is not enough storage capacity to do so. One large
size and a smaller size together, however could be loaded at the same time.
The pumps are electrically driven 7 stage vertical with an output capacity of 930m
3
/hr at
7.2 bar g pressure. They take suction through 16" suction laterals coming off the main
36" suction line from the bottom of the tank. They discharge through 12" laterals into the
main loading line, 24" - 7510-090 where the butane is then routed to either jetty no. 3 or
4.
The pumps are controlled remotely by the loading computer which starts or stops the
pumps as required for loading. They can be shut down remotely by the various
emergency stations. They are also equipped with low amp shutdowns (XNS-
71140/41/42/71100). This is done to protect the pumps against a low flow, or shut in
condition.
The discharge header includes a flow meter FI-71018 located at the Jetty Control Room
which controls a minimum flow recycle back to the tank for pump protection. This is
computer controlled, and will most generally be required on the initial, and end of loading
operations. The permissive logic must be activated before loading operations can begin.
The suction - and discharge valves on all pumps can be remotely operated from the
Hetty Control Room.
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Date:
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th
November 2000
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5. HOT NORMAL BUTANE LOADING
In addition to refrigerated loading, facilities have been provided to load hot butane to
Jetties 3,6 and 7.
Three pumps are provided for this, 706-670-19/53 and 61, which are type VCD, vertical
multistage Centrifugal pumps, electrically driven with a capacity of 310m
3
/hr at 12.4 Bar
g discharge pressure. These pumps can be automatically shut down or started by the
loading computer at the Jetty Control Room. They are protected also with a low
amperage shut down XNS-71137/38 and 39. The storage tank low pressure switch will
also shut the pumps down. Minimum flow protection is provided.
They take suction through 10" laterals coming off the 10" suction header (also serving
the blend pumps) from the tank. The pumped butane is discharged through 8" discharge
laterals into a common 10" discharge header. The 10" is routed to the butane heater,
706-41-26/30 where the line is swaged down to 8" size before entering the heater. The
heater butane discharges from the heater at 0 to 20C into the main 10" h at loading
line, 10" - 75-751L80 - 124 to Jetties No. 3,6,7 and 8.
The temperature of the heated butane is controlled by a three-way control valve on the
hot glycol circulation that by-passes a portion of the heated glycol around each heater
is necessary.
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th
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NORMAL BUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING AND STORAGE
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROL DEVICES
INST NO SERVICE SIGNAL AOAF CONTROLS
TIC-71015
TPV-T1015
FR-71019
PIC-71072
PPV-71072
PIC-71302
PPV-71302
XPV-71232
PIC-71081
PPV-71081A
PPV-71081B
PIC-71081A
PIC-71081C
PPV-71081
PPV-71081C2
FIC-71020
Normal butane prod to
stg tk 04 temp
controller
Bypass control valve
around chiller no 410-
17
Normal butane prod to
stg tk 04 rate
Back pres contrr on N.
Butane prod to St. tk 04
Control valve in N.
Butane line to storage
line.
Back press control on
hot N. Butane make
line to hot loading or
blend
Control valve in hot
loading or blending line
Remote operated valve
on hot N. Butane line
Tank 04 press control
Tank press
Tank press
C1
Recycle N. Butane to
Tk 04 kick back to tank
rate
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
E
3-15 psi
3-15 psi
E
E
E
3-15 psi
E
-
-
-
Closes
-
Closes
-
-
Closes
Opens
-
-
-
Closes
-
TPV-T1015
Bypass normal the
butane prod chille
temp
Recorder
Controls back press
valve, PPV-71072
PPV-71302
Hot butane line
pressure
Operated from the
Jetty CR by XNS
71232
PPV-71081 in hot N.
Butane line to tk 04;
PPV-71081R, tk 04
vap to flare
Hot product to tk
Tk vap to flare
PPV-71081A
PPV-71081C1
PPV-71081C1/C2
Direct N. Butane
recycle through chiller
410-27
FPV-71020 in N.
Butane recycle kick
back to stg. tk04
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NORMAL BUTANE PRODUCT CHILLING AND STORAGE
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROL DEVICES
INST NO SERVICE SIGNAL AOAF CONTROLS
PPV-71020
PNS-71081
PIC-71313
HIC-71193
HPV-71193
PNS-71081
Butane recycle kick
back to tank line control
valve
Tank press control
switch
(on tank 04)
Butane to loading
recycle to tank 04 (Jetty
CR)
Spillback from butane
to loading line to tk 04
(operated from Jetty
CR)
Shutdown switch for N.
Butane E loading
pumps, circ pumps, hot
and hot loading pumps.
Blocks in Suct valve
XEV 71404
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
E
3-15 psi
Opens
-
Opens
Opens-
Butane recycle to
tank 04
PPV-71313,
cooldown butane
return from Jetties
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NORMAL BUTANE PRODUCT
PANALARMS
ALARM TITLE DESCRIPTION
hLA-71024A N. Butane Storage Tk. High Level
lLA-71024A N. Butane Storage Tk. Low Level
hPA-71081A N. Butane Storage Tk. N Butane to Flare
lPA-71081A N. Butane Storage Tank Product by-pass Open
hPA-71079 N. Butane Storage Tank High Pressure
lPA-71078 N. Butane Storage Tank Low Pressure
hdPA-71081A N. Butane Storage Tank Press. Control Fault
ldPA-71081B N. Butane Storage Tank Press. Control Fault
lPA-71081B1 N. Butane Loading Pumps Shutdown (Red)
ESD-5 Initiated N. Butane Product Shutdown (Red)
hPA-71080 No. N. Butane Product to Storage (Red)
lTA-7112A N. Butane Glycol HTR. Low Temp.
lTA-71104A N. Butane Glycol HTR. 28 Low Temp.
lTA-71105 N. Butane Glycol HTR. 33 Low Temp.
ESD-4 Ethane Product Shutdown
ESD-5 Normal Butane Product Shutdown
ESD-6 Isobutane Product Shutdown
ESD-7 Propane Product Shutdown
Miscellaneous
Hot N. Butane Loading Pumps, 706-670-19/53/61
Rated Capacity 310m
3
/hr
Head 211 m
Rated Disch. Press. 12.4 bar g
Motor Power 186.4 KW
N. Butane Tank Circulating Pumps, 706-670-17/52
Rated Capacity 246m
3
/hr
Head 106 m
Rated Disch. Press. 6.2 Bar g
Motor Power 74.6 KW
N. Butane Cooldown Pumps, 706-67-56/57
Rated Capacity 35m
3
/hr
Head 126 m
Rated Disch. Press. 7.4 Bar g
Motor Power 20.5 KW
N. Butane Loading Pumps, 706-670-49/50/51/63
Rated Capacity 930m
3
/hr
Head 121m
Rated Disch. Press. 7.2 Bar g
Motor Power 242 KW
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PUMP SERVICES:
Hot N. Butane Loading Pumps;706-670-19/53/61.
Take suction 10" laterals off the 18" suction header from tk. Discharges through 8" discharge
laterals to main 10" discharge header to glycol heaters, 410-26 and 30, and from there to Jetties
No. 3, 6, 7 and 8.
N. Butane Tank Circulating Pumps, 706-670-17/52.
Take suction through 10" laterals off the 18" suction header from tank. Discharge through 8"
laterals to 8" discharge header to go through either the heater, 410-27, or chiller, 410-17 with the
excess spilling back to the tank.
N. Butane Cooldown Pumps, 706-670-56/57.
Take suction through 4" laterals off of the 36" loading pump suction header. Discharge through
3" line back to the discharge laterals off of each butane loading pump.
N. Butane Loading Pumps, 706-670-49/50/51/63.
Take suction from 36" suction header through 16" laterals. Discharge through 12" discharge.
Laterals into the 24" loading line to Jetties No. 3 and 4.
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PRE-STARTING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Clean-up the unit and check the auxiliary piping to see that it is installed properly. If
possible, install a suction strainer.
2. Check the piping. Make a thorough inspection of all piping including strainers, if installed.
Also check auxiliary piping such as seal liquid and cooling water piping.
3. Check the alignment. See alignment and coupling instructions.
4. Check the driver rotation before coupling to the pump to make certain that it will rotate
in the same direction as indicated by the arrow on the pump.
5. Mechanical seal - refer to seal drawing and G.A. drawing.
STARTING THE PUMP
Use the following procedure:
1. PRIMING.
Before starting a centrifugal pump, the casing and suction piping must be completely
filled with liquid. The rotating parts within the pump depend upon this liquid for
lubrication and may seize if the pump is operated dry.
2. If used, turn on cooling water services and sealing liquid to the stuffing box.
3. Close the discharge vale, if it is not already closed, and check theat the suction valve is
fully open. Sometimes it is helpful to slightly crack the discharge valve to help provide
for the removal of vapours at start-up.
4. Start the driver. As soon as the pump is up to rated speed, open the discharge valves
slowly to avoid abrupt changes in velocity and surging in the suction line. DO NOT
OPERATED THE PUMP AGAINST A CLOSED DISCHARGE VALVE FOR ANY
LENGTH OF TINE, as the liquid in the pump will be heated until it vapourises. This will
cause your pump to seize by running dry.
5. Check for vibration. Vibration indicates improper alignment, and the unit should be shut
down and realigned.
6. Check for any increase in pressure drop across the suction screen, if used. The screen
should be cleaned if such a drop occurs. Leave the screen in the line for 24 hours
before removing.
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OPERATION
LOCATING TROUBLES

IMPORTANT - First check ratings shown on pump nameplate.
FAILURE TO DELIVER LIQUID Pump not primed.
Insufficient speed.
Impeller or suction strainer
plugged up.
Wrong direction of rotation.
Air leaking into suction.

PUMP LOSES PRIME AFTER STARTING Leaky suction line.
Air or gases in liquid.
Liquid seal line plugged.
Opening of discharge valve too
rapidly.

MOTOR RUNS HOT Head lower than rating - pumping
too much liquid.
Liquid pumped of greater specific
gravity or viscosity than that for
which motor is rated.
Rotor binding.
Defective motor.
Lack of ventilation.
Low voltage.
Impeller rub.

INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY AND PRESSURE Air leaks in suction line or stuffing
boxes.
Speed too low.
Head higher than pump rating.
Impeller or suction strainer
partially plugged.
Insufficient suction head for hot
liquids or volatile liquids.
Mechanical defects:
Wearing ring worn.
Impeller damages.

PUMP VIBRATES OR IS NOISY Misalignment.
Foundation not sufficiently rigid.
Impeller partially plugged, causing
unbalance.
Mechanical defects in pump or
driver:
Shaft bent
Rotating element out of balance.
Worn bearings.Rotating element
binds.
Suction or discharge pipe not
anchored.
Vapour-bound (pump noisy)
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th
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OPERATION
LOCATING TROUBLES
IMPORTANT - First check ratings shown on pump nameplate.
FAILURE TO DELIVER Pump not primed.
LIQUID Insufficient speed.
Impeller or suction strainer
plugged up.
Wrong direction of rotation.
Air leaking into suction.
PUMP LOSES PRIME AFTER Leaky suction line.
STARTING Air or gases in liquid.
Liquid seal line plugged.
Opening of discharge valve too
rapidly.
MOTOR RUNS HOT Head lower than rating-pumping too
much liquid.
Liquid pumped of greater specific
gravity or viscosity than that for
which motor is rated.
Rotor binding.
Defective motor.
Lack of ventilation.
Low voltage.
Impeller rub.
INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY AND PRESSURE
Air leaks in suction line or stuffing
boxes.
Speed too low.
Head higher than pump rating.
Impeller or suction strainer partially
plugged.
Insufficient suction had for hot
liquids or volatile liquids.
Mechanical defects: Wearing
ring worn.
Impeller damages.
PUMP VIBRATES OR IS NOISY Misalignment.
Foundation not sufficiently rigid.
Impeller partially plugged, causing
unbalance.
Mechanical defects in pump or
driver:
Shaft bent
Rotating element out of balance.
Worn bearings
Rotating element binds
Suction or discharge pipe not
anchored
Vapour-bound (pump noisy)
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th
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INTRODUCTION
Nitrogen is a clear, odourless gas which makes up about 80% of the air around us. It is virtually
chemically inert and there are very few substances it will readily react with. Because of
nitrogens "inertness" it is widely used in the refinery and chemical industry to "blanket" or "purge"
flammable and hazardous gases and liquids in drums, towers, pumps, compressors, pipelines
and tanks.
The large quantities of nitrogen required by industry is usually produced by liquefying air in a
special compressor plant and then boiling off the oxygen. At atmospheric pressure oxygen boils
at -183C and nitrogen -196C.
The nitrogen supply for the Seal Sands Terminal will be delivered in Liquid form, carried by
special low-temperature (cryogenic) tankers.
The liquid nitrogen is stored in a specially constructed double walled drum. The space between
the drum walls is evacuated and insulated to maintain the low temperature in the liquid nitrogen,
the storage pressure is around 12 Bar.
The storage drum has piping arranged to top or bottom fill. The piping is arranged on the
storage drum so that nitrogen gas or liquid can be drawn off from process requirements to the
vaporiser/heater. The storage drum also has piping to drum off liquid or gas directly from the
inner container.
The nitrogen vaporiser will have two heating coils. One large coil to vaporise/heat nitrogen for
process requirements and a small coil to heat up nitrogen to maintain the operating pressure
inside the storage drum.
It is envisaged that the heat source for the nitrogen vaporiser will be L.P. steam, the steam flow
being controlled by the outlet nitrogen temperature of the vaporiser. Final details of the vaporiser
lay out are still being discussed. (B.O.C. System drawing attached).
After the vaporiser, the nitrogen is split into two systems. The high pressure system of 11.7 bars
to the jetty area and the low pressure system of 4.5 bars to the processing areas, the flares and
NGL product storage tanks. (Diagram attached for system layout).
The 11.7 bar system is fed to the jetty area along a 4" pipeline after passing through a costing
meter number 61450. The main usage of nitrogen on the system is expected to be in loading
arm purging.
The 4.5 bar system is let down by pressure control valve through costing meter number 61449
to the NGL product storage tanks, the NGL/utilities area and the stabiliser overhead
compressors, then through a third costing meter number 61448 to the stabilisers ground flares
and to the elevated flare.
Usage of nitrogen on the utilities and NGL area and stabilisers is foreseen as intermittent. A
constant purge of 0.9 standard cubic metres per hour is required to the elevated flare flow
sensor.
After the non-return valve on the nitrogen to the elevated flare flow sensor, there is an
emergency nitrogen supply from high pressure bottles, this system will come into operation
should the nitrogen pressure to the flow sensor FNT 61824 be reduced.
In the utility area provision has been made to cross-connect the nitrogen system to the plant air
system as an emergency measure, should the air system fail.
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This cross-connect is still under review at the time of writing.
The typical arrangement for hard lines connected to equipment is a double block and bleed
arrangement, and from utility and hose station the line is reduced to a " line after a valve.
Although non-return valves are fitted in the nitrogen supply lines to major users, great case must
be taken to ensure that any vessel is to be purged must be at a lower pressure than the nitrogen
system.
DISTRIBUTION
Equipment supplied:-
HP System 11.7 bars
Berths 3&4 loading arms
Cold vent knock-out drums
Metering stations
Estimated nitrogen usage = 30,720 cubic meters per annum.
LP System 4.5 bars
Propane tank vapour compressors
Propane storage tanks plus 4 utility stations.
Ethane storage tank plus 2 utility stations
Ethane refrigeration compressors
Ethane tank compressors
Ethane refrigeration economiser
Ethane chiller
Propane chiller
Propane refrigeration compressors plus 3 utility stations (Air make-up crossover) under review
14 utility stations to NGL east and west
Stabiliser overhead vapour compressors plus 3 utility stations
Iso-butane and normal butane tanks plus 7 utility stations
Through costing meter number 61448 to:-
Ground flares plus 3 utility stations
The stabiliser units
Elevated flare
Air contains approximately 80% nitrogen and approximately 20% oxygen.
Any equipment that has been nitrogen purged must be air tested for oxygen content before any
entry permit can be issued.
No work can be done on equipment that is being purged without ensuring that the worker has
a safe supply of clean breathing air.
The former name of nitrogen was the Greek word AZOTE, meaning "an inability to support life".
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GLYCOL SYSTEM
Due to very low temperatures dealt with in certain parts of the plant such as the Refrigerated
Product storage and loading system operation where heat must be applied to very cold products
it is necessary to use a heating medium with a very low freezing point for the heaters. A 70%
solution of ethylene glycol and condensed steam is used for this purpose because of its low
freezing point, (-60CF and heat carrying purposes.
The system comprises of a Glycol surge tank, six Glycol transfer pumps, five Glycol heaters (for
six heat exchangers), transfer systems, steam and condensate system required for heat and
system distribution piping.
Glycol is pumped from the surge tank with one or more of the transfer pumps through the shell
side of the heater being used where is heated to 66C with 3.45 Bar g steam flowing through the
tube side of the heater.
The Glycol transfer pumps can be started remotely from the Jetty Control room. Low glycol
temperature alarms is transmitted to both the Jetty and NGL Control Rooms. Pump "Running"
or "Stopped" status indicators are indicated on all pumps in the Jetty Control Room but only on
pumps 3,4,5 and 6 (706-670-68 is for a stand-by).
Glycol is pumped from the tank with one or more of the above mentioned pumps through the
shell side of a heater where it is heated to 66C and 3.45 Bar g (steam flowing through the tube
side). The Glycol is then routed to its respective heater exchanger (heater) where it flows
through the shell side for heating purposes. After passing through the heat exchanger it is
returned to the Glycol Surge Tank for re-use.
All of the pumps are identical, but no. 6, (706-670-68) which is piped up as the stand-by for any
of the others, as well as being used to recycle Glycol from the bottom of the tank through the
pump and back to the top of the tank for mixing purposes. No. 4 and 5, (7060670-43/67) run
constantly.
Circulation System
Pump No. 706-670-40 supplies Glycol to heater no. 706-410-32 to Propane Storage Loading
Heater 706-410-29, plus transfers of Glycol to:
Cooling Water System Surge Tank make-up
De-methaniser tower Glycol Surge Tank
LPG Vaporiser (645-950-25)
Glycol Expansion tank (645-950-17)
4" Recycle back to the Glycol Surge Tank, 706-950-37
Pump No. (706-670-41) Supplies Glycol to Heater No. 706-410-32 for propane storage loading
heater - 706-410-32.
Pump No. (706-670-42) Supplies Glycol to Heater no. 706-410-25 for the Iso-Butane tank
Recirculating Heater.
Pump No. (706-670-67) Supplies Glycol to Heater No. 706-410-28) for Butane Storage
Recirculating Heater.
Pump No. (706-670-670 Supplies Glycol to Heater No. 706-410-33 for the Normal Butane
loading Heater.
Pump No. (706-670-68) - Stand-by pump for them all.
Temperature Control of the Glycol is made possible by utilising a temperature controller sensing
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the temperature of the outlet Glycol steam from each heater. (Each heater has its own control
system). The temperature controller adjusts the amount of steam needed by operating a control
valve in the inlet steam line to each heater.
The condensed steam is collected in a common condensate accumulator and is pumped back
to the condensate receiver at the Boiler House through a common pumped condensate line.
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th
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EQUIPMENT DATA
Surge Tank - 706-950-37 the tank is a 4000 mm x 4600 mm atmospheric tank with a capacity
of 58m3. Design pressure is 20m Bar g and -6m Bar g. A two inch condensate make-up is
provided for adding water. The Glycol fill line is a 2" on top of the tank. The tank has a dip stock
and level indicator (L1-71111), and a locally mounted temperature indicator (Ti-71152). A 10"
suction, and 8" return line is provided.
GLYCOL CIRCULATION PUMPS Six pumps are provided. All six are identical.
Capacity - 70M
3
/M
Heat - 42M
Disch. Press. - 4.35 Bar-g
DRIVER - 18.6 k.w. electric motor
HEATERS
706-410-22/32/25
Duty 2.65
Surface Area 34M
2
Design pressure 6.9 Bar g
Design temp. 93.0C
Design pressure 5.2 Bar g
Design temp 288C
706-410-28/33
Duty 2.07 mw
Surface Area 25.5m
2
Design pressure 6.9 Bar g
Design temp. 93.0C
Design pressure 5.17 bar g
Design temp 288C
Condensate Pumps (2) (706-670-69/70)
Capacity 23M
2
/hr
Heat 57M
Disch. 6.07 Bar g
Driver 11.2 K.W.
Condensate Accum. (706-950-53)
DIA 1100 mm
Length 2200 mm
Design Press. 5.2 Bar g
Design Temp. 250C
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th
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Control No. Location Valve No. Service
TIC-71106 Local TPV-71106 Heater No. 706-410-22 Steam
TIC-71100 " TPV-71100 Heater No. 706-410-32"
TIC-71102 " TPV-71102 Heater No. 706-410-25"
TIC-71104 " TPV-71104 Heater No. 706-410-28"
TIC-71105 " TPV-71105 Heater No. 706-410-33"
HNS-71242 Jetty C.R. Pump No. 706-670-40
HNS-71242 " Pump No. 706-670-41
HNS-71243 " Pump No. 706-670-42
HNS-71244 " Pump No. 706-670-43
HNS-71245 " Pump No. 706-670-67
HNS-7246 " Pump No. 706-670-68
LNS-71150 Local Cond. Low Level - shuts down 706-670-69/70
LC-71157 " LPV-71157 - Cond. Accum. liquid level.
Relief Valves
Number Size Set Press. Service
PSV-71097 " x 1" 6.9 Bar-g Glycol Heater - 706-410-22
PSV-71098 " " Glycol Heater - 706-410-32
PSV-71095 " " Glycol Heater - 706-410-25
PSV-71096 " " Glycol Heater - 706-410-28
PSV-71088 " " Glycol Heater - 706-410-33
ALARMS IN The NGL CONTROL ROOM
Number Service Location
ITA-71106A- Low Glycol Temp. from heater 706-410-22
ITA-71100A Low Glycol Temp. from heater 706-410-32
ITA-71102A Low Glycol Temp. from heater 706-410-25
ITA-71104A Low Glycol Temp. from heater 706-410-28
ITA-71095A Low Glycol Temp. from heater 706-410-33
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Automatic Restarting of Electric Drives Following Power Outages
TEESSIDE PLANT
A certain number of electric motor starters are equipped with restarting relays. One of the relays
"remembers" which motor was running before the power outage. The other relays act as a
"start" relay.
The memory relay is adjustable from 0 to 30 minutes. At this writing, it is set at 15 minutes for
Utilities, Stabilisers and one motor on the Jetties. It is set at 8 minutes for the NGL Area.
If power is not restored within the setting of the memory relay, all motors have to be restarted
manually.
The "start" relay is also adjustable. The range is 0 to 70 seconds. this relay starts a limited
number of motors at a time. The most critical drives re-start 2 seconds after power is restored.
The next step is 5 seconds followed by the 11, 25, 40, 55 and 70 seconds steps. The stepped
re-starting will prevent the tripping of main circuit breakers.
Motors that are controlled by process switches (pressure, flow, temperature level) generally do
not have re-starting relays. These motors can be identified by their start-off - auto switches.
when the switch is in "Auto" the process device starts the motor. If the selector switch is in the
"Start" position, it will immediately re-start automatically following a power dip. The "Start"
position overrides the process switch. The "Start" position is primarily for testing and
maintenance.
Some of the large drives that have start-off-auto switches (e.g. Boiler feed Water Pump_ have
a time delay on restarting following a power outage.
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th
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NGL MOTORS THAT WILL NOT START AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOWING
POWER OUTAGES
The motors listed below do not have Re-start relays. Also, the motors listed below do not have
start-off-auto selector switches.
From Sub-Station 7A
Equipment Number Service
519-670-01 De-Ethaniser Feed Pump
519-670-02 De-Ethaniser Feed Pump
519-670-03 De-Ethaniser Feed Pump
519-670-06 De-Ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrator Regen. Pump
519-670-04 De-Ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrator Regen. Pump
519-670-05 De-Ethaniser Liquid Feed Dehydrator Regen. Pump
519-670-27 De-Ethaniser Vapour Feed Demister Pump
519-670-28 De-Ethaniser Vapour Feed Demister Pump
From Sub-Station 7B
505-410-39/1 De-Ethaniser Bottoms Air Cooler
505-410-39/2 De-Ethaniser Bottoms Air Cooler
505-410-40/1 De-Ethaniser Bottoms Air Cooler
505-410-40/2 De-Ethaniser Bottoms Air Cooler
505-410-41/1 De-Propaniser K.P. Cooler
505-410-41/2 De-Propaniser K.P. Cooler
505-410-42/1 De-Propaniser K.P. Cooler
505-410-42/2 De-Propaniser K.P. Cooler
509-410-03/1 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-03/2 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-03/3 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-04/1 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-04/2 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-04/3 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-05/1 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-05/2 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-05/3 30% Lean Dea Cooler
509-410-12/1 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-12/2 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-12/3 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-13/1 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-13/2 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-13/3 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-14/1 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-14/2 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
509-410-14/3 Amine Still O/H Vapour Condenser
519-410-07/1 De-ethaniser O/H Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-07/2 De-ethaniser O/H Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-08/1 De-ethaniser O/H Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-08/2 De-ethaniser O/H Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
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th
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From Sub-Station 7C
Equipment Number Service
505-670-41 Methanol Injection Pump
505-670-42 Methanol Injection Pump
505-670-41/42 Methanol Injection Pump
505-410-18/1 Iso-butane Cooler
505-410-18/2 Iso-butane Cooler
505-410-19/1 Iso-butane De-propaniser Col. OHV Condenser
505-410-19/2 Iso-butane De-propaniser Col. OHV Condenser
505-410-19/3 Iso-butane De-propaniser Col. OHV Condenser
519-410-12/1 Butane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-12/2 Butane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-12/3 Butane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-17/1 Propane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-17/2 Propane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-18/1 Propane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
519-410-18/2 Propane Dehydrator Regen. Cooler
From Sub-Station 8A (415 Volt Motors)
706-050-03 Ethane Tank Blower
706-050-03 Ethane Tank Blower
706-670-10 N-Butane Blend Pump
706-670-11 N-Butane Blend Pump
706-670-12 N-Butane Blend Pump
706-670-23 Isobutane Blend Pump
706-670-24 Isobutane Blend Pump
706-670-25 Isobutane Blend Pump
706-670-525 Lube Oil Pump-Propane Compressor No. 706-160-19
706-670-527 Lube Oil Pump-Propane Compressor No. 706-160-21
706-670-67 NGL Storage Glycol System Pump
706-410-522 Ethane Tank Blower Lube Oil Cooler Fan
706-410-523 Ethane Tank Blower Lube Oil Cooler Fan
706-670-68 NGL Storage Glycol System Pump (May Change)
706-670-69 Condensate Pump
706-670-70 Condensate Pump
From Sub-Station 8A (3.3kv motors)
706-670-49 N-Butane Loading Pump
706-670-50 N-Butane Loading Pump
706-670-51 N-Butane Loading Pump
706-670-63 N-Butane Loading Pump
706-670-47 Hot Iso-Butane Loading pump
706-670-04 Propane Loading Pump
706-670-05 Propane Loading Pump
706-670-06 Propane Loading Pump
706-670-44 Propane Loading Pump
706-670-45 Propane Loading Pump
706-670-13 Isobutane Loading Pump
706-670-14 Isobutane Loading Pump
706-670-15 Isobutane Loading Pump
706-670-65 Isobutane Loading Pump
706-160-19 Propane Tank Compressor
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706-160-20 Propane Tank Compressor
706-160-21 Propane Tank Compressor
706-670-07 Hot Propane Loading Pump
706-670-46 Hot Propane Loading Pump
706-670-60 Hot Propane Loading Pump
706-670-19 Hot Butane Loading Pump
706-670-48 Hot Butane Loading Pump
706-670-53 Hot Butane Loading Pump
706-670-61 Hot Butane Loading Pump
706-670-01 Ethane Loading Pump
706-670-02 Ethane Loading Pump
From Sub-Station 8B (415 volt)
None None
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PURPOSE
To describe re-starting and control of Fan Motors.
Two Speed with Automatic Control
With the Start-Off-Auto selector in Auto position the fan will change from low to high or high to
low speed as dictated by the temperature or pressure switches. The fans will start automatically
following power dips at the speed called for by the process switches.
With the Start-Off-Auto selector switch in Start position the fan will run when either the slow or
fast button is pushed. To change from slow to high or high to slow speed the off button must be
pushed then re-set then the desired speed button pushed. It will be helpful if the operator will
wait about 10 seconds between the gas and slow selections.
The fans will not restart automatically following power dips.
Two Speed with Manual Control
The operator pushes the desired slow or fast push button.
the off button must be pushed and re-set when changing from one speed to another. It will be
helpful if the operator will wait about 10 seconds when changing from fast to slow speed. The
fan will not re-start automatically following a power dip.
If the fan also has a Slow-Off fast push button in the control room, the off push button can be
pushed one to stop the fan, then immediately pushed again to re-set the switch so it can next
be started at the local station if desired.
Single Speed with Manual Control
The fan will re-start automatically following a power dip. All of the fans are programmed to re-
start after about a 70 second delay following power restoration.
Control room stop buttons cannot be re-set until the re-start timer has timed out, about 15
minutes.
Respectfully submitted.
E.T. Crimmins
24th August, 1977
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EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL POWER
A. Emergency and Non-Interrupted and Electrical Power Supplies
The majority of panel instruments and field transmitters at Seal Sands require 24 volts
DC supply.
Each of the four main Control Rooms are equipped with battery units designed from a
minimum 2 hours working capacity during loss of mains power.
The battery charger is maintained via a rectifier unit powered from adjacent sub-stations.
Each battery/rectifier assembly is duplicated for maintenance etc., and security of supply
is increased by auto changeover switches between each unit.
The 110 volt DC power is used for essential instruments indication/alarm units and
analysers supplied from battery backed static inverters, and is designed for a minimum
of 1 hour working capacity in case of loss of mains power. the battery charger, like the
24 volt DC system, is maintained via a rectifier unit powered either from a sub-station or
the emergency generator, which is switched over to automatic.
Each Control Room is equipped with one inverter/battery/rectifier unit with facility for by-
passing with 415/110 volt transformer for maintenance or emergency operation.
Solenoid operated valves and shutdown devices, etc. requiring 110 volts DC are supplied
from individual battery units at each Control Room, and are designed for a minimum
working capacity of 2 hours should a power failure occur. The battery charger is
maintained from rectifier units supplied from adjacent sub-stations. Each battery/rectifier
assembly is duplicated for maintenance etc., and security of supply is increased by auto
changeover switches between each unit.
An additional battery/rectifier unit is installed at the Utility Control Room to furnish power
to the propane compressor control panels and cranking motor batteries.
The diesel driven fire pumps cranking devices, emergency lighting, PABX telephones,
radio paging and microwave equipment batteries are charged from the mains.
The lights have a 1 hour working duration, 7 hours for the PABX telephone system, and
10 hours for the radio paging and micro-wave equipment.
B. Emergency Generator and Turbine
During a general power failure, the Emergency Generator is automatically started, and
the following equipment will be diverted to its supply as follows:
a. Rectifier/chargers for the 110 volt inverters.
b. Rectifier/charger for radios, paging and microwave equipment.
c. Rear and front leading lights (THPA).
d. Maintenance telephones.
e. Control Rooms emergency lighting.
f. Lube oil pumps for the boiler feed water turbines (3).
g. Pre-lube pumps for the air compressors.
h. Lube oil pumps for boiler fuel circulating pump (1).
i. Lube oil pumps for firewater turbine (1).
j. Lube oil pumps for cooling water turbines (3).
k. Auxiliary hydraulic pumps for the propane compressors.
The following items of equipment have duplicated feeds with automatic changeover
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switches:
a. Instrumentation at Greatham Control Room from sub-station 9A.
b. Navigation lights and fog bell at Jetty No. 2
c. All rectifier charger units associated with items 1-4.
The Emergency Generator is rated as follows:
290 KVA 415/240 volts.
3 phase-4 wire 50 H
2
0.8 power factor
Steam conditions: 17.28 Bar G/260C atmosphere
The turbine driver is a Coppus RL 23L single stage impulse type, two row velocity stage
wheel with a row of stationery reversing blades between the two rows of rotating blades.
It is equipped with hand valves on some of the steam nozzles for partial load or overload
conditions.
A Sentinel Relief to warn of exceptional back pressure on the turbine casing is provided.
A safety trip is provided that closes the steam valve if the rpm exceed the rated speed
by 20%.
The turbine is started automatically from power interruption from:
NGL Control Room
Utilities Control Room
Stabiliser Control Room
Jetty Control Room
Motor Starter Board at Utilities Control room
The emergency generator start is automatic and will be initiated by the opening of any
one of the remote contacts which will operator separate latching type 110 volt DC relays
within the panel. (As long as there is power going through the solenoid, it will remain in
a closed position - but will fly open the second the power is lost. The emergency
generator turbine is tripped off from a "NO VOLT" signal). A separate indicator lamp
switched by each relay will show which area initiated the start. A common "generator
start" relay is also operated by the above relays. The start relay will control the steam
valve, Control Room lamp and generator and control panel anti-condensation heaters.
It is possible to have a power failure in one place only, and the Emergency Generator will
start and provide power for that section only.
Resuming power will switch the system back over to normal, but the Emergency
Generator turbine must be shutdown manually and re-set by means of front of panel re-
sets for the latching relays.
When the "test" start-up is operated, the machine will only stop when the switch is
returned to the auto stand-by position.
The Emergency Generator and turbine is locate don the north side of the north boiler
feedwater pump.
A differential pressure recorder is provided to measure the difference of pressure
between the bottom of the column and the overhead vapour line (dPR-51128).
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Accumulator Pressure: Pressure on the accumulator is controlled by PIC-51135 which
controls the accumulator back pressure control valve PPV-51135 located in the 6"
overhead vapour line off the top of the vessel. The pressure sensing point is located on
the accumulator (PNT-51135).
Column Temperature Control - Temperature required for proper separation is controlled
by either of two types of control (1) Conventional tray temperature control, or (2) by DCS
(Advanced Control)
Tray Temperature Control - with this type of control the temperature of tray no. 20 is used
as the control point. Temperature here is transmitted to a temperature controller, TIC-
51125 where the signal is then sent out to the bottom product flow control valve - FPV-
51032 (which is also the feed control valve to the De-propanizer Column down stream).
The kettle flow affects the level of the liquid in the bottom of the De-ethaniser which is
sensed by the kettle liquid level control LIC 51070. This resets FIC-51033 which in turn
(through FNX-51033) controls the amount of steam through the steam control valve,
FPV-51033 located in the main 12" steam line to the reboilers, to reboil the correct
amount of liquid to hold the level constant.
Bottom Product - The bottom product rate is on flow control, FPV-51032, which is reset
by conventional temperature control sensed from 20th tray, or by DCS (Advanced
Control). Column valves are situated on the Depropanisers near the feed entry on the
tower, their by-pass valves are power operated by hand controllers, HPV-51010/51012
located on the panel board.
Distillation Column Control - Chromatograph analysers are provided to analyse the
top/bottom product composition. This information, plus input signals from Dynamic
Matrix Control (Advanced Control) ensure bottom and overhead product specifications
are achieved/maintained. Further details are contained in the DCS training manual.
Overhead Vapour Product is the result of the actions of the accumulator back pressure
control valve PC51135 - to hold the accumulator pressure constant.
Reflux Accumulator Level Control - is achieved by LC51078 resetting TC51129
(A and B valves) - the accumulator level will normally be 50%.
If the level begins to rise more vapour flow will be directed through the TC51129B valve
to warm up the accumulator and hence lower the level and increase the vapour flow to
the DEA units. Conversely, if a level increase is required in the accumulator more vapour
will be directed through the A valve, condensing more vapour increasing the liquid level.
f. Alarms and Safety Equipment
The control valves throughout the De-ethaniser systems are designed to "fail safe"; that
is, with loss of instrument air or electricity the control valves will open or close as
necessary to block in the feed and product streams, shut off the steam, allow overhead
vapour to flow through the overhead vapour condenser, and liquid to be pumped back
to the column if the reflux pump is still operating.
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Start up preparation and guidelines
The Demethaniser operation relies on a variety of essential systems and plant conditions. As the
Demethaniser is at the "end off" the light ends separation section it will logically be the last
probable item to be commissioned in this system. The following general criteria must be fulfilled
to enable Demethaniser commissioning and operation.
1. The Demethaniser and associate plant must be ex maintenance deblinded and be leak
tested with specifically either an inert nitrogen atmosphere or light hydrocarbon
atmosphere. All plant being dry with no free water and dew points around the system of
-40C or better.
2. Propane LS refrigeration must be commissioned and available with the DeC1 feed chiller
system being established - initial temperature control values being approximately -17C.
3. Ethane refrigeration overheads chilling should be under ethane as a minimum with the
main sections of the Ethane refrigeration system being in commission and steady. The
overheads chilling system can be difficult to control in no load situation and premature
filling of this system can create significant C2 refrigeration system problems.
4. Ideally two regeneration dry overheads dehydrator beds should be available with a supply
of treated gas for start up available at between 5000 and 8000m
3
/hr. Surplus potential
feed can quite easily be routed into fuel to control the start up feed rate.
Safety Consideration
The following items are over and above the other "normal" requirement items for safety start up
of any plant i.e. they are distinct extra areas relating to this system.
1. The Demethaniser overhead vapour export to fuel via the normal feed to overhead export
heat exchangers must always be monitored with care in the start up phase -
temperatures of the vapour export ex the accumulator can fall to the -74C are (normal
accumulator temperature). If this vapour is not warmed up against incoming feed gases
in the heat exchangers dangerously low temperatures could result in the fuel gas export
piping which is only designed for -40C max!. Fracture of piping downstream could result
i.e. no low temperature gas export from the accumulator is permissible to fuel gas
without "warm" feed gas being available to warm it up.
2. Demethaniser bottoms yield cannot be flared in the conventional way due to the extreme
low temperatures attainable by its "flashing" down consequently a special dump tank is
available to this product capable of handling ethane at -90C. The vapours from this
vessel are routed to the cold ground flares. The capacity of the dump tank is limited and
alternate disposal/routing is necessary if problems are of an extended nature eg. fuelling
is a good option.
3. System temperature of lower than -70C are found in the system physical contact with
any cold piping or actual product can result in severe cold burns/frostbite.
General
The Demethaniser is an extremely flexible column being capable of handling feedrates from
8000 - 3600m
3
/hr+. Similarly it can be run in a flexible manner e.g. varied feed chilling
temperature.
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Start up
With the system lined up and proved leak tight/purged, feed can be admitted via the feed chiller
exchanger with the temperature control set at -17C. The feed gas must be dry and of normal
composition. Control feedrate in the range 5000 - 8000m
3
/hr to condition and purge the column
and its ancillaries. Allow the system pressure to slowly rise toward the 14-15 bar g operating
pressure area. Bleed vapours to the CVH from the accumulator PSV bypass and from the
accumulator pump drains to control this pressure. Advise the Stabiliser CCB panel of flaring
activities via this route. Check the entire system for leaks and monitor internal temperature
profile of the column. Hot glycol circulation should be applied sparingly to the reboiler in the
early phase of start up until a consistent bottoms level is visible. Chilling down of the tower
internals coupled with the increase in the system pressure will result in liquid ethane condensing.
The ethane refrigeration to the overheads chiller can be commissioned once the column chilling
down has levelled off-aim for a gradual steady reduction in system temperatures in the column
and its piping fall continue to monitor the system for potential leakage. Care in the
commissioning of the overheads ethane refrigeration is essential if upset to the refrigeration
loops is to be avoided. As the accumulator chills down a liquid level will become apparent -
ensure the expected duty reflux pump and its piping are chilled down by bleed off from the pump
drain to the CVH. When adequate bottoms level is present the export loop can readied -
similarly the overhead export to fuel can be prepared. Once analysis is proven satisfactory by
laboratory analysis feedrates and exports can be established. As the tower rates increase the
feed chiller temperature can be progressively reduced toward its normal operating value further
loading up and chilling the column to produce normal internal tray loading/system DP and
temperature profile.
System Shut Down
Shut down of the Demethaniser is the reverse of the start up in that a slow and gradual warm
up and depressure are required. Once feed is stopped liquid export should continue till the
bottoms pumps show initial cavitation signs - then shut them down. The accumulator level
should be reduced to a minimum about one hour before shut down and the overhead chiller
bypass HIC brought into play to recover as much to fuel export as possible prior to stopping
column feed. Once exports have ceased fold system pressure and drain all liquid from the
bottom and from the accumulator systems. System pressure greatly aids this activity - monitor
temperature profiles and slowly depressure the tower via the bottoms to dump tank route and
the accumulator via the PSV bypass route
- CAUTION - monitor temperatures closely to ensure that no drastic reductions are evident due
to residual liquids flashing off. Once the system is at vent pressure commission a moderate flow
of nitrogen - monitor warm up-complete isolation lists etc.
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6. BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR TREATING SYSTEM:
53-T-33/34/35/36/37
P & ID Ref: 7809-519-D00-005
A The Butane treater receives mixed as its feed from the bottom product of the
depropanizer Fractionating towers, and removes the water and sulphur compounds to
provide a suitable product for refrigerated storage and sales.
Specifications for the treated butanes are: 2 ppm maximum, and volatile sulphur
compounds 15 grains/100 cu. The water specifications are required to prevent freeze
ups when the temperatures are reduced to permit storage in atmospheric pressures
refrigerated storage tanks, and the sulphur must be reduced so that it can meet sales
specifications.
The systems required for this operation include the following equipment:-
(1) Two Butane Dehydrator Feed Pumps (53-p-09/10)
(2) Five Butane Treating Towers (53-T-33/34/35/36/37)
(3) One Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Separator (53-D-38)
(4) One Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Cooler (53-E-12)
(One of the Propane Treater Coolers is connected as a common spare).
(5) Two Butane Dehydrator Regeneration Separator Pumps (53-P-11/12)
(6) Two sets of Regeneration Gas Heaters (53-E-15/16/19/20/21/22)
The system begins with the Dehydrator Feed Surge Tank and ends, for the liquid stream,
at the inlet to the Depropanizer Kettle product heat exchanger. The regeneration gas
system ends with the back pressure controller on the line to the feed system.
Flow Description The wet liquid mixed butanes flow from the bottom of the depropanizer
towers through the shell side of the DEC-3 kettle product heat exchangers 53-E-
30/31/32/33 and out through a 6" line into an air fin cooler (5-E-41) where it is cooled to
around 38
o
C. It is then routed through a 4" line through the Depropanizer bottoms
product control valve where it joins up with the No. 2 Depropanizer bottoms product. The
combined streams enter a 6" line from this point on into the Butane Treater Surge Tank.
The liquid from the surge tank is then pumped tot he treaters on line where it enters the
bottom, flowing upwards through the beds where it makes contact with the ALUMINA
balls and MOL SIEVE fill material. Moisture and sulphur is removed in this process by
absorption in the beds. The liquid then flows out of the top of treaters into a common
outlet header where it is routed through the tube side of the Depropanizer kettle product
heat exchangers described above and on out to become the feed for the butane splitter
column. A continuous sulphur analyser (AR 51017) has been installed on the common
outlet header, which will sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the butanes becomes
high or if the analyser fails. Since water is more strongly absorbed by the desiccant that
sulphur compounds, the sulphur will break through long before the water. Consequently
only sulphur content is monitored to determine the effectiveness of treating and
dehydration.
Regeneration As the Butane is being treated in the Treating Tower the desiccant is
gradually being saturated with water and sulphur and will reach a point where it will no
longer function. It must then be taken off the line re-generated.
Regeneration is process of "cleaning up" the beds enabling them to be used again. This
process is accomplished by taking a stream off of the High Pressure Fuel gas header
(Demethaniser overhead gas), heating it to 316
o
C with superheated steam in the
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vaporisers and passing it through the beds from the top, and out the bottom. The
elevated Regeneration Gas temperature vaporises the moisture and sulphur from the
mol-sieves and sweeps them on out with the gas. The gas, along with the moisture and
sulphur is then routed through an air fin condenser (53-E-12) where the temperature is
lowered to around 38
o
C (100
o
F) before entering the Regeneration Separator (53-D-28).
The moisture is condensed, along with the heavier hydrocarbons and drops out to the
bottom of the vessel where the water is drawn off (manually) and the liquid hydrocarbons
are pumped back to the feed tank. The Regeneration Separator is automatically pumped
back to the beds now on line. Tank (53-D-32) where it enters with the fresh feed coming
in to the beds now on line. The feed tank has a Liquid level control that resets the feed
to the Butane Splitter Tower which should maintain a level at all times, but is equipped
with a low level shut down switch in case of problems upstream of the Depropanizer,
which will shut down the feed pump.
After the heating step has been completed the Bed must be cooled before putting it back
in service. This is accomplished be taking a side stream of the liquid feed and pumping
it back through the Bed in an UPWARD flow. Part of this liquid will flash, or vapourize
when it first hits the hot bed but will eventually cool down, condense in the condensing
air fin condenser (53-E-12) and drop out in the bottom of the Regeneration Separator
(like the heating step) and then be pumped back to the Feed Tank (53-D-32).
The Dehydrator Regeneration Pumps provide enough pressure to prevent any "flashing"
of liquids in the Beds, which can damage the desiccant, as well as adequate pressure
to get cooling Butane into the Regeneration Separator against the Regeneration Gas
pressure even at times when the Feed Tank pressure is low. In order to properly feed
these pumps, the Feed Surge Tank (53-D-32) is provided at the Pumps suction. This
tank has about 12 minutes of residence time when half full.
The Regeneration Separator (53-D-38) is made large enough to hold all the liquid from
one Treater/Dehydrator Tower and still provide for gas/liquid separation. This is
designed this way so that the liquid in a tower can be pushed out by the Regeneration
Gas as fast as the gas comes in without regard to the pump-out rate from the separator.
Process Variables and Controls The primary process variables, such as feed to the
Treaters temperature, pressure flow rate, water and sulphur content are controlled by the
operation of other units and cannot b directly changed at the Butane Treater. The Feed
low is controlled by a liquid level control on the Butane Treater Feed Tank, LIC-51263
which re-sets the amount of feed going to the Butane Splitter Column. This results in
varying the Butane Splitter column feed to maintain a working level in the Butane Treater
Feed Tank. The operator must, however, keep the feed equally distributed through the
Beds by manually adjusting the inlet valves to the beds. The temperature of the Feed
is a result of operations and conditions upstream of the Butane Treater.
During the Regeneration process the gas flow rate and temperature are the primary
variables. The design regeneration gas flow rate is 8,000 NM
3
/Hr with tower inlet
temperature of 315
o
C. If the regeneration gas flow rate, or temperature is too low, the
desiccant will not be completely regenerated. Upon initiation of the regeneration heating
cycle the outlet temperature will be low but will come up in stages as the bed is
regenerated.
The heat for the Regeneration Gas is supplied by passing 55.2 Bar G steam through the
shell side of the Regeneration gas vaporisers. The exit gas temperature is controlled by
split range temperature controller TIC-51391 which receives its signal from temperature
transmitters on the inlet gas to the bed, an outlet gas from the bed. The signal is
transmitted to a steam bleed valve off the top of the vaporiser TPV-51331-B and a three-
way control valve (TPV-51331-A) on the regeneration gas stream. The tree-way valve
controls the relative amount of Regeneration gas flowing through or by-passing around
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the vaporiser. If additional heat is needed, with all gas going through the vaporiser, the
steam bleed valve (TPV-51331-B) vents steam off the super heater portion of the
vaporiser thereby increasing the amount of heat available. During normal operation the
three-way valve is expected to be in control.
Cooling the Regenerated Bed is accomplished by pumping Butane Treater feed UP
through the Bed.
Cooling During the cooling of the towers the butane flow and separator temperature are
the primary variables. The design flow rate of cooling butane is 5M
3
/hr with a
Regeneration Separator temperature of 38
o
C. The flow rate is low enough that there is
no danger of fluidizing the bed when all the butane vaporises as it will during the firs part
of the cooling step. Higher flow rates could damage the bed, yet if the rate were too low
the bed will not be sufficiently cooled. If the Regeneration Separator temperature is
much above 38
o
C an excessive amount of dissolved water will recycle back from the
separator to the Feed Surge Tank, causing additional moisture to be removed with the
beds on stream. The Regeneration Separator temperature is normally controlled by the
louvres on top of the condensing coils, (53-E-12) automatically by a temperature sensing
point (TE-51436) in the inlet line to the separator, which controls the louvres. Additional
control is provided by having a two-speed motor driving the fans.
Any water accumulated in the Regeneration Separator will de drawn off manually to the
drain system.
The normal cycle for the towers is controlled by an automatic sequence timer. Since the
same source of regeneration gas is used for both the Butane, and Propane Treaters the
timing cycle for heating-cooling, etc. for both treaters must be inter-locked. The cycle
times cannot be altered on one Treater without being compensated on the other.
Automatic Sequencing Timer - the standard cycle for a tower is:
ON STREAM - 24 hours
HEAT - 4 hours
COOL - 4 hours
STAND-BY - 4 hours
This is accomplished automatically with the "Automatic Sequence" timer which is
programmed in such a manner as to open and close the valves required to have three
towers on stream, one bed regenerating (either heating or cooling) and one bed on
stand-by.
The sequence of valve operation during a tower cycle is:
STATUS Towers No. 5-T-33,34 and 35 on stream.
Tower No. 53-T-36 on stand-by.
Tower No. 53-T-37 cooling.
NB. Because of the change in specification of the butane products the treaters are now
changed over manually from the sequence controller sub panel.
Instructions for the frequency of changes will be issued on the daily operating
instructions.
Valve Positions: Valves open: Main inlet and outlet vales for tower No. 53-T-33/34 and 35
number XPV-51137,40,41,44,45,48 and outlet valve No. XPV-511488
from tower No. 53-T-36 (stand-by); Regeneration valves No. XPV-51154
and 55 on tower No. 53-T-37. Cooling Butanes valve No. XPV-51160 and
XPV-51159, cooling regeneration gas line valves to air fins, and
regeneration separator.
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Sequence No.1- Valve XPV-51149 opens, establishing Butane flow through Tower No. 4
53-T-36
Sequence No. 2- Valves XPV-51154/55/60 and 56 close, shutting cooling gas out of No.4
tower, and valve No. XPV-51156 (53-T-37 tower main outlet) opens,
placing it on stand-by condition.
Sequence No. 3- Main inlet and outlet valves (XPV-51140/XPV-51137) to No. 1 tower (53-T-
33) close to take the tower off stream. At the same time, valves No. XPV-
51138/39 open, as well as XPV-51158 which lines up the regeneration
gas through the vaporiser and starts hot gas to the bed Regeneration
then commences.
Sequence No. 4- At the end of the heating cycle, valves No. XPV-51158/62 close, stopping
the flow of hot regeneration gas through No. 1 tower 53-T-33.
Sequence No. 5- Valves No. XPV-51160/59 open, starting the flow of Butane UP through
the bed to cool it.
Final Status
Tower No. 2,3 and 4 (53-T-34/35 and 36).
Tower No. 5 (53-T-37) - On STAND-BY.
Tower No. 1 (53-T-33) - Cooling.
START-UP After purging has been done, and feed is available, start the steam system up
through the steam side of the treaters, and start a regeneration cycle. After they have been
regenerated, and cooled, feed may be introduced.
1 Fill towers 1 through 4- (53-T-33-34-35-36) and the product line to the Butane Splitter with
liquid butanes.
2 Close the inlet valves on towers 2,3 and 4.
3 Set the automatic sequencing controller to the start of the on-stream cycle for
Tower 1. Start butane flow through Tower 1 at a flow-rate no lower than 75gpm
(this is to prevent bed "channelling").
4 Open block valves on Tower 5- (53-T-37). See that the automatic valve sequencing
control is on "AUTOMATIC".
5 Open the outlet block valve on Tower 4, to place it on "stand-by".
6 If after 8 hours the flow rate is below 150gpm, place Tower 2 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 1.
7 If after 16 hours the flow rate is below 150gpm, place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
8 As soon as the flow rate is above 150 gpm, two towers may be placed on stream
in parallel. If the flow rate is above 225 gpm, three towers may be placed on
stream.
NOTE: For a detailed Description of the Automatic Valve Sequencing control for the
Butane Treaters, see under "Propane Treater/Dehydrator" section in this
manual.
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th
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ELECTRICAL FAILURE
In case an electrical failure occurs, the regeneration gas cooler fans, Feed pumps, and
Regeneration gas separator liquid pump will stop. All switching valves controller by the
Automatic Sequence controller will remain in the position they were in at the time the failure
occurred. Shut off the steam leaving the regeneration gas heater, otherwise there will be a
continuous loss of 55 bar steam from the system. Block in the feed pumps and their minimum
flow line to prevent emptying the Dehydrator on stream towers and depressuring back to the
Surge tank in case any of the check valves should leak.
INSTRUMENT Air FAILURE
All switching valves controlled by the Automatic Sequence Control will stay in the position they
were in at the time the failure occurred. Shut off the Regeneration Separator Pumps because
the valve on the pump discharge line will close on air failure. All control valves will close and
stop the steam bleed from the heaters, regeneration gas flow to the towers, and butane flow
leaving them. Shut down the feed pumps and block them in as well as the minimum flow by-
passes.
MISCELLANEOUS
Sampling probes have been installed in each tower two feet below the top of the desiccant.
These should be used for periodic testing of the beds capacity.
A continuous total sulphur analyser has been installed on the outlet product (AR-5107) that will
sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the butanes become too high. Since water is more
strongly absorbed by the desiccant than sulphur compounds the sulphur compounds the sulphur
will break through long before the water.
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR 53-E-15/16/19/20/21/22
EXCHANGERS/HEATERS/COOLERS
PRODUCTS SHELL TEMP TUBE TEMP PRESSURE
EQUIP. NO. DESCRIPTION
SHELL TUBE IN OUT IN OUT SHELL TUBE
No. TUBES &
512C
53-E-15
16,19,20,21
& 22
REGEN. GAS
HEATERS
800
STEAM
BUTANES 800
o
C 520
o
C 100
o
C 620
o
C 800 275 48 "/UNIT
20' LONG
REGEN. GAS COOLER
FANS
EQUIP. No. DESCRIPTION
TYPE PRESSURE
COOLING
SOURCE
NO/UNIT-DESCRIPTION
COOLER
IN
TEMP
OUT
53-E-12 REGEN.GAS
COOLER
FINNED TUBE Air
FIN-4 PASS
(DESIGN)
21.6 Bar G
Air 3-2 SPEED. 2' DIA 4 BLADES
EACH ELECTRIC DRIVE-RPM,
960/480
288
o
C 38
o
C
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VESSELS/DRUMS
EQUIP. No. SERVICE DESCRIPTION CAPACITY
DIMENSION
(mm)
MATERIAL
DESIGN
PRESS
DESIGN
TEMP.
53-T-33
34,35,36,37
53-D-38
53-D-32
TREATER
TOWERS
REGEN. GAS
SEPARATOR
FEED SURGE
TANK
VERTICAL
VERTICAL
HORIZONTAL
13.1M
3
9.2M
3
57M
3
1370 x 8840
1220 x 7620
274 x 9145
CARBON
STEEL
CARBON
STEEL
CARBON
STEEL
20.2 Bar G
20.2 Bar G
6.9 Bar G
343
o
C
344
o
C
58
o
C
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BUTANE TREATER/DEHYD. 53-T-33/34/35/36 AND 37
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
SIZE
SERVICE No.
SUCT DISCH
MAKE
and
TYPE
PUMP
SPEED
RPM
SUCTION
PRESSURE
DISCHARGE
PRESSURE
DIFF.
HEAD
MINI
FLOW
MAX
FLOW
DRIVE
FEED PUMPS
53-P-9/10
DEHYDRATO
R COOLING
PUMPS
53-P-11/12
2
2
8"
1
4"
1"
ING. RAND.
(CENT).
HAYWARD
TYLER (CENT).
2980
2900
2.9 Bar G
3 Bar G
17.3 Bar G
5 Bar G
14.4 Bar G
2 Bar G
30M
3
/hr
1.9M
3
/hr
140M
3
/hr
5M
3
/hr
ELECT 180
hp
ELECT 2 hp
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BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR
53-T-33,34,35,36,37
INSTRUMENTATION
INST. TAG
NUMBER
PURPOSE
CONT. VLV
OPERATED
LOCATION
ACTION ON
AIR FAILURE
PIC-51426
LIC-51270
LIC-51263
FIC-51129
TIC-54136
TIC-51331A
TIC-51331B
AR-51017
AE-51036
AE-51038
AE-51040
AE-51042
REGEN.SEP.PRESSURE CONTROL
REGEN.SEP.LEVEL CONTROL
FEED SURGE TANK LEVEL CONTROL
REGEN. GAS TEMP. HEATERS
REGEN.GAS.TEMP. CONTROL
TEMP. OF REGEN GAS TO
DEHYDRATORS
CONTROLS STEAM TO REGEN HEATER
DEHYDRATOR OUTLET LINE SULPHUR
ANALYSER
SULPHUR ANALYSER ELEMENTS
PPV-51426
LPV-51276
FPV-51131
FPV-51129
TPV-51436
TPV-51331A
TPV-51331B
INFORMATION ONLY
REGEN.SEP.OUTLET GAS TO
FUEL
LIQUID OUTLET
BUTANE SPLITTER FEED LINE
REGEN. GAS SUPPLY LINE
REGEN. COOLER LOUVRES
REGEN. GAS COOLERS
REGEN. GAS HEATERS
LOCAL TO EACH DIRER OUTLET
CLOSES
CLOSES
CLOSES
CLOSES
OPENS
CLOSES
CLOSES
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SETTING (mm)
INST No. DESCRIPTION
HIGH LOW
ACTION
hhLA-51269
ILLA-51316
hiLA-51267
llLA-5136
XA-51165A
XA-51165B
XA-51165C
HIG LIQUID LEVEL IN
REGEN.SEP.
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL
UN REGEN.SEP.
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL
IN REGEN.SEP
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL
IN REGEN.SEP
VIBRATION
SWITCHES ON
COOLER FANS
2800
750
600
300
-
-
-
-
ALARMS
SHUTS DOWN
COOLER FAN/FANS
WITH EXCESS
VIBRATION, AND
GIVES ALARM
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
BUTANE TREATER/DEHYDRATOR-
53-T-33/34/35/36/37
ALARMS & SHUTDOWN
NUMBER DESCRIPTION HIGH SET LOW SET ACTION
hLA-51308
lLA-51309
llLNS-51301
hiLA-51265
IFA-51138
hTA-51331
hhLA-51269
llLA-51207
hTA-51436
lTA-51436
hANS-51017
FEED TANK HIGH
LEVEL
FEED TANK LOW
LEVEL
FEED TANK LOW
LEVEL
HIGH H
2
O LEVEL IN
WATER BOOT ON
FEED TANK
LOW FLOW FROM
DEC 3 BOTTOMS TO
The TREATER FEED
TANK
HIGH TEMPERATURE
ALARM-REGEN. GAS
REGEN. SEPARATOR
HIGH LIQUID LEVEL
REGEN. SEPARATOR
HIGH WATER LEVEL
HIGH REGEN.
COOLER INLET
LOW REGEN.
COOLER INLET TEMP.
HIGH SULPHUR
1830 mm
920 mm
7800 mm
600 mm
915 mm
460 mm
ALARM ONLY
ALARM ONLY
SHUTS DOWN CHARGE PUMP
TRIPS FEV-51138 AND OPENS
CHARGE PUMP MINIMUM
FLOW LINE VALVE, FPV-51138
ALARMS AT
o
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
ALARM
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RELIEF VALVES
NUMBER LOCATION SIZE SET PRESS BELIEVE TO:
PSV-51120
PSV-51121
PSV-51122
PSV-51123
PSV-51124
PSV-51125
PSV-51126
PSV-51127
PSV-51128
FEED SURGE TANK
No. 33 DRIER
No. 34 DRIER
No. 35 DRIER
No. 36 DRIER
No. 37 DRIER
REGEN. HEATER
OUTLET
REGEN. HEATER
OUTLET
REGEN.SEP.
4" x 6"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
2" x 3"
3" x 4"
3" x 4"
1" x 2"
6.9 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
20 Bar G
21.7 Bar G
21.7 Bar G
20.2 Bar G
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
WARM RELIEF
ATMOSPHERE
ATMOSPHERE
WARM RELIEF
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
PROPANE TREATERS/ DEHYDRATORS
53-T-26/27/28/29/30
P&ID Ref: 7809-519-D00-004
INTRODUCTION
The propane treaters/dehydrators are designed to remove water and traces of sulpher from the
liquid propane to provide a suitable product for refrigerated storage and sales.
The liquid propane is pumped from a surge tank, through three of five treater/dehydrators, which
will remove the water and sulpher, and is then routed to the refrigerated storage tanks: 7-TK-02
and 7-TK-63. Provision is made to route it direct to the fuel gas system if desired. Specifications
for the product are:
WATER: 1 ppm MAX.
SULPHUR: (H2S) 25 ppm
OTHER SULPHUR COMPOUND: COS 15 ppm COS
If any of the above specifications are not maintained, the product will be unsaleable, and in
addition, high water content could plug the propane chiller before storage.
This section includes the following equipment:
Propane Dehydrator Feed Surge Tank 53-D-25
Propane Dehydrator Feed Pumps 53-P-07/08
Propane Dehydrator Regeneration Separators 53-D-31
Propane Dehydrator Regeneration Coolers 53-E-17/18
(Common Spare for Butane Regen. Cooler) 53-E-18
Propane Dehydrator Regen. Separator Pumps 53-P-29/30
Propane Dehydrator Regen. Heaters 53-E-13/14/23/24/25/26
FLOW DESCRIPTION
The wet liquid propane from the depropanizer reflux drum at 222m
3
/hr, 38
0
C and 12.4 Bar G is
collected in the propane surge drum. The propane is at its "Bubble Point" (just below boiling
point) and if it were introduced directly to the dehydrators, the pressure drop across the beds
could cause flashing, which would damage the desiccant in the beds. The dehydrator feed
pumps will raise the pressure to 20.0 Bar G, which will prevent this.
These pumps also provide enough pressure to get cooling propane (during cooling step) into the
regeneration separator against the pressure of the regeneration gas, even when the vapour
pressure in the surge tanks is low. In order to properly feed these pumps, the surge tank is
provided. When half full, this surge tank has about 25 minutes residence time during normal
flow.
The surge tank is a horizontally mounted vessel 60 x 12, with a water drainage boot near one
end to collect free water. The liquid propane enters the top of the vessel near one end, and the
entry pipe is situated in such a way that the liquid hits the end of the vessel, and runs down the
inside of the concave end, causing a minimum of disturbance in the liquid level. This end
section of the vessel is partioned off with a baffle plate to form a weir. The propane flows over
a weir, and any free water present filters out through small holes at the bottom of the weir, into
the water boot. The water will be drained off manually from this boot. The level in the surge
drum is controlled by LIC-51250 which re-sets a control valve FPV-51114, situated on the
discharge of the dehydrator feed pumps. In the event of a low level, a signal will be transmitted
from FIC-51114, and open a recycle valve, FIC-51112, on the discharge of the feed pumps.
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recycling propane back to the inlet of the surge drum. On a very low level the feed pumps will
stop. The pressure in the surge drum is controlled, at approximately 11.0 Bar G. The
temperature of the propane feed into the surge drum is set by the reflux condensers on the
Depropanisers, 5-E-24/25. These condensers must be operated to give a feed temperature to
the dehydrators of the propane leaves the surge drum through a vortex breaker and flows to the
suction of the propane dehydrator feed pumps 53-P-07/08. One will be in operation and the
other on stand-by.
Propane leaves the feed pumps at 20.0 Bar G and 38C, and design flow is 222 M
3
/hr to the
dehydrator towers. Before entry to the towers, flow indicators are supplied on the inlet lines to
each tower for ensuring even distribution of flow through each tower on line (to be adjusted
manually).
There are five dehydrator/treater towers. Two will operate in parallel, drying the propane, while
the other 3 are in different stages of regeneration.
The dehydrator towers are vertically mounted vessels 27' x 7'6" and filled with 1/16" LINDE 13x
molecular sieves. This bed is supported by a layer of 1/8" alumina balls, and that supported by
a layer of 1/8 " alumina balls. As the propane flows through the desiccant bed, moisture and
traces of H
2
S will be absorbed in the desiccant. Normal flow is from BOTTOM TO TOP, when
on the drying step (in operation). The dry, treated propane leaves the top of the dehydrators,
and flows to the propane storage tanks, 7-TK-01 & 63 via the propane product chiller, 7-E-19
which drops the temperature of the propane product to -35.5C for storage. A continuous total
sulphur analyser AR 51016 has been installed on the common outlet product header, which will
sound an alarm if the sulphur content of the propane becomes high (or if the analyser fails).
Sine water is more strongly absorbed by the desiccant than sulphur compounds, the sulphur will
break through long before the water. Consequently, only sulphur content is monitored to
determine the effectiveness of treating and dehydration.
REGENERATION
The various cycles for the dehydrators are controlled automatically by an automatic sequence
controller which will start and stop pumps, establish and maintain flows, temperatures, and
operate the orbit valves to change over the dehydrators, etc, at the end of each different cycle.
Normal cycles are as follows:
ON STREAM (DRYING) - 24 hours
HEATING - 4 hours
COOLING - 4 hours
STAND-BY - 8 hours
During normal operation the timers will be set for three dehydrators "ON-LINE" in parallel, one
on "REGENERATION" (heating or cooling) and one on "STAND-BY" at any time.
Because of the change in specification of the propane product the treaters are now changed
over manually from the sequence controller sub panel. Instructions for the frequency of changes
will be issued in the daily operating instructions one is off-line for any reason, the timers can be
set for shorter "drying" time or shorter "stand-by" time. High pressure fuel gas is used for
regeneration of this system (heating step only), and also for the butane dehydrators. The fuel
gas supply is not sufficient to enable both systems (propane and butane) to be on regeneration
(heating) simultaneously. Interlocks have been fitted to the auto sequence timers to ensure this
will never happen, therefore, this must be considered when times are being changed for
alternative operation on the propane or butane systems.
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HEATING STEP
There are six regeneration heaters. They will operate in series of three when heating, i.e. 53-E-
13/14/23 will be in service in series and heating, while 53-E-26/25/24 are on stand-by, or vice-
versa..
Fuel gas is taken from the HP main header at 20.3 Bar G and 38C. The heaters will raise the
temperature to 316C with 55.2 Bar G steam. The regeneration gas flow is monitored and
controlled by FIC-51120 at 8,000 NM
3
/hr, and is situated before the heaters.
The regeneration gas temperature is controlled by a split range controller, TIC-51312 "A" and
"B". The "A" valve (3-way) is on the main regeneration gas flow situated at the inlet to the
regeneration gas heaters. This will control the relevant amount of gas flowing through or by-
passing the heater. When the by-pass port is closed (all flow through the heater), the "B" valve,
which controls a flow of 55.2 Bar G steam from the heater to the 5.2 Bar G steam system will
open, allowing more stem to pass through the heater, therefore heating up the gas quicker.
Once the temperature is raised to the set point (316) the "B" valve will close and the "A" valve
will then control the temperature by allowing more or less through the by-pass.
The hot regeneration gas will flow to the TOP of the dehydrator, and join the normal outlet line
and flow DOWN through the bed, picking up the moisture and H
2
S from the desiccant.
The wet regeneration gas exits from the BOTTOM of the dehydrator, and flows to the
regeneration coolers. The temperature of the gas is monitored at the common outlet line from
the dehydrators by TR-51311. This temperature must be maintained above 258C in order to
remove all traces of H
2
S from the desiccant, or the bed capacity for treating will be decreased
for the next drying step.
There are two regeneration gas coolers, 53-E-17 and 18.53-E-17 will be in operation for the
propane system, and 53-E-18 is a common spare for both the propane and butane systems.
Both are designed to run on a continuous basis while in operation. They have motor driven fans,
forcing air through a radiator-type table bundle. Adjustable louvres are fitted on top which can
reduce or increase the amount of air forced between the bundle tubes, allowing control over the
outlet temperature. Design temperature of the outlet is 38C. The adjustable louvres are auto
operated by remote control with TIC-51329 "A" for 53-E-18 and "B" for 53-E-31. The controls
are situated in the NGL Control Room.
High and low temperature indicators are fitted in the outlet bin and will indicate in the NGL
Control Room. Regeneration gas then flows to the regeneration separator.
The regeneration separator, 53-D-31 is a vertically mounted vessel, 25' x 6'7", with a demister
pad fitted near the top section. The gas enters the side and flows up through the pad and exits
from the top. Any liquid will adhere to the pad, and when the droplets become large enough, will
drop to the base of vessel. Level glasses and level indicators are fitted to the vessel, and
high/low levels will alarm in the NGL Control Room. A separate level indicator controller, LIC-
51257, is fitted, which will control the discharge flow from the pumps when the level is within its
range. The level will also actuate "extra high" "extra low" switches to start and stop the separator
pumps 53-P-29/30. Propane liquid will be pumped with these pumps from the separator back
to the inlet line of the dehydrator feed surge tank and join the normal flow again. One pump will
be in operation and one held as stand-by. Any water which may collect in the separator will be
drained off manually. The sour regeneration gas will exit from the top and return to the HP fuel
gas header under pressure control with PIC-51398. Design conditions at this point are 8,000
NM
3
/hr, 38C at 17.9 Bar G.
COOLING STEP
After a bed has been fully heated, the regeneration gas flow is stopped. Liquid propane is taken
from the discharge header of the dehydrator feed pumps (2" line), through FIC-51121, which will
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control the flow of cooling propane at 10M
3
/hr to the BOTTOM of the dehydrator. It will then join
the normal inlet line and flow UP through the bed, cooling the desiccant. Propane vapours and
liquid will exit from the top and will flow via the regeneration beds to the regeneration separator.
All liquid propane is then pumped back to the feed surge tank via the separator pumps.
The cooling liquid propane flow rate is low enough that there is no danger of fluidizing a bed
when the propane vaporises, as it will during the first part of the cooling step. If the flow rate is
too high, fluidizing could occur and would damage the desiccant due to the friction created.
During the cooling step, the temperature of the regeneration separator is also important. If the
temperature rises much above the design of 38C, an excessive amount of water could be re-
cycled back to the feed surge tank. If it is too low, then the water could freeze and plug up the
regeneration cooler. Therefore, the temperature must be checked regularly, particularly during
a cooling step. The TIC-51329 will indicate and alarm in the NGL Control Room. Initial set
points for the alarms are recommended as follows:
HIGH - 41C (105F)
LOW - 10C (50F)
ORIGINAL START UP
regeneration gas coolers, Regeneration gas separators, and on
PURGING OF Air:
Before any equipment can be started, wither from having been down for maintenance purposes,
or for the original start-up, all air must be purged from the piping towers. Following is a
suggested approach to that problem.
ORIGINAL START UP
1. Make a temporary tie-in off the nitrogen system into the Trtr. Feed Surge Tank.
2. Have all trtr tower isolating valves blocked.
3. Admit nitrogen to the surge tank, preferably through the 2" spool piece provided on the
bottom of the vessel.
4. Displace the air in the tank by bleeding the vessel at all bleeder points, such as gauge
glasses, and also the 3" temporary tanker loading line. (Remove clapper in check valve,
but make certain it is replaced afterwards).
5. After tests have been made, and the air content is down to an acceptable level, open up
the suction to the charge pump and displace air out the pump case bleeders. o the
stand by pump likewise.
6. Next, open up the inlet to one tower, and bleed through the bleeder valves provided on
the relief valve setting. Do all towers in this manner until clear.
7. Now start concentrating on the regeneration gas lines by opening the regeneration gas
inlet to the tower inlet lines one at a time, and bleeding off at the regeneration gas inlet
to the tower inlet lines one at a time, and bleeding off at the regeneration gas heaters.
Clear on through the heaters one at a time by clearing through the bleeders on the
regeneration gas temperature control valve.
8. After this line is clear, repeat the same exercise on the regeneration gas line from the top
of the towers.
9. Block in the bleeders on the temperature control valve, and begin clearing the lines to
the through the pumps.
As stated above, this is just a suggested procedure, and other routes of nitrogen purge can be
figured out. The main idea, however, is to make sure all piping and vessels have been purged.
In some cases only parts of the treater may have been subjected to maintenance, such as a bed
change, which would require only the tower to be purged before start up. Specific instructions
will be issued in any case.
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th
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ORIGINAL START UP
The following procedure assumes that the unit has been pressure tested with the necessary
corrections made, purged of air and all rotating equipment and instruments checked out. All
towers are blocked in.
1. Fill towers 1 through 4 and the product line to storage with liquid propane. (Towers 26,
27, 28 and 29). This can be done by opening the outlet and inlet valves on one bed at
a time and checking at the one inch bleeder on the outlet of each tower for liquid. The
propane product back pressure control valve located at the storage area should be set
at 17.5 Bar G (225 psig) to insure that cooling propane can be delivered to the
regeneration separator, 53-D-31.
2. After filling the vessels, close the inlet manually operated block valve on towers, 2, 3 and
4.
3. Set the automatic valve sequencing controller to the start of the on stream step for Tower
1. Start propane through Tower 1 at a flow rate of 29.4M
3
/hr. (At least). The flow
through the individual towers must never be less than this rate.
4. Open the block valves on Tower 5 and start regeneration of Tower 5. Make sure the
automatic valve sequencer is on "Automatic".
5. Open outlet block valve on Tower 4 to place it on stand-by.
6. If after 8 hours the flow rate is below 58.8M
3
/hr., place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
7. If after 16 hours the flow rate is below 58.8M
3
/hr. place Tower 3 on stream and close the
inlet block valve on Tower 2.
8. As soon as the flow rate is above 58.8M
3
/hr. two towers may be placed on stream in
parallel. If the flow rate is above 88.2M
3
/hr. the three towers may be placed on stream.
For further details pertaining to the operation of the "Automatic Valve Sequencer", see write-up
at the end of this section.
VALVE SEQUENCE CONTROLLER
PROPANE & BUTANE TREATERS
INTRODUCTION
The propane and butane treaters treat the top and bottom products of the depropaniser
respectively to remove any hydrogen sulphide and moisture from the streams.
Each treater comprises five vessels, 53-T-26/27/28/29 and 30 for the butane treater and 53-T-
33/34/35/36 and 37 and for the butane treater. The vessels are referred to as bed 1 bed 2 bed
3 bed 4 and bed 5 for each treater in these instructions. (Refer to logic diagrams 5212 and
5214 drawing number 7809.55J81-252 and 254).
The sequence controller (UC51024) is designed to switch the beds of each treater automatically
through their draining and regeneration sequences. It is designed so that only one of the ten
beds can be regenerated at any one time. At any one time a bed can be:-
a) Drying with product inlet and outlet valves open and regeneration valves closed.
b) Hot regenerating with product inlet and outlet valves closed, regeneration valves open
and hot gas passing through the heater down through the beds.
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c) Cooling with the product inlet and outlet valves closed, regeneration valves open with
cooling liquid from the surge tank being passed through up the beds. The regeneration
gas is shut off during cooling.
d) Idling with the product outlet valve open and the product inlet valve and regeneration
valves closed.
The bed may also be taken out of service with all the product and regeneration valves closed.
The process requires that at any one time three beds on each treater are drying. The remaining
beds will be idling or regenerating. Only one bed may be regenerated at a time.
The regeneration of a bed will immediately follow its drying period. The operating sequence is
drying, hot regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, hot regeneration, cooling, idling, drying, hot
regeneration, etc. (See logic diagrams 4213 and 5215 drawing numbers 7809-552J81-253 and
255). Regeneration is achieved by passing heated regeneration time is fixed at 8 hours. (4
hours hot regeneration and 4 hours cooling). The idling time is dependant on the drying time
and is adjusted automatically.
Provision is made for the removal of any bed from service operation on the other beds. In this
situation the remaining beds will continue with drying and regeneration periods unchanged but
the idling time will be reduced automatically. The cabinet housing the sequence controller is
located behind the control room panel (See Fig. Nos. 5-10 to 5-12). Two operator control units,
one for each treater are mounted remotely in the control panel. (See Fig. Nos. 5-13 and 5-14).
In the automatic mode the controller maintains the correct sequence of operation by opening and
closing the product, regeneration and routing valves. The unit monitors the position of all valves
to ensure that each step of the sequence is done correctly. The status of each valve is displayed
continuously on the graphic panel.
Any discrepancy between the actual valve position and that required for correct operation will
suspend the sequence and initiate an alarm. The state of each bed e.g. drying cooling etc. is
also indicated on the graphic panel. The sequence of operation under normal conditions is
given later in this instruction.
The operator control units permit the operator to change the operation from automatic to manual,
open and close any valve and to remove a train from service as follows:-
a) Any valve can be opened or closed by selecting the valve number on the thumbwheel
switch and pressing the open or close button, as appropriate. The valve position will
be indicated on the graphic panel.
b) The temperature control valves on the regeneration gas heater can be closed or
controlled by the output of the temperature controller by pressing the appropriate button.
On start up it is necessary to preset the control valves on both treaters into one of five
operational patterns whilst the unit is in manual control prior to switching to automatic. These
operational patterns are shown on Fig. 5.1.
If it is required to remove a bed from service the right hand selector switch must indicate that bed
and the out button are pressed. The effects of removing a bed from service are shown in Figs.
5.3 to 5.7 inclusive, at various times within the sequence. When removed from service all valves
associated with the out of service train will be closed. They can be operated locally without
affecting the auto-sequence. A bed can be returned to service by pressing the in button at any
time. The beds will automatically re-enter the sequence but only at their correctly appointed
time. (See Fig. 5.8). This is because the position of each bed within the sequence relative to
the other beds is always the same.
If a valve is operated locally whilst the sequence controller is in the Auto position the sequence
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will automatically suspend and an alarm will be initiated.
The sequence control unit is fed from three power sources:
a) 24v DC from the battery system
b) 110v DC from the battery system
c) 110v AC from the static inverter.
In the event of a failure of either or both of the DC supplies, the sequence controller will cease
to function. As all the valves fail closed on power failure which for process considerations is not
practicable a separate solenoid valve has been fitted on to the air header supplying the valves
of each treater which in the event of poor failure will vent the air out of the header. This will
ensure that all valves remain in the position they enhoued prior to the poor supply failure. In the
event of failure of the 100 volts AC supply, which is only used to drive the timing mechanism,
then the sequence will stop and hold the valves in the position they were at prior to the failure.
On return to normal operation following failure of the DC power supplies it is necessary to follow
the start up procedure. However, return of the AC supply will automatically restart the sequence.
All the control valves except the temperature control valves are tight shut-off valves (orbit)
powered by a double acting pneumatic diaphragm actuator. They are each fitted with a 4-port
solenoid valve, open and closed limit switches, restrictor, lock-up valve, lever operator pneumatic
valve and handwheel. Before placing the system in automatic operation it is necessary to
ensure that all handwheels are in neutral and that the lever operated valve s are in the normal
position.
The temperature control system on the regeneration gas heater has two control valves. Only
the steam valve is operated by the sequence controller via a solenoid valve. A 3-way control
valve is controlled by the output of the gas temperature controller during hot regeneration and
will open when the gas temperature required cannot be achieved by the usual steam supply.
The operation of the sequence controller is described in detail in this section. Reference should
also be made to the associated circuit diagrams at the back of the section.
PROPANE TREATER
NORMAL OPERATING SEQUENCE
1. Time 0 Hrs. (&40 Hrs) Open XPV.51111 Liquid Inlet 53-T-26
2. Time 0 Hrs. (&40 Hrs) Close XPV.51131 Cooling Liquid
3. Step 1 Complete and Close XPV 51119 Liquid Inlet 53-T-28
Step 45 Complete Close XPV 51122 Liquid Outlet 53-T-28
4. Step 2 Complete Close XPV 51116 Regen. Outlet 53-T-27
Close XPV 51117 Regen. Inlet 53-T-27
5. Step 4 Complete Open XPV 51118 Liquid Outlet 53-T-27
6. Step 4 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
7. Step 6 Complete Open XPV 51120 Regen. Outlet 52-T-28
Step 3 Complete Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heater
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
8. Time 4 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
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9. Step 8 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
10. Step 9 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
11. Time 8 Hrs Open XPV 51115 Liquid Inlet 53-T-27
12. Time 8 Hrs. Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
13. Step 11 Complete and Close XPV 51123 Liquid Inlet 53-T-29
Step 5 Complete Close XPV 51126 Liquid Outlet 53-T-29
14. Step 12 Complete Close XPV 51120 Regen. Outlet 53-T-28
Close XPV 51121 Regen. Inlet 53-T-28
15. Step 14 Complete Open XPV 51122 Liquid Outlet 53-T-28
16. Step 14 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
17. Step 16 Complete and Open XPV 51124 Regen. Outlet 53-T-29
Step 13 Complete Open XPV 51125 Regen. Inlet 53-T-29
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to
Controller Steam from Heaters
18. Time 12 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
19. Step 18 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
20. Step 19 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
21. Time 16 Hrs. Open XPV 51119 Liquid Inlet. 53-T-28
22. Time 16 Hrs. Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
23. Step 21 Complete and Close XPV 51127 Liquid Inlet 53-T-30
Step 15 Complete Close XPV 51130 Liquid Outlet 53-T-30
24. Step 22 Complete Close XPV 51124 Regen. Outlet 53-T-29
Close XPV 51125 Regen. Inlet 53-T-29
25. Step 24 Complete Open XPV 51126 Liquid Outlet 53-T-29
26. Step 24 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
27. Step 26 Complete and Open XPV 51128 Regen. Outlet 53-T-30
Step 23 Complete Open XPV 51135 Regen. Inlet 53-T-30
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
28. Time 20 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
29. Step 28 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
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Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
30. Step 29 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
31. Time 24 Hrs. Open XPV 51123 Liquid Inlet 53-T-29
32. Time 24 Hrs
33. Step 31 Complete and Close XPV 51111 Liquid Inlet 53-T-26
Step 25 Complete Close XPV 51114 Liquid Outlet 53-T-26
34. Step 32 Complete Close XPV 51128 Regen. Outlet 53-T-30
Close XPV 51129 Regen. Inlet 53-T-30
35. Step 34 Complete Open XPV 51130 Liquid Outlet 53-T-30
36. Step 34 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
37. Step 36 Complete and Open XPV 51112 Regen. Outlet 53-T-26
Step 33 Complete Open XPV 51113 Regen. Inlet 53-T-26
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
38. Time 28 Hours Close XPV 51135 Regen. gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
39. Step 38 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
40. Step 39 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
41. Time 32 Hrs. Open XPV 51127 Liquid Inlet 53-T-30
42. Time 32 Hrs Close XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
43. Step 41 Complete and Close XPV 51115 Liquid Inlet 53-T-27
Step 35 Complete Close XPV 51118 Liquid Outlet 53-T-27
44. Step 42 Complete Close XPV 51112 Regen. Outlet 53-T-26
Close XPV 51113 Regen. Inlet 53-T-26
45. Step 44 Complete Open XPV 51114 Liquid Outlet 53-T-26
46. Step 44 Complete Open XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
47. Step 46 Complete and Open XPV 51116 Regen. Outlet 53-T-27
Step 43 Complete Open XPV 51117 Regen. Inlet 53-T-27
Open XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51312B to Controller Steam from Heaters
48. Time 36 Hrs. Close XPV 51135 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51312B Steam from Heaters
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49. Step 48 Complete Close XPV 51132 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51133 Liquid Routing Valve
50. Step 49 Complete Open XPV 51131 Cooling Liquid
51. Time 40 Hrs.
(&0 Hrs.) CYCLE REPEATS FROM STEP 1.
BUTANE TREATER
NORMAL OPERATING SEQUENCE
1. Time 0 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
(& 0 Hrs.) Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
2. Step 1 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
3. Step 2 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
4. Time 4 Hrs. Open XPV 51137 Liquid Inlet 53-T-33
5. Time 4 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
6. Step 4 Complete Close XPV 51145 Liquid Inlet 53-T-35
& Step 48 Complete Close XPV 51148 Liquid Outlet 53-T-35
7. Step 5 Complete Close XPV 51142 Regen. Outlet 53-T-34
Close XPV 51143 Regen. Inlet 53-T-34
8. Step 7 Complete Open XPV 51144 Liquid Outlet 53-T-34
9. Step 7 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
10. Step 9 Complete Open XPV 51146 Regen. Outlet 53-T-35
& Step 6 Complete Open XPV 51162 Regen. Inlet 53-T-35
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
11. Time 8 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
12. Step 11 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
13. Step 12 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
14. Time 12 Hrs. Open XPV 51141 Liquid Inlet 53-T-34
15. Time 12 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
16. Step 14 Complete Close XPV 51149 Liquid Inlet 53-T-36
& Step 8 Complete Close XPV 51152 Liquid Outlet 53-T-36
17. Step 15 Complete Close XPV 51146 Regen. Outlet 53-T-35
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Close XPV 51147 Regen. Inlet 53-T-35
18. Step 17 Complete Open XPV 51148 Liquid Outlet 53-T-35
19. Step 17 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
20. Step 19 COMPLETE Open XPV 51150 Regen. Outlet 53-T-36
& Step 16 Complete Open XPV 51151 Regen. Inlet 53-T-36
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
21. Time 16 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Heaters
22. Step 21 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
23. Step 22 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
24. Time 20 Hrs. Open XPV 51145 Liquid Inlet 53-T-35
25. Time 20 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
26. Step 24 Complete Close XPV 51153 Liquid Inlet 53-T-37
& Step 18 Complete Close XPV 51156 Liquid Outlet 53-T-37
27. Step 25 Complete Close XPV 51150 Regen. Outlet 53-T-36
Close XPV 51151 Regen. Inlet 53-T-36
28. Step 27 Complete Open XPV 51152 Liquid Outlet 53-T-36
29. Step 27 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing valve
30. Step 29 Complete Open XPV 51154 Regen. Outlet 53-T-37
& Step 26 Complete Open XPV 51155 Regen. Inlet 53-T-37
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
31. Time 24 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51331B Steam from Haters
32. Step 31 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
33. Step 32 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
34. Time 28 Hrs. Open XPV 51149 Liquid Inlet 53-T-36
35. Time 28 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
36. Step 34 Complete Close XPV 51137 Liquid Inlet 53-T-33
& Step 28 Complete Close XPV 51140 Liquid Outlet 53-T-33
37. Step 35 Complete Close XPV 51154 Regen. Outlet 53-T-37
Close XPV 51155 Regen. Inlet 53-T-37
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38. Step 37 Complete Open XPV 51156 Liquid Outlet 53-T-37
39. Step 37 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
40. Step 39 Complete Open XPV 51138 Regen. Outlet 53-T-33
& Step 36 Complete Open XPV 51139 Regen. Inlet 53-T-33
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
41. Time 32 Hrs. Close XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
Close TPV 51131B Steam from Heaters
42. Step 41 Complete Close XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Open XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
43. Step 42 Complete Open XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
44. Time 36 Hrs. Open XPV 51153 Liquid Inlet 53-T-37
45. Time 36 Hrs. Close XPV 51160 Cooling Liquid
46. Step 44 Complete Close XPV 51141 Liquid Inlet 53-T-34
& Step 38 Complete Close XPV 51144 Liquid Outlet 53-T-34
47. Step 45 Complete Close XPV 51138 Regen. Outlet 53-T-33
Close XPV 51139 Regen. Inlet 53-T-33
48. Step 47 Complete Open XPV 51140 Liquid Outlet 53-T-33
49. Step 47 Complete Open XPV 51158 Gas Routing Valve
Close XPV 51159 Liquid Routing Valve
50. Step 49 Complete Open XPV 51142 Regen. Outlet 53-T-34
& Step 46 Complete Open XPV 51143 Regen. Inlet 53-T-34
Open XPV 51162 Regen. Gas to Heaters
TPV 51331B to Controller Steam from Heaters
51. TIME 40 Hrs.
(& 0 Hrs.) CYCLE REPEATS FROM STEP 1
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5. SEQUENCE CONTROLLER FOR PROPANE AND BUTANE TREATERS-CABINET UC
51024
5.1 General Description
The sequence controller consists of solid state circuit modules mounted on standard
cards in racks together with relays and other electromechanical devices, mounted within
a two-bay steel enclosure UC 51024, and two separate control sub-panels.
The racks are mounted on swing frames which allows access to the rear of the card
sockets and to the rear of the cabinet.
Connection to plant equipment is via screw-clamp terminals situated within the rear of
the enclosure, entry to which is by top and bottom entry gland plates.
The logic circuits are connected to the screw-clamp terminals through plugs and sockets
adjacent to the terminals. This enables the logic to be disconnected from the plant
switches and solenoids, and connected to the simulator (see Part IV) for testing and
fault-finding.
The propane and butane circuits may be electrically isolated by means of push-buttons
on the swing frame.
The logic circuits have been broken down into blocks to facilitate description, and the
propane circuits operate independently of the butane circuits with the exception of the
timing logic which is common. The sequences for the two treaters are the same, but the
butane sequence lags the propane sequence by four hours.
This means that only one bed is either on cold regeneration or hot regeneration at any
time.
5.2 Operational Description - Cabinet UC51024
5.2.1 Start Up and Normal Operation
Before applying the supply to the circuits of wither treater the AUTO/MANUAL
switches on the sub-panels should be set to MANUAL.
The START push-button for propane may bow be operated, but at this point in
time all plant solenoids will remain de-energised. It is now possible to operate the
propane plant manually from the propane sub-panel.
Similarly the START push-button for butane may also be operated, to allow the
butane plant to be controlled manually from the butane sub-panel.
Valves, TPV 51312B (propane) and TPV 51331B (butane) may be opened or
closed by operating the appropriate push-buttons on the sub-panels.
Valves XPV 51111 to XPV 51133 and XPV 51135 may be operated by selecting
the last two digits of the valve number on the propane sub-panel thumbwheel
switches and then operating the OPEN or CLOSE push-button to the left of the
thumbwheel switches. The valve selected will remain in the state chosen even
though other valves may be selected.
Similarly, valves XPV 51137 to XPV 51156, XPV 51158 to XPV 51160 and XPV
51162 may be operated from the butane sub-panel.
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If it is required to operate the plant in AUTO, it is first necessary to set all propane
valves manually to one of five start points. These five points are shown in Fig.
5.1.
The rotary switch on the propane sub-panel headed BED TO START ON
REGENERATION AT START OF AUTO SEQUENCE should be set to the
corresponding position. The propane AUTO push-button may now be operated
and the propane plant will continue to operate automatically according to the
sequence shown in Fig, 5.1, and the manual controls will be rendered ineffective.
A similar procedure should be carried out for butane using the butane sub-panel
controls. However, since the butane sequence lags the propane sequence by
four hours of the propane sequence. As the time lag is set automatically the
butane AUTO push-button may be operated at any time within the first four hours
of the propane sequence.
Fig 5.1 shows a sequence where propane entered service at start point 4 and
butane at start point 2. Any start point between 1 and 5 in each case is
permissible.
In Fig. 5.1 the beds are shown as drying, idling or regenerating.
During drying, the LIQUID INLET and LIQUID OUTLET valves only are open.
During idling the LIQUID OUTLET valve only is open.
During regeneration the REGEN OUTLET and REGEN INLET valves only are
open.
For the first four hours of regenerating the steam valve is open.
The valves are designated as follows (X)V preceeds all valve numbers).
PROPANE
DUTY COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN
53-T-26 53-T-27 53-T-28 53-T-29 53-T-30
Liquid Inlet 51111 51115 51119 51123 51127
Regen Outlet 51112 51116 51120 51124 51128
Regen Inlet 51113 51117 51121 51125 51129
Liquid Outlet 51114 51118 51122 51126 51130
Cooling Liquid - XPV 51131
Gas Routing Valve - XPV 51132
Liquid Routing Valve - XPV 51135
Regen Gas - XPV51312B
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DUTY COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN
53-T-33 53-T-34 53-T-35 53-T-36 53-T-37
Liquid Inlet 51137 51141 51145 51149 51153
Regen Outlet 51138 51142 51146 51150 51154
Regen Inlet 51139 51143 51147 51151 51155
Liquid Outlet 51140 51144 51148 51152 51156
Cooling Liquid - XPV 51160
Gas Routing Valve - XPV 51158
Liquid Routing Valve - XPV 51159
Regen Gas - XPV 51162
Steam - TPV 51131B
The GAS ROUTING valve and REGEN. GAS valve are open for the first four
hours of regeneration, and the COOLING LIQUID valve and LIQUID ROUTING
valve are open for the remainder of the regeneration period.
Referring to Fig. 5.1, it may be noted that a sequence can be broken down into
equal sections - in this case of 8 hours each.
This the during period occupies 3 sections and regeneration and idle one section
each.
During commissioning or other shut-down times the length of the sections may
be set between 8 hours and 16 hours in 20 minute increments by setting the total
drying time, which is effected bu operation of two thumbwheel switches within the
main enclosure (See Technical Description).
The thumbwheel should only be varied between 24 (which gives 24 hours drying
time and 8 hour sections) and 48 (which gives 48 hours drying time and 16 hour
sections).
Fig 5.2 shows a sequence with 12 hours sections - that is 36 hours drying time.
It will be noted that drying still occupies 3 sections but regeneration time remains
constant at 8 hours as in Fig. 5.1. The remainder of the section following drying
is then taken up as idling. In this case the propane and butane sequences have
both entered AUTO operation at start point 1.
5.2.2 Taking a Bed out of Service
Once ion service the propane and butane sequences operate independently
although the length of each section of operation is not independent. This the
following applies equally to the propane or butane sequences.
During normal AUTO operation on bed only may be out of service at any one
time. Interlocking ensures that another bed may not be taken out when the bed
out push-button has been operated.
To take a bed out of service the sub-panel rotary switch designated BED TO BE
TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE is set at the appropriate position. The push-button
to the right of the rotary switch is then operated.
The sequence immediately following the action of taking a bed out will depend
on the point at which the bed is taken out. Figs. 5-3 to 5-7 show the resulting
sequences when Bed 3 is taken out during each of its section of operation. For the
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purposes of discussion the section immediately following drying will be referred
to as regeneration even though the first 8 hours only are taken up the
regeneration.
The drying time is 30 hours in Figs. 5-3 to 5-7.
5.2.3 Returning a Bed to Service
This may be accomplished by setting the rotary switch of para. 5.2.2 to the
appropriate position and operating the push-button.
The push-button may be operated at any time, however the bed will not be
returned to service until the point is reached in the sequence at which it would be
entering its regeneration stage. This is shown more clearly in Fig. 5-8.
Instrument Air Failure: All switching valves controlled by the automatic valve
sequencer control will stay in the position they were in at the time of the failure,
but the Regeneration Separator Pump must be shut down because its outer
control will shut off. Shut down the Feed Pumps, 519-670-07 or 08 to stop the
minimum flow back to the feed tank. All control valves will close, thereby
stopping the propane, and regeneration flow to and from the Trtr. The bleed
steam from the heaters will also close.
Electrical Failure: All motors will stop. This will get the Regeneration Gas Cooler
Fans, Feed Pumps and Separator Pumps.
All switching valves controlled by the automatic valve sequencer control will
remain in the position they were in at the time the failure occurred.
Block in the steam leaving the Regeneration Gas Heater, otherwise there will be
a continuous loss of 55 bar g steam into the 17.2 bar g steam system.
Sulpher Analyser: A continuous total sulphur analyser has been installed (AR-
51016) on the treater outlet which will sound an alarm, (AR-51016), if the sulphur
content of the propane gets too high. This alarm will sound long before any water
gets through.
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NGL TREATING & DEHYDRATION
PROPANE DEHYDRATOR/TREATERS
PUMPS/COMPRESSORS
EQUIP. NO. DESCRIPTION TYPE DRIVE CAPACITY DISCH.PRESS.SUB-STATION
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DEOILER FRACTIONATOR
5-T-08
HISTORY
Under the original design concepts this column was to be used as an iso-butane de-propanizer,
but shortly after the initial plant start up it became apparent that the column duty changed. It is
however worth pointing out it would be a fairly easy job to return the column duty back to its
original state if it were so desired.
The following write up is therefore for the column as we now operated i.e. a deoiler.
1. Purpose and Services:
The purpose of the deoiler is to remove the heavier C
5
(pentane) fraction from the normal
butane product ex the C
4
splitter column bottoms.
The system includes the fractionating tower, overhead condensing system (air cooled
condensing coils), accumulator and pumps.
a. Feed - the normal feed to the deoiler is the pentane drag stream from the bottom
of the butane splitter containing iso and normal pentane and normal butane. The
feed enters the column at a temperature of
60-65C at on of two inlet points either tray 28 or tray 34.
b. Overhead Product - the overhead product is normal butane which is to be added
to the main normal butane product from tray 5 (sidedraw) of the Butane Splitter,
and the combined streams are then sent to storage.
c. Bottom Product - the bottom product is the iso and normal pentane fraction which
ties in to the combined stabilised crude rubdown and then to Greatham storage.
2. Process Equipment and Flow Arrangement
a. The feed is pressured from the base of the butane splitter via a 4" line through
a fin fan cooler 5-E-18 (NB this cooler now has the fans shut-down as it was
originally a rundown cooler when the column was run as an iso-butane
depropaniser. The feed flow is controlled by FIC 51141 and from here it passes
to the column and enters via feed points on the 28th or 34th trays.
The reboiler is heated with a steam supply at 3.4 bar g (50 psig) and 148C
(298F). The steam pressure reduces to about 2.1 bar g (30 psig) across the
steam control valve PPV-51139 on its way to the heating element.
Control System
a. Feed to the column is on flow control, FPV-51141
Steam to the reboiler is on flow control, FPV-51199 reset by Distillation Column Control,
or tray temperature control TIC 51368 from either the 5th or 45th tray level. Condensate
is on condensate accumulator liquid level control resetting control valve PLV-51290 in
the discharge of the condensate pump. Minimum flow protection is provided for the
pumps.
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
334 of 335
The Bottom Product rate is on flow control FPV-51136. Bottom product temperature has
no control other than fan adjustments on the Bottoms cooler, 5-E-44.
Column Pressure is on back pressure control PPV-51479 reset by PIC 51479 which
receives its signal from pressure transmitter PNT-51479 located in the overhead vapour
line ahead of the back pressure control valve. The column is controlled by top pressure.
Reflux Temperature is not directly controlled, but indirectly by louvre adjustments on
hand control HIC-51044, and by utilising the two speed fans provided.
Accumulator Pressure is controlled by adjusting PIC-51482, which controls the three way
valve PPV-51482 located in the overhead vapour line ahead of the air fin condenser.
This allows a controlled amount of hot vapours to by-pass the overhead condensers,
505-410-19 and go straight to the accumulator. A pressure point on the accumulator
transmits the accumulator pressure to the PIC-51482.
External Refuls is controlled by FPV 51140.
Accumulator Level is controlled by drum level LIC 51297 resetting. FPV 51142A normal
butane product.
In the event that the column has to be taken off stream, the feed, overhead product and
bottom product may be switched to the relief system by full-opening ball valves. These
are:
Feed - HPV 51043 to warm relief
OHP - HPV 51071 to cold relief
Bott. Prod. - HPV 51040 to warm relief (suction of drag pump 5-P-26)
7. ALARMS AND SAFETY FEATURES
The column over-pressure devices are designed to have four stages of protection with
increasing pressure: (1) ALARM, (2) steam shut-off, (3) Vent to the enclosed relief
system, and (4) last resort, vent to the atmosphere from the top of the column. The
accumulator also has a safety valve that will relieve to the relief system. A list of alarms
and safety valves follow:
1. High Press. alarm hhPa-51477
2. Steam shut-off hhPNS-51477
3. Col. vent to warm relief system PSV-51090 set at 17.4 bar g
4. Accum. vent to warm relief system PSV 51093 set at 18 bar g
5. Col. vent to atmosphere PSV 51091 set at 21.4 bar g
Approved By:
John Stead
Date:
9
th
November 2000
Revision:
0
Page:
335 of 335
INSTRUMENTS
DEOILER 5-T-08
INST. NO. DESCRIPTION SIGNAL ACTION AIR FAILURE RESETS
LIC-51293
FIC-51141
FPV-51141
FIC-51139
FPV-51139
PIC-51479
PPV-51479
PIC-51482
PPV-51482
HIC-51044
HPV-51044