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STUDY OF NEW TOWN – CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA.

INTRODUCTION
Australia is the world's smallest continent and the world’s largest island.  Canberra city was designed to be the Federal Capital of Australia.  The word "Canberra" is derived from the word Kambera or Canberry and mean "meeting place" in the old Ngunnawal language.  It is located near the Brindabella Ranges, approximately 150 kilometres inland from Australia's east coast.

INTRODUCTION
ESTABLISHED POPULATION DENSITY COORDINATES AREA LOCATION 12 March 1913 3,58,222 as on 31 March 2011 428.6/km² 35° 18′ 29″ S and 149° 07′ 28″ E 814.2 km² 286 km SW of Sydney(New South Wales) 669 km NE of Melbourne(Victoria) 1159 km E of Adelaide(South Australia) 1203 km SSW of Brisbane(Queensland) 3726 km ESE of Perth(West Australia) 19.7° C or 67° F

MEAN Max TEMPERATURE

MEAN Min TEMPERATURE
ANNUAL RAINFALL

6.5° C or 44° F
616.4 mm

HISTORY
European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. Before European settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians.  Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places, camps and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements. The evidence suggests human habitation in the area for at least 21,000 years.

mainly from disease such as smallpox and measles. in the suburb of Reid. St John's churchyard contains the earliest graves in the district.  As the European presence increased. the indigenous population dwindled.HISTORY The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow slowly throughout the 19th century. which was consecrated in 1845.  .  The oldest surviving public building in the inner-city is the Anglican Church of St John the Baptist.

so long as it was at least 160 km from Sydney.  As a result of survey work done by the government during 1908-1909. an International Competition (conducted by the Department of Home Affairs) for the design of its new city was launched.  . Canberra District was selected as a site for a new City of Australia due to its prominent location and commanding position with extensive views.SELECTION OF NEW CAPITAL There was a long dispute over whether Sydney or Melbourne should be the national capital.  In 1911. later a compromise was reached: the new capital would be built in New South Wales.

However.  Griffin’s design approach was greatly influenced by topographical and landscape considerations.Walter Burley Griffin. it was also criticized as extravagant. a Chicago landscape architect was the first prize-winner of the International Competition for the design of this city.  . which left for further development of the Capital City today.

TOPOGRAPHY OF CANBERRA CITY DISTRICT .

 ―English Garden City‖ by Ebenezer Howard which used parks to screen residential areas by major highways and used street patterns to change directions so as to discourage through traffic from using residential roads as shortcuts. main buildings around formal water basins.ORIGINAL PLANNING CONCEPT Griffin’s design of Canberra was influenced by two popular movements.  ―City Beautiful‖—an idea used in Chicago City Plan by Daniel Burnham involving planning and landscaping.  .

ORIGINAL PLANNING CONCEPT In comparison with the Central Washington Plan designed by McMillan in 1901.  . it is evident that government buildings were located around an artificial lake— named Lake Burley Griffin—and reflecting the identity of Canberra as a National Capital and residential buildings adjacent to North Bourne Avenue and Federal Highway were built and separated by residential streets.  With this regard. Griffin’s Geometrical Concept is much the same.

1912.CANBERRA. . BASED ON GRIFFIN’S PLAN.

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GRIFFIN’S ILLUSTRATION OF HIS CITY PLAN .

LAND AND WATER AXES Walter Burley Griffin defined two bisecting axes land and water .  The land axis begins at Mount Ainslie. continues across the water axis defined by Lake Burley Griffin.that determine the central part of the design of Canberra. and terminates some distance outside the city at Bimberi Peak in the Brindabella Range (not visible from Canberra).  . through Parliament House. the mountain with the domed building (the Australian War Memorial) at the base. the large building in the foreground with the tripod flagpole.

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 .  In mid-1913.THE JOURNEY BEGAN On 12 March 1913 the foundation stone was laid on the Capital Hill and the City was formally named Canberra.  The new Ministry appointed Griffin as a Federal Director of Design and Construction. changes of government and lack of money slowed progress of the city but several major works were undertaken.  World War I. due to a change of government. Griffin was invited to Australia to help the Board with the development of the City.

a power station was built at Kingston.  . brick-works were opened at Yarralumla and in 1915 Cotter Dam was completed.In 1914 the railway was extended from Queanbeyan to the south-east comer of Canberra. with little work done due to lack of funding.  Griffin was frustrated by repeated efforts to change his city plan and his relationship with the Australian authorities was strained. He was fired in 1920.

Road and sewerage layouts continued. three bodies. Shops were built at Civic. under the guidance of the Federal Capital Advisory Committee construction progressed slowly.  Between 1921-1930.From 1920 to 1957. successively the Federal Capital Advisory Committee.  . tree planting was carried out. Manuka and Kingston. Parliament House constructed. the Federal Capital Commission and the National Capital Planning and Development Committee(NCDC) continued to plan the further expansion of Canberra in the absence of Griffin. hostels and houses completed for 1100 public servants. offices.

had officially taken up residence in The Lodge a few days earlier. The Prime Minister. The federal legislature moved to Canberra in 1927. . with the opening of the Provisional Parliament House. Stanley Bruce.

.OLD PARLIAMENT HOUSE WITH THE PRESENT PARLIAMENT HOUSE BEHIND IT.

Meanwhile. including Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals.  .  The years of the Depression. Some projects planned for that time. were never completed. World War II and post-war shortages caused a lengthy period of stagnation in development. in 1936 Walter Burley Griffin died. and only a small number of national projects were brought to fruition. including the Australian War Memorial (1941) and the Australian-American Memorial (1954).

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL .

AUSTRALIAN.AMERICAN WAR MEMORIAL .

Government housing projects were undertaken to accommodate the city's growing population. Over time his attitude changed towards championing its development. and its disorganised collection of buildings was deemed ugly.Immediately after the end of the war.  Prime Minister Robert Menzies regarded the state of the national capital as an embarrassment.000 people. The population grew by more than 50% in every five-year period from 1955 to 1975.  Griffin originally designed the city for a population of 75. He fired two ministers charged with the development of the city for poor performance.  . Canberra was criticised for resembling a village. together with public servants. were moved to Canberra from Melbourne following the war. Several Government departments.

CITY HILL SURROUNDED BY CAR PARKS. 1960S . ARTERIAL ROADS AND EMERGING CIVIC CENTRE.

 The Commission had a four-fold task:  to complete the establishment of Canberra as seat of government  to develop it fully as the administrative centre  to create the buildings. lakes.  .The Federal Government under Robert Menzies established the National Capital Development Commission (NCDC) in 1957 to create a capital city of which all Australians would be proud. avenues. parks and other features appropriate to Australia's national capital  to design living areas with high standard of amenities and attractive surroundings.

the Carillon and Captain Cook Memorial Jet (1970).  Russell Offices for the Department of Defence were built flanking the Australian American Memorial at the end of Kings Avenue. theatres and law courts filled in most of the empty areas around Civic Centre. . retail stores. the National Botanic Gardens.  Between 1961 and 1965 new office blocks.  Kings Avenue Bridge (1962) and Commonwealth Avenue Bridge (1963) provided dignified crossings which allowed Lake Burley Griffin to be formed in 1963. banks. the National Library ( 1968).  Anzac Parade was developed in 1965 to commemorate the jubilee of the Gallipoli campaign. NCDC was responsible for a number of major projects. the Royal Australian Mint ( 1965).

BRIDGES .

. Canberra was growing so rapidly because of the transfer of Public Service departments in the 1960s that new residential areas had to be developed. or  by planning new towns (satellite cities) adjacent to North and South Canberra.areas and allowing a sprawl of suburbs to take place as in other Australian cities.  either by increasing the density of the existing city .

retail and service trades activities. a major employment area with around 8. Weston Creek was later added to accommodate more than 60.000 people.00. Rugged mountain ranges often snow-capped in winter. the first new town.000. Woden was begun 12 km south of Civic Centre and an adjoining valley. Woden-Weston Creek today has its own town centre. which will eventually have a population of around 1. was commenced south of Woden-Weston Creek in a series of valleys. In 1973. provide a dramatic backdrop to Tuggeranong. . Tuggeranong. the third new town.NEW (SATELLITE) TOWNS     In 1962.000 people currently engaged in government administration. ridges and hills intersected by the Murrumbidgee River.

AN EXAMPLE OF CANBERRA’S NEIGHBOURHOOD OPEN SPACES. WODEN TOWN CENTRE IN DISTANCE .

cycle-ways and an inter-town public transport network and each accommodates some of the national capital functions of Canberra. the fourth new town.000. Gungahlin. was begun.NEW (SATELLITE) TOWNS    In 1975. but eventually Gungahlin's population could grow to 85. each having the potential to develop its individual character. So far only the Mitchell Industrial Estate has been developed. The four satellites are being built with many of the characteristics of independent cities with their own commercial employment and retail centres. All are linked by a comprehensive transportation system including roads. north of Canberra City. .

Parliament House. Australian National University. the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies. The Australian Army's officer corps are trained at the Royal Military College. Canberra is the site of Parliament House. the Museum of Australian Democracy at Old Parliament House. . the High Court. National Museum. Duntroon and the Australian Defence Force Academy is also located in the capital. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance. such as the Australian War Memorial. the Aboriginal Tent Embassy. and the National Library of Australia.TODAY’S CANBERRA    As the seat of the government of Australia. Australian Institute of Sport. National Gallery.

 . while property prices are relatively high. in part due to comparatively restricted development regulations. the unemployment rate is lower and the average income higher than the national average. the federal government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra. while the population is younger.TODAY’S CANBERRA As the city has a high proportion of public servants.  As the seat of government.  Tertiary education levels are higher.

TOP VIEW OF CANBERRA .

GRIFFIN’S (PARLIAMENTARY) TRIANGLE .

RESIDENCES .

RESIDENCES AND ROAD NETWORK .

CIVIC CENTRE .

MARKET CENTRE .

Residents could travel without facing chronic traffic congestion. possible more outdoor leisure pursuits. All development must be aimed to satisfy their desires and to ensure that business could operate economically.PLANNING PHILOSOPHY IN CANBERRA     The planning philosophy in Canberra is that should be directed towards the users’ convenience. people from Canberra region and other cities could move in and out without transport frustration. new methods of transports and it could be a structure that could be transformed easily into a practical program for development. . City structures must be flexible to adapt to new social and technological change.

it needs to take into account the gradient for sewer and sewerage systems and driveway. Space requirements for residential development. the cost of the buildings are almost twice as much as normal ones. Dispersal planning provides no traffic congestion in one area and promoting local business and employment opportunities for people in the areas. recreational facilities become a major factor for planning bodies to consider. . linked by a system of peripheral parkways and decentralise population growth from the central cities. upon which economic growth is based. Building new homes on hills or slopes is more problematic than those on flat sites. and of course. This refers to a situation where people in a community can reduce journey to work times and achieve other transport and economic benefits.LANDUSE PLANNING IN CANBERRA      The concept is to disperse land use for residential settlement purposes in distinct towns.

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN CANBERRA Major roads follow a wheel-and-spoke pattern rather than a grid.  However. On the basis of the linear development of Canberra.  . including concentric hexagonal and octagonal streets emanating from several radii.  Griffin's proposal had an abundance of geometric patterns. built later. the outer areas of the city. are not laid out geometrically. major highways and route networks were constructed to link new town centres and dispersed residential areas together.

THE LEGACY OF MODERNIST PLANNING – FREEWAYS IN A GARDEN LANDSCAPE .

the Canberra Spatial Plan for the city's future development was released.  On 5 March 2004. City West Precinct and the Kingston Foreshores Development.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The development of Canberra is ongoing. on land formerly occupied by a pine plantation. As of 2005 plans were under development for a new Canberra district to be situated west of Lake Burley Griffin.  Major new works under construction in recent years include the Gungahlin Town Centre.  .

land use and transportation planning have contributed a great deal of problems to the city’s environment as the city becomes car-dependent.  More compact cities with viable and the better utilized public transport systems were better in terms of air pollution than Canberra is now seen.  .SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION On a controversial note. dispersal planning is criticized for excessive car use and car dependence which will impact on environment and concentration of pollutants will significantly increase.  The dispersal planning development in Canberra.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The dispersal of a residential community would lose social contact between other community in a way that the people live far away from each other and it would be uneconomical for them to travel long distance. hill backdrops and water basins and used topographical elements to form its structure.  . Canberra deserves the name of ―Garden City‖ because this well planned city has its settings with the integration of natural landscape.  From a landscape viewpoint.

THANK YOU .

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