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A Study of Optimal Membrane Triangles with Drilling Freedoms

Carlos A. Felippa
Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and Center for Aerospace Structures University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0429, USA
Presentation to FEM Minisymposium USNCCM7, Albuquerque, July 2003
University of Colorado - Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.edu

Here is a Well Known Distortion Benchmark

UBOTP (UniDirectional Bending-Optimal Trapezoidal Panel)  Passes the patch test on any mesh  Retains a bounded condition number, even for a triangle!
University of Colorado - Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.edu

Outline
• Why drilling freedoms

• Element development
• Finding the best

• Templates
• Conclusions

University of Colorado - Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.edu

. Meth. Mech.Presentation Source Technical details in expository paper: C. 192. A study of optimal membrane triangles with drilling freedoms.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Engrg. A. Felippa. Sci. Appl. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.edu . Comp. 2003 Reprints available here University of Colorado .colorado. 2125-2168.

Definition Simple elements that deliver results of engineering accuracy with arbitrary coarse meshes University of Colorado .edu .High Performance Elements .colorado. Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.

only physical freedoms .passes patch test on any plane mesh .no condensation: EAS. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.(Personal) Preferences for HP Elements (1) . incompatible modes etc. are waste of time University of Colorado .colorado.edu .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.only corner nodes . Sci.

Sci.develop by symbolic computation University of Colorado .edu .colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.robust when used by inexperienced modelers .do not assume you can refine the mesh in real engineering systems .can be customized to do multiple duties .can be optimized for specific criteria .(Personal) Preferences for HP Elements (2) .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.

.Rotational DOF “free of charge” . University of Colorado . Sci.. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.edu .Performance improved without adding side DOFs . stiffeners.Simplifies shell modeling: intersections.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.Membrane Elements with Drilling DOFs Interesting as HPFEM because .

Dept of Aerospace Engrg.18 DOF Thin Shell Triangle Template University of Colorado .edu .colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. Sci.

Sci.edu .F-16 Aeroelastic Structural Model Finest model: 250000 Nodes.5 M DOF University of Colorado .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. 1.

including stiffeners University of Colorado . & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. Sci.edu .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.F-16 Internal Structure Zoom Over 95% of elements are 18-DOF triangle shell elements.colorado.

Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Customization Example: Aerospace Structures University of Colorado .edu .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.colorado.

edu .colorado. works but rank deficient Bergan-Felippa FF triangle. Sci. bending optimal placed in template framework Since 1992: many more models University of Colorado .A Brief History of Drilling DOFs Late 1960s: rectangles developed @ Berkeley (by Scordelis’ students) 1979: 1984: 1985: quadrilateral shell element @ Lockheed for STAGS Allman triangle. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. rank sufficient but complicated 1970-1984: many efforts to construct satisfactory triangles fail 1988: 1992: 2002: Allman’s rank-sufficient triangle Felippa-Militello ANDES triangle.

colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Template Approach for Element Stiffness University of Colorado .Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci.edu .

Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.edu .The Basic Stiffness (disc. 1984. Pal Bergan) University of Colorado . & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.

Dept of Aerospace Engrg.HO Stiffness by ANDES: (1) Choosing Natural Strains University of Colorado .edu . Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.

& Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.edu . Sci.colorado.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.HO Stiffness by ANDES: (2) Define Hierarchical Rotations University of Colorado .

edu . Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.HO Stiffness by ANDES: (3) Pick Hierarchical Strain Modes Filter torsion mode: University of Colorado .colorado.

Dept of Aerospace Engrg.edu .HO Stiffness by ANDES: (4) Parametrize and Finish Up University of Colorado . Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.

edu . Sci.Mathematica Implementation University of Colorado .colorado.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.

Fortran Version Freely available: contact author by e-mail ~350000 elements/sec on a 3GHz P4 (DP float) Eventual goal: 1 million elements/sec Membrane takes about 35% of formation time of 18 DOF linear shell element. Sci.colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. 25% of corotational shell University of Colorado .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.edu .

edu . Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Bending Optimality Criterion University of Colorado .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.colorado.

colorado.Confirmation: Morphing to Beam University of Colorado . Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.edu . & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.

Sci.ANDES Template Instances University of Colorado .Dept of Aerospace Engrg.edu .colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.

Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.ANDES Template Signatures University of Colorado .colorado. Sci.edu .

Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.edu . Sci.ANDES Bending Energy Test University of Colorado .

Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci.colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.ANDES Thin Cantilever Example University of Colorado .edu .

edu .colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci.Berkeley Cantilever University of Colorado .

Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.edu .Berkeley Cantilever Results University of Colorado .colorado.

edu . Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.Cook’s Trapezoidal Wing University of Colorado .

colorado.Cook’s Trapezoidal Wing Results University of Colorado . & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.edu .Dept of Aerospace Engrg. Sci.

Dept of Aerospace Engrg. 2125-2168. Sci.Constructing HP Elements .colorado.edu . 2003 University of Colorado .3 Approaches Templates Fig from CMAME 192. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.

& Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.3 Approaches University of Colorado . Sci.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.colorado.edu .Constructing HP Elements .

Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. mass.g. Sci.. etc) are directly constructed as parametrized algebraic forms • The construction is done in two stages: basic and higher order components • Constraints (e.The Template Approach • Element equations (stiffness.colorado. orthogonality) are enforced between the components to insure a priori satisfaction of the patch test without need of a posteriori checks University of Colorado .edu .

edu . Sci. possibly derived through different methods.colorado.Template “Genetics” • The set of free parameters is the template signature • The number of free parameters can be reduced by applying behavioral constraints to produce element families • Specific elements instances are obtained by assigning numerical values to the free parameters of a family • Elements with the same signature.Dept of Aerospace Engrg. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww. are called clones University of Colorado .

or optimized. simplifies benchmarking • Can be customized.edu . Sci. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.colorado. for specific configurations or needs University of Colorado .Advantages of Template Approach • One form generates an infinite # of instances • Instances are not necessarily obtainable by conventional (variational based) formulations • Unified implementation (input: signature) weeds out clones.

Technical Difficulties • Limited theory available • Symbolic manipulations beyond human endurance.edu . & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado. Sci. Memory and CPU power limitations have so far restricted template development to – 1D: 2-node beams – 2D: 3-node triangles (membrane + plate bending combined for shell elements with drilling freedoms) University of Colorado . Only possible via computer algebra systems.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.

Sci.Web Resources If interested in FE templates.Dept of Aerospace Engrg.html -> Papers and Reports University of Colorado .colorado. & Center for Aerospace Structures caswww.colorado.d/Home. see material posted at http://caswww.edu/Felippa.edu .