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# BJT Transistor Modeling

CHAPTER 5

Topic objectives

## At the end of the course you will be

able to
analysis of circuit network using re
model and hybrid equivalent model
Understand the relationship between
those two available model for small
signal analysis

INTRODUCTION: TRANSISTOR
MODELING
To begin analyze of small-signal AC response of BJT
amplifier the knowledge of modeling the transistor is
important.
The input signal will determine whether its a small signal
(AC) or large signal (DC) analysis.
The goal when modeling small-signal behavior is to make of
a transistor that work for small-signal enough to keep
things linear (i.e.: not distort too much) 
There are two models commonly used in the small signal
analysis:
a) re model
b) hybrid equivalent model
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## How does the amplification be

done?

Conservation; output
power of a system
cannot be large than its
input and the efficiency
cannot be greater than 1
The input dc plays the
important role for the
amplification to
contribute its level to the
ac domain where the
conversion will become
as =Po(ac)/Pi(dc)

Re model
Fails to account the output impedance
level of device and feedback effect from
output to input

## Hybrid equivalent model

Limited to specified operating condition
in order to obtain accurate result

VCC

DC supply
0 potential
I/p coupling
capacitor s/c
Large values
Block DC and
pass AC signal

R1

RC

C1
C2
RS

+
Vi

Vo
R2

RE

C3

VS

Voltage-divider configuration
under AC analysis

R1

+
Vi

VS

Bypass
capacitor s/c
Large values

RC

+
RS

O/p coupling
capacitor s/c
Large values
Block DC and
pass AC signal

Vo
R2

## Redraw the voltage-divider

configuration after removing dc
supply and insert s/c for the
capacitors

Modeling of
BJT begin
HERE!

Ii
B
R1

RC

Zi

+
RS

+
Vi

VS

Vo
R2

RS

VS

Vi

R1 R2

Transistor smallsignal ac
equivalent cct

Io

E
Rc
Zo

Vo

## Redrawn for small-signal AC analysis

AC bias analysis
1. Kill all DC sources
2. Coupling and Bypass capacitors are short circuit.
The effect of there capacitors is to set a lower cutoff frequency for the circuit.
3. Inspect the cct (replace BJTs with its small signal
model:re or hybrid).
4. Solve for voltage and current transfer function, i/o
and o/p impedances.
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IMPORTANT PARAMETERS
Input impedance, Zi

Output impedance, Zo
Voltage gain, Av
Current gain, Ai

## Input Impedance, Zi(few ohms M)

The input impedance of an amplifier is the value as a load
when connecting a single source to the I/p of terminal of the
amplifier.
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## Two port system

-determining input impedance Zi
Rsense
+

VS

Ii
Zi

Vi
-

Two-port
system

Vi
Zi
Ii
Vs Vi
Ii
Rsense

Determining Zi

## The input impedance of transistor can be

approximately determined using dc biasing
because it doesnt simply change when the
magnitude of applied ac signal is change.

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Rsource
+

VS=10mV

600

Zi

1.2 k

+
Vi
-

Two-port
system

## Ideal source, Rsource 0

Full 10mV applied to the system
With source impedance, Rsource 600
ZiVs
1.2k (10m)
Vi

6.6mV
Zi Rsource 1.2k 600

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## Example 6.1: For the system of Fig. Below,

determine the level of input impedance
1k

VS=2mV
-

Rsense

Zi
Vi=1.2mV

Two-port
system

Solution
:
Vs Vi 2m 1.2m 0.8m
Ii

0.8A
Rsense
1k
1k

Vi 1.2m
Zi

1.5k
Ii
0.8
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## Output Impedance, Zo (few ohms 2M)

The output impedance of an amplifier is determined
at the output terminals looking back into the system
with the applied signal set to zero.
Rsense

Rsource
+
Two-port
system

Vs=0V

Vo

Io
Zo

Determining Zo
Iamplifier

V Vo
Io
Rsense

Vo
Zo
Io

IL

For Ro RL

IRo
Zo=Ro

RL

IL IRo

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## Example 6.2: For the system of Fig. below,

determine the level of output impedance
Rsense
Two-port
system
Vs=0V

20 k

Zo
Vo=680mV
-

V=1 V
-

Solution
:
V Vo 1 680m 320m
Io

16A
Rsense
20k
20k

Zo

Vo 680m

42.5k
Io
16

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## Example 6.3: For the system of Fig. below, determine Zo if

V=600mV, Rsense=10k and Io=10A
Rsense

Rsource
+
Two-port
system

Vs=0V

Io

Vo

Zo

V
-

Solution
:
V Vo
Io
Rsense
Vo V IoRsense

600m 10 10k
500mV

Zo

Vo 500m

50k
Io
10

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## Example 6.4: Using the Zo obtained in example 6.3,

determine IL for the configuration of Fig below if
RL=2.2 k and Iamplifier=6 mA.

Iamplifier

IL
IRo

Zo=Ro

RL

Solution
:
Current divider rule :
Zo(Iam plifier)
IL
Zo RL
50k (6m)

50k 2.2k
5.747mA

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Voltage Gain, AV
DC biasing operate the transistor as an amplifier. Amplifier
is a system that having the gain behavior.
The amplifier can amplify current, voltage and power.
Its the ratio of circuits output to circuits input.
The small-signal AC voltage gain can be determined by:

Vo
Av
Vi

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Rsource
+

VS
-

Zi

+
Vi

AvNL

Vo

Vo
AvNL
Vi

RL (open cct)

Vo
Zi
Avs

AvNL
Vs
Zi Rs

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## Example 6.5: For the BJT amplifier of fig. below,

determine: a)Vi b) Ii c) Zi d) Avs
Solution :

Rs
+

VS=40mV

1.2 k

Zi

Vi

BJT amplifier
AvNL=320

b) Ii

a) AvNL

Vo=7.68V
-

Vi

Vo
Vi

Vo
7.68

24mV
AvNL
320

Vs - Vi 40m 24m

13.33A
Rs
1.2k

Rs Rsource

c) Zi

Vi
24m

1.8k
Ii 13.33

d) Avs

Zi
1.8k
AvNL
(320) 192
Zi Rs
1.8k 1.2k
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Current Gain, Ai
This characteristic can be determined by:
Io

Ii
+
Vi

+
Zi

BJT
amplifier

RL

Vo
-

Vo
Io
RL

## Determining the loaded current gain

Io
Ai
Ii

Vo / RL
VoZi

Vi / Zi
ViRL

Zi
Ai Av
RL
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re TRANSISTOR MODEL
Employs a diode and controlled current source to
duplicate the behavior of a transistor.
BJT amplifiers are referred to as current-controlled
devices.
Common-Base Configuration
Common-base BJT transistor
re model
re equivalent circuit
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Ic

Ie

re

## Common-base BJT transistor - pnp

26mV
IE is the DC level of
IE( dc)

emitter current
Therefore, the input impedance, Zi = re

Ic

Ie

c
Ic Ie

follows;

Ie=0A

## re model for the pnp common-base

configuration

Ic

e
Vs=0V

c
re

Ic 0A

b
e

Ie

re

Ic
c
Ic Ie

b
common-base re equivalent cct

isolation
part,
b Zi=re

## Determining Zo for common-base

Zo

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The common-base
characteristics

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BJT common-base
transistor amplifier

Ie
e

+
Vi
-

Zo

re

Zi

Ic Ie

Io
RL

+
Vo
-

## Defining Av=Vo/Vi for the common-base configuration

Vo IoRL Ic RL IeRL

Vi IeZi Iere
Vo IeRL
Av

Vi
Iere

Voltage gain,
RL
RL
Av

re
re
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BJT common-base
transistor amplifier

Ie
e

+
Vi
-

Zo

re

Zi

Ic Ie

Io
RL

+
Vo
-

Io Ic
Ie
Ai

Ii
Ie
Ie
Current gain,
Ai 1
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## Example 6.6: For a common-base configuration in figure

below with IE=4mA, =0.98 and AC signal of 2mV is
applied between the base and emitter terminal:
a) Determine the Zi b) Calculate Av if RL=0.56k
c) Find Zo and Ai

Ie

re

Ic
c
Ic Ie

b
common-base re equivalent cct

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Solution:
26m 26m
a) Zi re

6.5
IE
4m

RL 0.98(0.56k)
b) Av

84.43
re
6.5
c) Zo
Io
Ai 0.98
Ii

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Ii Ie
e
re

Ic
c
Ic Ie

b
common-base re equivalent cct
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## Example 6.7: For a common-base configuration in previous

example with Ie=0.5mA, =0.98 and AC signal of 10mV is
applied, determine:
a) Zi b) Vo if RL=1.2k c) Av d)Ai e) Ib
Solution:
Vi 10m
a) Zi

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Ie
0.5m
b) Vo IcRL IeRL
0.98(0.5m) (1.2k)
588mV

c) Av

d) Ai 0.98

e) Ib Ie - Ic
Ie - Ie
0.5m(1 )
0.5m(1 0.98)
10A

Vo 588m

58.8
Vi
10m

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Common-Emitter Configuration
Common-emitter BJT transistor
re model
re equivalent cct.
Still remain controlled-current source (conducted
between collector and base terminal)
Diode conducted between base and emitter
terminal
Input
Base & Emitter
terminal

Output
Collector & Emitter
terminal
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Ic

Ic
b

Ib

E
common-emitter BJT transistor

Zi

Ic Ib

Ib

Vi
Ii

(1)
c

## Vi Vbe Iere Ibre and

Ic
subtitute into (1)gives

Zi

Vbe Ibre

Ib
Ib

Zi re
Z i rangesbetweenhundred to 6 ~ 7k

b
+
Vi
e

Ic Ib

Ii=Ib
+
Vbe
-

Ie
re
e

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## The output graph

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Output impedance Zo
b

Ii=Ib
c
Ib

re

ro

## re model for the C-E transistor configuration

Vs=0V

Ii=Ib = 0A
c

re

Ib 0A

Zo

ro
e

Zo ro
if ro is ignored thus the
Zo (open cct, high impedance)
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Ii=Ib
e

+
Vi

BJT common-emitter
transistor amplifier

c
Zo

re

Zi re

Io Ic Ib

RL

Io
+
Vo
-

## Determining voltage and current gain for the

common-emitter amplifier

Vo IoRL Ic RL IbRL

Vi IiZi Ibre
Voltage gain,
Vo
IbRL
Av

Vi
Ibre

RL
Av
re

Current gain,
Io Ic Ib
Ai

Ii Ib
Ib
Ai

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Example 6.8: Given =120 and IE(dc)=3.2mA for a commonemitter configuration with ro= , determine:
a) Zi b)Av if a load of 2 k is applied c) Ai with the 2 k load
Solution :
26m 26m
a) re

8.125
IE
3.2m
Zi re 120(8.125) 975

RL
2k
b)Av

246.15
re
8.125
c) Ai

Io
120
Ii
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## Example 6.9: Using the npn common-emitter configuration,

determine the following if =80, IE(dc)=2 mA and ro=40 k
b) Ai if RL =1.2k

a) Zi
b

Ii=Ib

c) Av if RL=1.2k

c
Io
re

Ib

ro

RL

Solution :
26m 26m

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IE
2m
Zi re 80(13) 1.04k

a) re

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Solution (cont)
Io IL

Ii Ib
ro( Ib)
IL
ro RL
ro( Ib)
ro
40k
r
o RL
Ai

(80)
Ib
ro RL
40k 1.2k
77.67
b) Ai

c)Av

RL ro
re

1.2k 40k
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89.6

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## re model is sensitive to the dc level of operation

that result input resistance vary with the dc
operating point
Hybrid model parameter are defined at an
operating point that may or may not reflect the
actual operating point of the amplifier

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## Hybrid Equivalent Model

The hybrid parameters: hie, hre, hfe, hoe are developed and
used to model the transistor. These parameters can be found
in a specification sheet for a transistor.

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Determination of parameter
Vi h11Ii h12 Vo
h11
h12

Vi
Ii

Vo 0V

Vi
Vo

Vo 0V

IO h21Ii h22 Vo
Solving Vo 0V ,
h21
h22

Ii
Io

Vo 0V

Io
Vo

Io 0A

H22 is a conductance!

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## General h-Parameters for any

Transistor Configuration

hi = input resistance
hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio (Vi/Vo)
hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii)
ho = output conductance

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## Common emitter hybrid

equivalent circuit

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circuit

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## Simplified General h-Parameter Model

The model can be simplified based on these approximations:
hr 0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho (high resistance on the output)

Simplified

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## Common-Emitter re vs. h-Parameter

Model

hie = re
hfe =
hoe = 1/ro
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Common-Emitter h-Parameters

hie re
h fe ac

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## Common-Base re vs. h-Parameter

Model

hib = re
hfb = -
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Common-Base h-Parameters

hib re
h fb 1

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