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Business And Technical English Presentation

BY Likith K MSc. Aerospace Engineering TUM - NTU

Evolution Of I.C. Engine


Fasten Your Seat Belts A Journey Through Time

I.C. Engine
An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. They are classified as Reciprocating or Rotary Spark ignition or Compression ignition Two-stroke or Four-stroke

Christian Huygens
Designed the first combustion engine.[1] Explosion of a charge of gunpowder in the cylinder drove the piston on its upward stroke and then due to the atmospheric pressure the piston moved downwards. Papin, a student of Huygens's built the earliest model of steam engine[2].

Philleppe Lebon
A great improvement in the practical application of I.C. engines was made by Philippe Lebon, in 1799 and a second in 1801.

The first was intended to describe the production of flammable coal gas[3].
Secondly, he proposed to use the gas developed to drive a piston in an engine[3] . The flammable gas and "sufficient air to make it ignite" were introduced separately into the cylinder on both sides of the piston, and the inventor proposed to fire the mixture by an electric spark.

Lenoir
Lenoir developed a single-cylinder two-stroke engine which burnt a mixture of coal gas and air ignited by a "jumping spark" ignition system[4]. The engines were made by M. Hippolyte Matrimony, a French engineer. Demand for the Hippo automobile increases so much that in five years, between three or four hundred motors were made in France, and a hundred in England[5].

Worlds first automobile[5]

Nikolaus Otto
The first-stroke cycle was built by Nikolaus A. Otto in 1876. In 1861, Otto had built his first engine based on Lenoirs design[6]. In 1864, Otto co-founded an engine manufacturing business in Cologne. Along with his business partner Eugenie Langen he established N.A. Otto & Cie.. This company exists today as Deutz AG. Developed a two stroke engine in 1867.[6]

Karl Benz
In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internalcombustion engine It was a three-wheeler Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891. Benz was the first inventor to integrate an internal combustion engine with a chassis - designing both[7]. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it the Benz Patent Motorwagen[8].

Benz patent motorwagen

Rudolf Diesel
Rudolf Diesels work in engine design was driven by his ambition to increase the efficiency ratio. He tried to design an engine based on the Carnot Cycle[9]. In his engine, fuel was injected at the end of compression and the fuel was ignited by the high temperature resulting from compression. In 1894, he filed for a patent for his new invention, called it the Diesel Engine. Rudolf Diesel was almost killed by his engine when it exploded[10]. He operated his first successful engine in 1897

Henry Ford
Henry Ford introduced his new V-8 engine in 1932, he delivered something that the experts had said was impossible[11]. V8 engines were introduced in the middle of the great depression. All V-8 engines that have appeared in competitors products since Ford introduced his V-8 engine were made in response to the Ford marketing challenge.
Henry Ford with his v8 engine

Current Technology
Wankel engine
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel

Scotch yoke
The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa. The piston or other reciprocating part is directly coupled to a sliding yoke with a slot that engages a pin on the rotating part. The shape of the motion of the piston is a pure sine wave over time given a constant rotational speed

Future Prospects
Use of oscillating piston instead of reciprocating Use of hybrid engines Use of composite materials to limit heat rejections.

Samuel Morrey

References
1. R. Dugas and P. Costabel, "Chapter Two, The Birth of a new Science" in The Beginnings of Modern Science, edited by Rene Taton, 1958,1964, Basic Books, Inc.
2. C. D. Andriesse (25 August 2005). Huygens: The Man Behind the Principle. Cambridge University Press. pp. 80. ISBN 978-0-521-85090-2. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 3. Veillerette, Franois. Philippe Lebon ou l'homme aux mains de lumire, Ed N Mourot, 1987

4. Wise, David Burgess, "Lenoir: The Motoring Pioneer" in Ward, Ian, executive editor. The World of Automobiles (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), p.1182.
5. Etienne Jean Joseph Lenoir, "Gas Engine", issued 1886-07-13 6. "Happy Centenary Otto...". Motor 149 (3827): 41. 14 February 1976

7. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)


8. Northey, Tom, "Land Speed Record", in The World of Automobiles (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), Volume 10, p.1163. 9. Rudolf Diesel: "Arbeitsverfahren und Ausfhrungsart fr Verbrennungskraftmaschinen" pg 4. 10. Wrangham, D.A. (1956), The Theory & Practice of Heat Engines, Cambridge University Press, p. 664 11. Ford, My Life and Work, 24; Edward A. Guest "Henry Ford Talks About His Mother," American Magazine, July 1923, 1115, 116120