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Electrostatic precipitator

modeling and simulation
Kejie Fang Longhua Ma
Institute of Industrial Control
Zhejiang University
 Introduction
 Research and design in ESP
 Simulation results and analysis
 Conclusion
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
• INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the environment protection
has become a crucial problem and the
authorities are requested to set increasingly
more stringent limits , one of which is the
emissions from the industrial plants of solid
particulate and other gaseous pollutants.
1. Background
2. ABOUT ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR
Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a widely
used device in so many different domains to
remove the pollutant particulates, especially
in industrial plants.
2.1 What is ESP
• Introduction
2.2 HOW ESP WORKS
Generally, the processes of electrostatic
precipitator are known as three main stages:
particle charging, transport and collection.
2.2.1 Main process of ESP
• Introduction
To characterize all these stages determines
to take a great number of basic
phenomena into account from a physical
point of view when they occurred.
• Introduction
These are stages interacted that originated
from the complexity of the processes of
precipitator.
Schematic of wire-plate ESP
Fig.1 Schematic of wire-plate electrostatic
precipitator
• Introduction
Mechanism of ESP
Fig. 2 Mechanism of electrostatic precipitator
• Introduction
2.2.2 PROCESS OF Particle
charging
Particle charging is the first and foremost
beginning in processes.
• Introduction
As the voltage applied on precipitator reach
threshold value, the space inside divided
into ionization region and drift region.
The electric field magnitude around the
negative electrode is so strong that the
electrons escape from molecule.
Under the influence of electric field, the
positive ions move towards the corona, while
the negative ions and electrons towards the
collecting plates.
• Introduction
2.2.3 Particle transport
In the moving way, under the influence of
electric field, negative ions cohere and charge
the particles, make the particles be forced
towards collecting-plate as well as Fig.2
shows.
• Introduction
2.2.4 Particle collection
As soon as the particles reach the plate,
they will be neutralized and packed by the
succeeded ones subsequently. The
continuous process happens, as a result,
particles are collected on the collecting plate.
• Introduction
• Research and design in ESP
modeling
The numerical model describes in time
and space the relevant processes that are
involved in transport, charging, migration and
collection of fly ash. To represent the
complete processes, the model is therefore
structured into several modules.
The model here is organized into
the following three sections:
1. electric field and discharge processes
2. particle charging
3. particle collection
3.1 electric field and discharge
processes
The particle collection in electrostatic
precipitators is largely dominated by the
distribution of the electric field in the
interelectrodic space.
In the absence of particles, neglecting the
transport gas velocity and by assuming that
the magnetic field due to the corona current
is negligibly small.
Electronical conditions are described by
next three equations :
2
0
e
V
µ
c
V = ÷
2
0
( )
e e
V µ c µ = V · V
V E ÷V =
÷
(1)
(2)
(3)
Here V is the electric potential, is the space-
charge density, is the permittivity of free space
and E is the electric field.
e
µ
0
c
Here, we adopt equations (4) (5) (6) to
describe the electric field distribution with the
initial and boundary conditions.
¿
¿
·
÷· =
·
÷· =
+
÷
+ ÷
÷ ÷
=
m
x x y
x x y
m
x x y
x x y
S a S mS
S a S mS
S x S mS y
S x S mS y
V y x V
}
) 2 / cos( ) / cosh(
) 2 / cos( ) / cosh(
ln{
}
) 2 / cos( ] 2 / ) 2 ( cosh[
) 2 / cos( ] 2 / ) 2 ( cosh[
ln{
) , (
0
t t
t t
t t
t t
V( x, y) means the electric potential of
the position (x, y), V
0
is the initial potential
on the wire, Sx is distance between
collecting plate and wire, Sy is half length of
the two nearest wires ,a is the radius of
particle, when x, y means the coordinates
direction, shown as Fig.3.
Fig. 3 Sketch of precipitator geometry and
computed grid
)
2 2
( ) (
3 1
0
2 4
0 0
0 0 0 0
0
2
0
y
y
x
x
d
E
d
E
y y
V
x x
V µ µ µ µ
c
µ µ
c µ
÷
+
÷
÷ =
A
A
A
A
+
A
A
A
A
=
(5)
) ( 2
/ ) ( ) (
2 2
0 0
2 2
3 1
2
2 4
2
0
y x
y x x y
d d
d d V V d V V d
V
+
+ + + +
=
c µ
(6)
and V
0
mean the charge density and
electric potential at the position as Fig.3 shown.
µ
3.2 particle charging
The field charging refers to the local
distorsion caused near the particle surface by
the difference in dielectric constants.
This process continues until the particle goes
up to the saturation charge, which produces
an electric field on particle surface equal and
opposite to the external field.
Equation (7) is chosen to describe the
model of particle charging :
2
0 0
12
2
r
s
r
q R E
c
tc
c
=
+
(7)
Where is the relative dielectric constant
and E
0
is the external field, q
s
and R are the
particle charge and radius.
r
c
3.3 particle collection
This module simulates in detail the boundary
layer near the collecting plates and the
interchange that take place.
Here, we choose equation (8) to describe
particle collection .
)) ( exp(
0
x
v
y w
f
a
C C ÷
·
÷ · = (8)
C is the particle density, C
0
is the entry density of
particle, a is the unit collecting area in the flow way,
f is area of ESP cross section, when w means
particle velocity towards plate and v is the velocity
moving to outlet.
4 Simulation results and analysis
According the above analysis of the
mechanism and modeling of ESP, we design
a simple ESP simulation platform which is
based on Scilab .
Fig.4 Simulation Platform
Fig.5 Input Interface
Fig.6 Distribution of electric field Ex
Simulation of electric field
we can find that around the wires, Ex get a
largest value, when at the connecting way
of two wires, Ex is no more than zero. The
cause of this distribution is the potential, at
the connecting way of wires, nearly zero.
Ex is decreased regularly from the wire at
the coordinate line x, but larger when close
to the collecting plate.
Fig.7 Distribution of electric field Ey
Simulation of electric field
Fig.8 Particle density distribution in ESP
Simulation of particles density
distribution
From Fig.8, we see the particles density
distribution obviously. The density reaches the
largest value at the entry of the ESP under the
influence of electric wind. The value of density
gets smallest near the wire at the direction to
collecting plate.
Simulation of deposit density
Fig.9 Distribution of deposit density
Fig.9 shows us the deposit density, along the
collecting plate deposit density is decreased
definitely, since as time go on, the particle is
collected by the plate continuously. So at the
later part, the deposit density is lower, and
reasonable.
• CONCLUSION
we construct a numerical model of
electrostatic precipitator and design base on
Scilab. The simulation results of these
processes are according with laboratory
experimental tests to obtain physical
information and useful validations.
The
End
Thanks