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Topology is the configuration of a communication network. The design or style determines the type of hardware you are going to use.
Topology is the way a network is laid out
client computers. Computer networks consist of two or more machines connected to each other through network media such as network interface cards. cost. The selection of a specific topology for a given network is based on practicality. network cabling. routers and hubs. security and ease of management. The manner in which the devices are physically connected to the next device on the network is determined by the chosen topology for that network. routers and bridges. Network topology involves cabling. .
Types of Topologies Basic network topologies are. Ring Topology Mesh Topology 5. 1. 4. Star Topology 2. 6. Tree Topology Hybrid Topology . Bus Topology 3.
but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device.Star Topology Star topology has each machine connecting to a central network device such as a hub or a router. . Systems/nodes hub The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network. with all network traffic passing through the central device.
then the entire network will go dark. Disadvantages : • The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure.Advantages : • Star topology isolates each machine so that if the cable on one is broken. • The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement • the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes. . the others are unaffected. if the central hub or router fails.
When a device detects a message meant for it. some form of control is needed to make sure which device will transmit when. it is broadcast down on the cable in both directions. it reads the message from the cable and the other stations will ignore it. • When a device sends a message. Terminators at the end of the cable prevent the signal from reflecting back to the sender. • All devices on the cable constantly monitor for messages meant to them. .Bus Topology In bus network.otherwise there will be a collision. all stations are attached to a single cable. • Since all devices are sharing the same cable.
and if one station dies.Advantages : • Easy to wire. . • It requires less cable than other topologies. • Bus topology is subject to failure of large portions of the network if there is a break in the network cable. • It is a simple design and easy to put into operation Disadvantage : • However bad connection to the cable can short it and bring down the entire network. less expensive. quick response. it has no effect on the total network. • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
.Ring Topology A ring topology is a network topology where each node (device on the network) connects to two other nodes. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. This forms a continuous path for the signal through each device.
can disrupt the entire network. adding to or changing the network can also affect the network. • The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring • A ring topology is ideal for small businesses that need to share data across offices. it can greatly cut a company's networking costs. and it performs well under a hefty network load. While it is limited in certain ways. • Failure of one device shuts down the entire network. It can also be used to create a larger Token Ring network. or even a bad node. Merely moving a node. This is an old topology that is rarely used today.Advantages : • The ring topology is a very organized network topology. Disadvantages : • One bad port. .
even if one of the connections go down Its variation of the bus topology . allowing for most transmissions to be distributed. . Instead of a central backbone cable.Mesh Topology A network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with one another. each device on the network is connected to every other device and each device can serve as a router to route information to its destination device.
Disadvantages : • The physical fully connected mesh topology is generally too costly and complex for practical networks. . Even administration of the network is tough. • There are high chances of redundancy(duplication of data) in many of the network connections. • Even if one of the components fails there is always an alternative present. • Set-up and maintenance of this topology is very difficult. So data transfer doesn’t get affected. • Provides multiple paths between devices.Advantages : • The network can be expanded without disruption to current users.
Tree Topology Tree Topology integrates the characteristics of Star and Bus Topology. The hub of each star network is connected to the central backbone. . It consists of multiple star networks connected together by a single backbone bus.
the individual star networks continue to function. Disadvantages : • If the central backbone fails. • Network expansion and alteration is easier. • Maintenance of the network may be an issue when the network spans a great area. •Eg : cable tv network . • Having different levels of the network makes it more manageable hence easier fault identification and isolation.Advantages : • It is scalable . Secondary nodes allow more devices to be connected to a central node.
Large networks use one or more of the main topologies to create a hybrid topology. While each office may be a star topology.Hybrid Topology As networks grew beyond single offices. . the need for topologies that could support larger numbers of machine became apparent. the servers may be wired in a ring or linear bus topology.
• Scalable: Its easy to increase the size of network by adding new components. fault detection and troubleshooting is easy in this type of topology. For example we saw Ring Topology has good data reliability and Star topology has high tolerance capability (as each node is not directly connected to other but through central device). WITHOUT affecting the functioning of rest of the network. • Effective: Hybrid topology is the combination of two or more topologies. so these two can be used effectively in hybrid starring topology. without disturbing existing architecture. so we can design it in such a way that strengths of constituent topologies are maximized while there weaknesses are neutralized. The part in which fault is detected can be isolated from the rest of network and required corrective measures can be taken.Advantages : • Reliable : Unlike other networks. • Flexible: Hybrid Network can be designed according to the requirements of the organization and by optimizing the available resources. . Special care can be given to nodes where traffic is high as well as where chances of fault are high.
Disadvantages • Complexity of Design: One of the biggest drawback of hybrid topology is its design. etc. • Costly Hub: The hubs used to connect two distinct networks. • Costly Infrastructure: As hybrid architectures are usually larger in scale. These hubs are different from usual hubs as they need to be intelligent enough to work with different architectures and should be function even if a part of network is down. they require a lot of cables. Configuration and installation process needs to be very efficient. . are very expensive. cooling systems. Its not easy to design this type of architecture and its a tough job for designers. sophisticate network devices.