Prof M R Suresh
R&D. and production
. end benefits and acceptance of the concept • Marketing manager's job is to bring in the voice of the market • New product development involves marketing.• Consumer purchases for end benefits • Concept testing seeks to understand consumers' perceptions of characteristics.
reshape and coalesce ideas to arrive at a basic concept for a product that has good chances of market acceptance.• Concept
– Is an idea to satisfy consumer need – Essence of the product
• Concept testing
– a system to redefine.
• Concept tests are conducted to
– Qualitatively assess relative appeal – Provide information for further product development and advertising – Indicate potential segments
non probability • Purchase intention score
.mall intercept – New product concept screening (8 ideas) – Alternative buying incentive (12 to 15) • Questions asked . importance of sales message • Sampling .CONCEPT SCREENING TEST
• to get a feel of market acceptance • to identify potential ideas for further development – New product screening test – Alternative buying incentive
• Use concept statement • Interviewing . uniqueness. believability.purchase intent. frequency.
• Six possible combinations of concept communication mode and tone • Mode can be words only. visual only. persuasive • Studies in USA in the context of Pfizer indicate use of visuals increased purchase intention scores by 20% • Implication is that naïve comparison of concept scores across types is risky
. words plus visual • Tone can be factual.
Concept Evaluation tests
• Conducted after initial screening and modification of concepts • Objectives – Assessment of market potential – Identification of market strengths and weaknesses – Indicate potential market segments • Also used to take decisions on test marketing
of concepts is few. mall intercept. No. expected units per purchase
. attribute ratings. the frequency of purchase is important – Purchase intent is an indicator of trial.• Procedures
– Concept presentation: Sheets. advts.purchase intent. but does not tell whether the proposed product is part of a consumer's daily life or special occasion item – Concept test ought to throw light on % households inclined to try.
• USE A CONTROL CONCEPT
– Interviewing : Central location. frequency. key benefit. actual prototype of products. expected number of purchases. believability. cost constraints – Questions asked . uniqueness. Description of the product. overall rating – Non probability sampling – Purchase intention scores – For non durable goods.
Importance (Not important to very important on Y axis ) – Concept testing does not differentiate purchase intention of triers and repeat buyers. Rating (excellent to poor on X axis).• Concept screening . ease of preparation ( excellent to poor) ease of preparation ( very important to not important)
– The above data can be used for quadrant analysis. Satisfaction is not an aspect in a concept test
. For this purpose standard questions on uniqueness/differentiation from other products etc are included – Specific attribute diagnostics seek to probe which attributes/benefits contribute to purchase intention using open ended questions or on scales measuring perception /importance of attributes
– Managers seek to understand purchase intention measures.g.
• Product testing for four purposes – Against competition: which of the alternatives offered is preferred relative to competition – Product improvement: whether an improved formula could replace the current product – Cost saving: whether a less expensive product could replace the current one – Concept fit: whether the product variant resembles the selling message
• Provides a critical measures of a new product's market potential • Extremely important in FMCG Cos.
colour to be identical – Avoid labels that bias (e.)
• Four basic principles
– Representative of the product that will be in the market ultimately – Name.g. sequence of letters etc.Reactions to "pure" product No brand name as yet Branded test .• Product testing procedures
– – – – – Blind Vs Branded test . size. packaging should be similar – If different formulas are used.Difficult to conceal Measurement of effects of brand etc.a key issue Blind test . shape.
designs where a consumer evaluates one product.Consumer rates 2 or more products • Sequential monadic . having no other product for comparison • Comparison .directly compares two products
.rates one product and then is given a second product (rated) independently then compared • Protomonadic . is given a second product and compares both • Paired comparison .rates one product.Procedures for product tests
• Monadic .
consumer is given two or more sets of products to compare against each other at two different points of time • Round robin .tests where a series of products is tested against each other • Triangle designs .• Repeat-paired comparison .asked to determine if one product is different from the other
.a standard product is given and asked to determine which of the other (two) products are similar • Difference .is given 2 samples of one product and one sample of another to identify the one that differs • Duo-trio .
home testing Vs Central location • (expensive) 1. purchase cycle • Sales wave extended product test consumers encouraged to buy at intervals coinciding with normal product cycle
.usually a week.• In . Opinions of other family members ignored • Periodicity . Unrealistic 2. depends on the product.
Typically a consumer uses a product at a time and decides • Monadic tests are difficult to interpret.
. 80% say "excellent") • Comparison tests concentrate on product differences • In certain situations involving sensory evaluations.Advantages:
• Identification of novelty product wear outs • Identification of problems • Market share prediction • Potential segments
Monadic Vs Paired test
• Monadic is realistic. comparison tests are impractical. (e.g.
– – – – non-probability 100-200 for in-home CLT around 20 Cost is a factor
• Action standards
– preference that is statistically significant – Where claims of superiority are made should have significant preference. usage pattern etc. Conventions may vary with MR agencies
.• Questions asked . likes-dislikes. overall rating attribute rating. uniqueness.Preference.
A few important aspects
• A systems approach needed : Methods and procedures of product testing should constitute a standardized system for like products • Normative databases need to be built over time for better interpretation • Same research company • Real environment tests • Relevant variables from consumers' perspective (particularly while using qualitative methods) • Conservative action while dealing with established products