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**modeling and simulation
**

Kejie Fang Longhua Ma

Institute of Industrial Control

Zhejiang University

Introduction

Research and design in ESP

Simulation results and analysis

Conclusion

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

• INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, the environment protection

has become a crucial problem and the

authorities are requested to set increasingly

more stringent limits , one of which is the

emissions from the industrial plants of solid

particulate and other gaseous pollutants.

1. Background

2. ABOUT ELECTROSTATIC

PRECIPITATOR

Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a widely

used device in so many different domains to

remove the pollutant particulates, especially

in industrial plants.

2.1 What is ESP

• Introduction

2.2 HOW ESP WORKS

Generally, the processes of electrostatic

precipitator are known as three main stages:

particle charging, transport and collection.

2.2.1 Main process of ESP

• Introduction

To characterize all these stages determines

to take a great number of basic

phenomena into account from a physical

point of view when they occurred.

• Introduction

These are stages interacted that originated

from the complexity of the processes of

precipitator.

Schematic of wire-plate ESP

Fig.1 Schematic of wire-plate electrostatic

precipitator

• Introduction

Mechanism of ESP

Fig. 2 Mechanism of electrostatic precipitator

• Introduction

2.2.2 PROCESS OF Particle

charging

Particle charging is the first and foremost

beginning in processes.

• Introduction

As the voltage applied on precipitator reach

threshold value, the space inside divided

into ionization region and drift region.

The electric field magnitude around the

negative electrode is so strong that the

electrons escape from molecule.

Under the influence of electric field, the

positive ions move towards the corona, while

the negative ions and electrons towards the

collecting plates.

• Introduction

2.2.3 Particle transport

In the moving way, under the influence of

electric field, negative ions cohere and charge

the particles, make the particles be forced

towards collecting-plate as well as Fig.2

shows.

• Introduction

2.2.4 Particle collection

As soon as the particles reach the plate,

they will be neutralized and packed by the

succeeded ones subsequently. The

continuous process happens, as a result,

particles are collected on the collecting plate.

• Introduction

• Research and design in ESP

modeling

The numerical model describes in time

and space the relevant processes that are

involved in transport, charging, migration and

collection of fly ash. To represent the

complete processes, the model is therefore

structured into several modules.

The model here is organized into

the following three sections:

1. electric field and discharge processes

2. particle charging

3. particle collection

3.1 electric field and discharge

processes

The particle collection in electrostatic

precipitators is largely dominated by the

distribution of the electric field in the

interelectrodic space.

In the absence of particles, neglecting the

transport gas velocity and by assuming that

the magnetic field due to the corona current

is negligibly small.

Electronical conditions are described by

next three equations :

2

0

e

V

µ

c

V = ÷

2

0

( )

e e

V µ c µ = V · V

V E ÷V =

÷

(1)

(2)

(3)

Here V is the electric potential, is the space-

charge density, is the permittivity of free space

and E is the electric field.

e

µ

0

c

Here, we adopt equations (4) (5) (6) to

describe the electric field distribution with the

initial and boundary conditions.

¿

¿

·

÷· =

·

÷· =

+

÷

+ ÷

÷ ÷

=

m

x x y

x x y

m

x x y

x x y

S a S mS

S a S mS

S x S mS y

S x S mS y

V y x V

}

) 2 / cos( ) / cosh(

) 2 / cos( ) / cosh(

ln{

}

) 2 / cos( ] 2 / ) 2 ( cosh[

) 2 / cos( ] 2 / ) 2 ( cosh[

ln{

) , (

0

t t

t t

t t

t t

V( x, y) means the electric potential of

the position (x, y), V

0

is the initial potential

on the wire, Sx is distance between

collecting plate and wire, Sy is half length of

the two nearest wires ,a is the radius of

particle, when x, y means the coordinates

direction, shown as Fig.3.

Fig. 3 Sketch of precipitator geometry and

computed grid

)

2 2

( ) (

3 1

0

2 4

0 0

0 0 0 0

0

2

0

y

y

x

x

d

E

d

E

y y

V

x x

V µ µ µ µ

c

µ µ

c µ

÷

+

÷

÷ =

A

A

A

A

+

A

A

A

A

=

(5)

) ( 2

/ ) ( ) (

2 2

0 0

2 2

3 1

2

2 4

2

0

y x

y x x y

d d

d d V V d V V d

V

+

+ + + +

=

c µ

(6)

and V

0

mean the charge density and

electric potential at the position as Fig.3 shown.

µ

3.2 particle charging

The field charging refers to the local

distorsion caused near the particle surface by

the difference in dielectric constants.

This process continues until the particle goes

up to the saturation charge, which produces

an electric field on particle surface equal and

opposite to the external field.

Equation (7) is chosen to describe the

model of particle charging :

2

0 0

12

2

r

s

r

q R E

c

tc

c

=

+

(7)

Where is the relative dielectric constant

and E

0

is the external field, q

s

and R are the

particle charge and radius.

r

c

3.3 particle collection

This module simulates in detail the boundary

layer near the collecting plates and the

interchange that take place.

Here, we choose equation (8) to describe

particle collection .

)) ( exp(

0

x

v

y w

f

a

C C ÷

·

÷ · = (8)

C is the particle density, C

0

is the entry density of

particle, a is the unit collecting area in the flow way,

f is area of ESP cross section, when w means

particle velocity towards plate and v is the velocity

moving to outlet.

4 Simulation results and analysis

According the above analysis of the

mechanism and modeling of ESP, we design

a simple ESP simulation platform which is

based on Scilab .

Fig.4 Simulation Platform

Fig.5 Input Interface

Fig.6 Distribution of electric field Ex

Simulation of electric field

we can find that around the wires, Ex get a

largest value, when at the connecting way

of two wires, Ex is no more than zero. The

cause of this distribution is the potential, at

the connecting way of wires, nearly zero.

Ex is decreased regularly from the wire at

the coordinate line x, but larger when close

to the collecting plate.

Fig.7 Distribution of electric field Ey

Simulation of electric field

Fig.8 Particle density distribution in ESP

Simulation of particles density

distribution

From Fig.8, we see the particles density

distribution obviously. The density reaches the

largest value at the entry of the ESP under the

influence of electric wind. The value of density

gets smallest near the wire at the direction to

collecting plate.

Simulation of deposit density

Fig.9 Distribution of deposit density

Fig.9 shows us the deposit density, along the

collecting plate deposit density is decreased

definitely, since as time go on, the particle is

collected by the plate continuously. So at the

later part, the deposit density is lower, and

reasonable.

• CONCLUSION

we construct a numerical model of

electrostatic precipitator and design base on

Scilab. The simulation results of these

processes are according with laboratory

experimental tests to obtain physical

information and useful validations.

The

End

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