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Macro-environment vs.


 Macro-environmental factors are those that are common to a given location at a given time. Examples are the amount of rainfall and average temperature during a growing season and the amount of fertilizer applied to a field.

Macro-environment vs. Micro-environment

 Micro-environmental factors are those that are unique to a single plant or to a small group of plants. An important example of a micro-environmental factor is plant-to-plant spacing in a row.

Aerial and soil environment Aerial Factors 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Irradiance Temperature Atmospheric Gases Air Pollutants Mechanical Disturbances .

Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area) SI unit is watts per square meter (W/m2 .1).

Temperature The rate of many growth and development processes of crop plants is controlled by air or soil temperature In increase in mean seasonal temperature of 2–4°C reduces the yield of annual crops of determinate growth habit.2). such as wheat (decline in yield is due to shorter crop durations ) .

3). Atmospheric gases Neon Helium Krypton Hydrogen .

Air pollutants Sulfur oxides (SOx) Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Volatile organic compounds (methane and non-methane) Particulate matter Persistent free radicals Chlorofluorocarbon Ammonia (NH3) Radioactive pollutants .4).

5). Mechanical disturbance a). Physical mechanical disturbances  Gravitropsim  Thigmomorphogenesis (response of the plant to contact stresses with solid surfaces .such as from rubbing or touching the plant )  Seismomorphogensis (response of the plant to vibration (often imposed by shaking )       Wind Hurricanes Hail Glazing and snow damage Fire and lightning Sound and ultrasound .

5). Biological mechanical disturbances     Insects Diseases Nematodes Animals . Mechanical disturbance b).

soil environment Soil (rhizopshere) Factors 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Soil Water Nutrients Soil Organisms Allelochemicals .

1). soil       Soil types (sand. silt. clay) Soil fertility Organic matter Soil pH Soil horizons Soil-forming factors .

and 90% of the agricultural output comes from irrigated land. About 80% of the cropped area is irrigated. • . agriculture is the major consumer of water and utilizing more than 95% of country’s water resources.2). Water • In Pakistan.

The Indus Basin irrigation System (IBIS) of Pakistan IBIS is the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world .

. • Irrigated agriculture in Pakistan is not efficient and overall system efficiency is about 45 %.The Indus Basin irrigation System (IBIS) of Pakistan • The average annual flow of Indus River System is approximately 172 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) of which presently 119.5 BCM is being diverted for irrigation and the remaining balance outflows into the sea.

The Indus Basin irrigation System (IBIS) of Pakistan • By opting best agriculture practices. the agriculture water demand may decrease from 205 BCM in the base year 2008 to 192 BCM by the year 2030 • Under climate change scenario. . the projected water demand is 226 BCM in the year 2010 and 230 BCM by the year 2030 • Total water availability at the farm gate was 181 BCM in the year 2008 with surface water resources of 119 BCM and groundwater about 62 BCM.

Water          Classification of plants based on water use Water acquisition via roots Water movement through plants Transpiration soil moisture Efficient water use by plants Drought stress Flooding and anaerobiosis Acid deposition .2).

. •Element is involved directly in plant metabolism. •Function of the element is not replaceable. Nutrients •Plant is unable to complete its life cycle in the absence of the mineral element.3).

Nutrients Crop nutrient requirement .3).

Nutrients Critical nutrient concentrations .3).

3). Nutrients • Effect of soil pH on the availability of nutrients .

Macroorganisms • Earthworms • Roots of higher plants . Microorganisms • Nematodes • Protozoa • Algae • Fungi • Actinomycetes • Bacteria B. Soil Organisms A.4).

Allelopathy is the production of substrates or compounds by one organism that is injurious to another organism or their progeny. Allelochemicals • Allelochemicals are the organic compounds involved in allelopathy. • .5).