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Interpolation & Decimation
• Sampling period T , at the output
• Interpolation by m:
• Let the OUTPUT be [i.e. Samples
exist at all instants nT]
• then INPUT is [i.e. Samples exist
at instants mT]
INPUT OUTPUT
T j
e z
e
=
) (z Y
) (
m
z X
Professor A G Constantinides 2
Interpolation & Decimation
• Let Digital Filter transfer function be
then
• Hence is of the form i.e. its
impulse response exists at the instants mT.
• Write
(.) H
(.) ). ( ) ( H z X z Y
m
=
(.) H ) (z H
) 1 ( 2 1
). 1 ( ... ). 2 ( ) 1 ( . ) 0 ( ) (
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + + + + =
m
z m h z h h z h z H
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
). 1 2 ( ... ). 1 ( ). (
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ + + + + +
m m m
z m h z m h z m h
) 1 3 ( ) 1 2 ( 2
) 1 3 ( ... ). 1 2 ( ). 2 (
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ + + + + +
m m m
z m h z m h z m h
Professor A G Constantinides 3
Interpolation & Decimation
• Or
• Where
• So that
... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
2
2
1
1
+ + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z H z z H z z H z H
... ). 2 ( ). ( ) 0 ( ) (
2
1
+ + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z m h z m h h z H
... ). 1 2 ( ). 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
2
+ + + + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z m h z m h h z H
... ). 2 2 ( ). 2 ( ) 2 ( ) (
2
3
+ + + + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z m h z m h h z H
+ + =
÷
) ( ). ( ) ( ). ( ) (
2
1
1
m m m m
z X z H z z X z H z Y
... ) ( ). (
3
2
+ +
÷ m m
z X z H z
Professor A G Constantinides 4
Interpolation & Decimation
• Hence the structure may be realised as
+
) (
1
m
z H
) (
2
m
z H
) (
3
m
z H
OUTPUT
INPUT
Samples across here are
phased
by T secs. i.e. they do not
interact in the adder.
Can be replaced by a
commutator switch.
Professor A G Constantinides 5
Interpolation & Decimation
• Hence
INPUT
Commutator
OUTPUT
) (
1
m
z H
) (
2
m
z H
) (
3
m
z H
Professor A G Constantinides 6
Interpolation & Decimation
• Decimation by m:
• Let Input be (i.e. Samples exist at
all instants nT)
• Let Output be (i.e. Samples exist at
instants mT)
• With digital filter transfer function
we have
) (z X
) (
m
z Y
) (z H
) ( ). ( ) ( z H z X z Y
m
:
Professor A G Constantinides 7
Interpolation & Decimation
• Set
• And
• Where in both expressions the subsequences
are constructed as earlier. Then
... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
2
2
1
1
+ + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z H z z H z z H z H
) ( . ...
) 1 ( m
m
m
z H z
÷ ÷
+ +
... ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
2
2
1
1
+ + + =
÷ ÷ m m m
z X z z X z z X z X
) ( ...
) 1 ( m
m
m
z X z
÷ ÷
+ +
 × + + + :
÷ ÷ ÷
) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) (
) 1 (
2
1
1
m
m
m m m m
z H z z H z z H z Y
  ) ( ... ) ( ) (
) 1 (
2
1
1
m
m
m m m
z X z z X z z X
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + +
Professor A G Constantinides 8
Interpolation & Decimation
• Any products that have powers of less
than m do not contribute to , as this
is required to be a function of .
• Therefore we retain the products
1 ÷
z
) (
m
z Y
m
z
) ( ) (
1 1
m m
z X z H
) ( ) (
2
m m
m
m
z X z H z
÷
+
)... ( ) (
3 1
m m
m
m
z X z H z
÷
÷
+
) ( ) ( ...
2
m
m
m m
z X z H z
÷
+
Professor A G Constantinides 9
Interpolation & Decimation
• The structure realising this is
+
INPUT
OUTPUT
Commutator
) (
1
m
z H
) (
m
m
z H
) (
1
m
m
z H
÷
) (
2
m
z H
Professor A G Constantinides 10
Interpolation & Decimation
• For FIR filters why Downsample and then
Upsample?
#MULT/ACC
= N f
s
.
LENGTH N
LOW PASS
f
s
f
s
LENGTH N
LOW PASS
LENGTH N
LOW PASS
DOWNSAMPLE M:1
UPSAMPLE 1:M
f
s
f
s
M
f
s
#MULT/ACC
=
N f
M
s
.
#MULT/ACC
=
N f
M
s
.
TOTAL #MULT/ACC
=
2. . N f
M
s
Professor A G Constantinides 11
Interpolation & Decimation
• A very useful FIR transfer function special
case is for : N odd, symmetric
• with additional constraints on to be
zero at the points shown in the figure.
{ } ) (n h
{ } ) (n h
Professor A G Constantinides 12
Interpolation & Decimation
• For the impulse response shown
• The amplitude response is then given
• In general
9 7 5 3 1
). 5 ( ). 4 ( ). 3 ( ). 2 ( ). 1 ( ) 0 ( ) (
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + + + = z h z h z h z h z h h z H
9 7 5 3
). 5 ( ). 4 ( ). 3 ( ). 2 ( ). 1 ( z h z h z h z h z h + + + + +
) 3 cos( 2 ). 2 ( ) cos( 2 ). 1 ( ) 0 ( ) ( T h T h h A e e e + + =
) 5 cos( 2 ). 3 ( T h e +
¿

.

\

+
+ =
odd
) cos( .
2
1
2 ) 0 ( ) (
r
T r
r
h h A e e
Professor A G Constantinides 13
Interpolation & Decimation
• Now consider
• Then
2 1
, e e
T
t
e e = +
2 1
¿

.

\

+
+ =
odd
1
) cos( .
2
1
2 ) 0 ( ) (
r
T r
r
h h A e e
¿

.

\


.

\

÷

.

\

+
+ =
odd
1 2
cos .
2
1
2 ) 0 ( ) (
r
T
T
r
r
h h A e
t
e
¿

.

\

+
÷ =
odd
1
) cos( .
2
1
) 0 (
r
T r
r
h h e
Professor A G Constantinides 14
Interpolation & Decimation
• Hence
• Also
• Or
• For a normalised response
) 0 ( 2 ) ( ) (
2 1
h A A = + e e
¿

.

\


.

\

+
+ =

.

\

odd
.
2
. cos .
2
1
2 ) 0 (
2
r
T
T
r
r
h h
T
A
t t
) 0 ( h =

.

\

= +
T
A A A
2
2 ) ( ) (
2 1
t
e e
o + =1 ) 0 ( A
o
t
÷ =

.

\

T
A
Professor A G Constantinides 15
Interpolation & Decimation
• Thus
• The shifted response
is useful
1 1 ) 0 ( 2 = ÷ + = o o h
2
1
) 0 ( = h
2
1
) ( ) (
~
÷ = e e A A
Professor A G Constantinides 16
Design of Decimator and
Interpolator
• Example Develop the specs suitable for the
design of a decimator to reduce the
sampling rate of a signal from 12 kHz to
400 Hz
• The desired downsampling factor is
therefore M = 30 as shown below
Professor A G Constantinides 17
Multistage Design of
Decimator and Interpolator
• Specifications for the decimation filter H(z)
are assumed to be as follows:
, ,
,
Hz 180 =
p
F Hz 200 =
s
F
002 0. =
p
o 001 0. =
s
o
Professor A G Constantinides 18
Polyphase Decomposition
The Decomposition
• Consider an arbitrary sequence {x[n]} with
a ztransform X(z) given by
• We can rewrite X(z) as
where
¿
·
÷· =
÷
=
n
n
z n x z X ] [ ) (
¿
÷
=
÷
=
1
0
M
k
M
k
k
z X z z X ) ( ) (
¿ ¿
·
÷· =
÷ ·
÷· =
÷
+ = =
n
n
n
n
k k
z k Mn x z n x z X ] [ ] [ ) (
1 0 ÷ s s M k
Professor A G Constantinides 19
Polyphase Decomposition
• The subsequences are called the
polyphase components of the parent
sequence {x[n]}
• The functions , given by the
ztransforms of , are called the
polyphase components of X(z)
]} [ { n x
k
]} [ { n x
k
) (z X
k
Professor A G Constantinides 20
Polyphase Decomposition
• The relation between the subsequences
and the original sequence {x[n]} are given
by
• In matrix form we can write
]} [ { n x
k
1 0 ÷ s s + = M k k Mn x n x
k
], [ ] [
 
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
) (
) (
) (
. . . .
) (
) (
M
M
M
M
M
z X
z X
z X
z z z X
1
1
0
1 1
1
.
.
.
.
Professor A G Constantinides 21
Polyphase Decomposition
• A multirate structural interpretation of the
polyphase decomposition is given below
Professor A G Constantinides 22
Polyphase Decomposition
• The polyphase decomposition of an FIR
transfer function can be carried out by
inspection
• For example, consider a length9 FIR
transfer function:
¿
=
÷
=
8
0 n
n
z n h z H ] [ ) (
Professor A G Constantinides 23
Polyphase Decomposition
• Its 4branch polyphase decomposition is
given by
where
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
4
3
3 4
2
2 4
1
1 4
0
z E z z E z z E z z E z H
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + =
2 1
0
8 4 0
÷ ÷
+ + = z h z h h z E ] [ ] [ ] [ ) (
1
1
5 1
÷
+ = z h h z E ] [ ] [ ) (
1
2
6 2
÷
+ = z h h z E ] [ ] [ ) (
1
3
7 3
÷
+ = z h h z E ] [ ] [ ) (
Professor A G Constantinides 24
Polyphase Decomposition
• The polyphase decomposition of an IIR
transfer function H(z) = P(z)/D(z) is not that
straight forward
• One way to arrive at an Mbranch polyphase
decomposition of H(z) is to express it in the
form by multiplying P(z) and
D(z) with an appropriately chosen
polynomial and then apply an Mbranch
polyphase decomposition to
) ( ' / ) ( '
M
z D z P
) ( ' z P
Professor A G Constantinides 25
Polyphase Decomposition
• Example  Consider
• To obtain a 2band polyphase decomposition we
rewrite H(z) as
• Therefore,
where
1
1
3 1
2 1
÷
÷
+
÷
=
z
z
z H ) (
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
1
1
9 1
5
9 1
6 1
9 1
6 5 1
) 3 1 )( 3 1 (
) 3 1 )(
2 1
(
) (
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
+ ÷
÷ +
÷
÷
+ = = =
z
z
z
z
z
z z
z z
z
z
z H
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
z E z z E z H
÷
+ =
1 1
1
9 1
5
1
9 1
6 1
0
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
= =
z z
z
z E z E ) ( , ) (
Professor A G Constantinides 26
Polyphase Decomposition
• The above approach increases the overall
order and complexity of H(z)
• However, when used in certain multirate
structures, the approach may result in a
more computationally efficient structure
• An alternative more attractive approach is
discussed in the following example
Professor A G Constantinides 27
Polyphase Decomposition
• Example  Consider the transfer function of
a 5th order Butterworth lowpass filter with
a 3dB cutoff frequency at 0.5t:
• It is easy to show that H(z) can be expressed
as
4
0557281 . 0
2
633436854 . 0 1
5
)
1
1 ( 0527864 . 0
) (
÷
+
÷
+
÷
+
=
z z
z
z H
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+

.

\

=
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
+
÷
+
+
2
2
2
2
52786 0 1
52786 0
1
105573 0 1
105573 0
2
1
z
z
z
z
z z H
.
.
.
.
) (
Professor A G Constantinides 28
Polyphase Decomposition
• Therefore H(z) can be expressed as
where

.

\

=
÷
÷
+
+
1
1
52786 0 1
52786 0
2
1
1
z
z
z E
.
.
) (

.

\

=
÷
÷
+
+
1
1
105573 0 1
105573 0
2
1
0
z
z
z E
.
.
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
z E z z E z H
÷
+ =
Professor A G Constantinides 29
Polyphase Decomposition
• In the above polyphase decomposition,
branch transfer functions are stable
allpass functions (proposed by
Constantinides)
• Moreover, the decomposition has not
increased the order of the overall transfer
function H(z)
) (z E
i
Professor A G Constantinides 30
FIR Filter Structures Based on
Polyphase Decomposition
• We shall demonstrate later that a parallel
realization of an FIR transfer function H(z)
based on the polyphase decomposition can
often result in computationally efficient
multirate structures
• Consider the Mbranch Type I polyphase
decomposition of H(z):
) ( ) (
1
0
M
k
M
k
k
z E z z H
¿
÷
=
÷
=
Professor A G Constantinides 31
FIR Filter Structures Based on
Polyphase Decomposition
• A direct realization of H(z) based on the
Type I polyphase decomposition is shown
below
Professor A G Constantinides 32
FIR Filter Structures Based on
Polyphase Decomposition
• The transpose of the Type I polyphase FIR
filter structure is indicated below
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