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Session 1

ATM Overview

1 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi

Streaming video. • Where is ATM for 3G? • Specified by 3G PP R99 to be used in Iu. • Why is ATM for 3G? • Industry trend to migrate towards Packet Switched Data (like ATM and IP) • To enable Voice Over IP. where. and why ATM ? • What is ATM ? • Asynchronous Transfer Mode • Based on fixed length packet (each ATM packet = 53 bytes) • Connection oriented (virtual circuits. and Iur. ATM does 2 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . virtual paths) • Different adaptation layers for different types of services. videoconferencing Quality of Service (QoS) becomes an important issue • Back then and even today. IP networks don't fulfil the QoS requirements. Iub. What.

• No timing is required between transmitter and receiver. ATM Adaptation Layers • AAL 2 • Provides for bandwidth efficient transmission of short. 3 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . • E1 or later n x 64 kbps (RAN 2. variable length packets in delay sensitive applications. • Multiplexes short packets from multiple users into one ATM connection. • AAL 1 (RAN 1.0) can be carried over ATM. (up to 248 users in 1 VCC) • AAL 5 • Supports variable bit rate data.5 ) • Circuit emulation uses AAL 1.

variable length payload (max. 48 bytes) OFFSET FIELD. fixed header. AAL2 (ATM Adaptation Layer 2) AAL2 header 1 2 3 4 5 6 String of AAL2 Packet Data Units String of AAL2 Packet Data Units ATM CELL ATM CELL HEADER 1 2 3 4 HEADER 4 5 6 HEADER PAYLOAD ATM cell = 5 BYTES = 48 BYTES AAL2 PACKET. 1 byte (indicates where the next AAL2 PDU starts) ATM CELL. 5-byte header + 48-byte payload PADDING 4 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .

can multiplex multiple 248 voice channels onto a single VCC (via CID) ..1 signalling (ALCAP) depending on CAS/CCS.CDV 20ms max. AAL2 CID LI UUI HEC INFO Packet Header (3 octets) Packet Payload (45 octets) ATM Payload • CID: Channel identifier (8 bits) Typical usage: • LI: Length Indicator (6 bits) • UUI: User-to-User Indication (5 bits) .may require Q.2630. -can support VBR and CBR 5 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . .45/64 octets) .designed to carry delay sensitive traffic • INFO: Information (1.required for silence suppression (VBR traffic) • HEC: Header Error Control (5 bits) .

Variable length 1 . variable length to fill the 48-byte ATM cell ATM CELL..Variable length 1 . AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer 5) AAL5 trailer USER DATA .ATM cell n PAYLOAD = N x 48 BYTES AAL5 PACKET. 64 Kbytes) PADDING FIELD.65 535 bytes AAL5 Packet Data Unit AAL5 Packet Data Unit ATM cell 1 ATM cell 2……….65 535 bytes USER DATA . fixed trailer. variable length payload (max. 5-byte header + 48-byte payload 6 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .. ………..

multiprotocol encapsulation (VC multiplexing or LLC encapsulation) 7 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .47 octects) • UU: User-to-User indication (1octet) • CPI: Common Part Indicator (1 octet) • Length: Length of AAL5 packets (2 octets) • CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check (4 octets) Designed for: . AAL5 AAL5 payload PAD AAL5 trailer UU CPI Length CRC AAL5 trailer (8 octets) ATM payload (65535 octets) • PAD: Padding ( for segmentation of large datagrams .

ATM adaptation layers AAL1/2/5 • for circuit emulation • Most recent AAL • For variable length • for example "virtual application indepen- • The most important dent packets E1 TDM trunks" AAL2 application is through the ATM compressed VoATM • Used for IPoATM backbone • In R'99 UTRAN • In R'99 UTRAN for all • e. 2G traffic for all user plane Iu-PS user plane traf- connections traffic in Iub + Iu-CS fic +the Iu-signalling together with UTRAN 8 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .g.

9 • End system must tolerate small random loss ratio. © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . ATM Service Categories • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) • Used for constant (maximum) bandwidth services. • Sources are expected to transmit non-continuous bursts of cells. • Real-Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR) (RAN 2) • End system can benefit from statistical multiplexing. • Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) • "best effort" service intended for non critical applications which do not require tightly constrained delay and delay variation nor a specified quality of service. • For connections that request fixed (static) bandwidth characterized by a Peak Cell Rate (PCR) value that is continuously available during the connection lifetime. • Source may emit cells at or below the PCR at any time and for any duration (or may be silent).

ATM Service Categories Serv.000 10 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . Traffic parameters Qos parameters Category CBR PCR CDVT max CTD ptp CDV CLR rt-VBR PCR CDVT SCR MBS max CTD ptp CDV CLR nrt-VBR PCR CDVT SCR MBS CLR UBR PCR(opt) ABR PCR MCR • PCR= Peak Cell Rate • max CTD= Maximum Cell Transfer Delay • CDVT= Cell Delay Variation Tolerance • ptp CDV= Peak-to-peak Cell Delay Variation • SCR= Sustainable Cell Rate • CLR= Cell Loss Ratio • MBS= Maximim Burst Size • MCR= Minimum Cell Rate ATM Forum: af-tm-0056.

11 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . The concept of virtual channels and virtual paths User Layer AAL ATM Adaptation Layer header 1 2 3 4 ATM Cell Virtual Channel (VC) Virtual Path Transmission path String of AAL Packet Data Units ATM Layer ATM CELL HEADER 1 2 3 4 ATM cell •ATM CELL. 5-byte header + 48-byte payload All connections in 3G RAN are (semi)permanent.

ATM terminology Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) Virtual Channel Link (VCL) Virtual Path Connection (VPC) Virtual Path Link (VPL) Above there are the commonly used terms. but in ATM network element management information model another set of terms is VCC = Virtual Channel Trail VCL = Virtual Channel Connection VPC = Virtual Path Trail VPL = Virtual Path Connection 12 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .

Especially different usage of Virtual Channel Connection in two sets should be unde Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) = VC Trail Virtual Channel Link (VCL) = VC Connection Virtual Path Connection (VPC) = VP Trail Virtual Path Link (VPL) = VP Connection This is important to understand because in ATM cross-connect unit manager ATM network element management information model is used. 13 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi . ATM terminology The similarity of two sets of terminology can be a source of serious confusion.

ATM terminology Virtual Channel Trail (VC Trail) Virtual Channel Connection (VC Connection) Virtual Path Trail (VP Trail) VC TTP Virtual Path Connection (VP Connection) VC CTP VP TTP VP CTP VC TTP = Virtual Channel Trail Termination Point VC CTP = Virtual Channel Connection Termination Point VP TTP = Virtual Path Trail Termination Point VP CTP = Virtual Path Connection Termination Point 14 © NOKIA Overview/ 230501 / JVi .