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EQUIPMENTS AND THEIR

PRINCIPLE
SIZE REDUCTION
SIZE SEPARATION
PUMPING
FILTRATION
HEAT EXCHANGE
COMPRESSOR
BLOWER

SIZE REDUCTION PRINCIPLE


IMPACT: BALL MILL, HAMMER CRUSHER
SHEAR: ROLL CRUSHER
COMPRESSION: ROLL CRUSHER
CUTTING

ROLL CRUSHER

Max size

HAMMER CRUSHER
+25mm
VIBRATING SCREEN

-25mm

BALL MILL
H/C U/F
TROMMEL
SCREEN

BAUXITE

SL

MOTOR

FLUID
COUPLING

GEAR
BOX

HYDROCYCLONE

TOP VIEW OF
CYCLONE

CYCLONE
FEED ENTERS THE CYCLONE
TANGENTIALLY
ROTATION GENERATES CENTRIFUGAL
ACTION, HEAVIER & BIGGER PARTICLES
MOVE FAST TOWARDS PERIPHERY
FROM THERE THEY FALL DOWN ON THE
ACTION OF GRAVITY AND COME OUT AT
APEX

CYCLONIC SEPARATION
SMALLER AND LIGHTER PARTICLES
REMAIN AT CENTRE AND COME OUT
THROUGH OVERFLOW PIPE
THE PRESSURE AT CENTRE REMAINS
LOWER THAN THAT AT PERIPHERY

CYCLONE CONTROL
HIGHER

FEED

PRESSURE

GENERATES

HIGH VELOCITY OF ROTATION


HIGHER SIZE VORTEX FINDER LEAVES
LESS AREA FOR ROTATION & HENCE HIGH
VELOCITY
HIGH VELOCITY RESULTS IN BETTER
SEPARATION
AMOUNT

BUT

LOW

UNDERFLOW

CYCLONE CONTROL
AT HIGH VELOCITY SOLID GPL IN
UNDERFLOW REMAINS HIGH
HIGHER APEX SIZE GENERATES MORE
UNDERFLOW AT LOW SOLID GPL;
OVERALL UNDERFLOW SOLID IS MORE
UNEVEN INNER SUFACE RESULTS IN LOW
EFFICIENCY OF SEPARATION

CATEGORY OF PUMPS
CENTRIFUGAL
RACIPROCATING: PISTON, DIAPHRAGM
ROTARY: GEAR, VAIN
SCREW

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE IS GENERATED DUE
TO ROTATION OF THE IMPELLER
THE FLUID COME OUT FROM THE
IMPELLER AND ENTER THE VOLUTE AND
CONVERT VELOCITY ENERGY TO
PRESSURE
VACANT SPACE IN THE IMPELLER IS
FILLED WITH FLUID FROM SUCTION

PARTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


CASING, O-RING GASKET
SHAFT, IMPELLER, LOCK NUT, SEAL
PEDESTAL BEARING ASSEMBLY
SEAL FLUSHING WATER LINE

FORMULA
N= SPEED OF ROTATION
Q= VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE
H= PRESSURE HEAD DEVELOPED IN M OF
SAME LIQUID
P=POWER CONSUMED
Q N, H N2 AND P N3

TYPES
SINGLE SUCTION: SINGLE SEAL, SUITABLE
FOR HANDLING SLURRY, HIGH NPSH
REQUIRED
DOUBLE SUCTION SPLIT CASING:
SUITABLE FOR LIQUOR SERVICE, LOW
NPSH MANAGEABLE. HIGH EFFICIENCY

MODEL
DISCHARGE PIPE DIAMETER AND
IMPELLER DIAMETER MENTIONED
JS PUMPS: 65/310, 125/405, 125/540, 200/410,
300/635
SPLIT CASING: DISCHARGE AND SUCTION
DIAMETER; MPE-300, 300/400

PISTON PUMP

PISTON PUMP
The piston moves to and fro inside the cylinder &
creates low and high pressure inside the cylinder
When the pressure is low, the liquid comes inside
the cylinder from suction and the liquid goes
through discharge when pressure is high.
NRVs are placed in suction and discharge line to
prevent reverse flow

PARTS OF PISTON PUMP


PISTON
CYLINDER
PISTON SEAL
CONNECTING ROD
INLET LINE
OUTLET LINE

DIAPHRAGM PUMP

DIAPHRAGM PUMP
In place of a movable piston, a rubber diaphragm
fixed at periphery reciprocates at center
Suitable for corrosive liquid and slurry also
Low maintenance cost

RECIPROCATING PUMP
PERFORMANCE
Capacity cylinder volume
Capacity stroke rate
Discharge pressure is as per discharge line NRV
spring setting and discharge line pressure drop

GEAR PUMP

GEAR PUMP
Two gears rotate in opposite direction
The space between gears is filled with liquid from
suction side and rotate towards casing
At center, the space between gear is filled with
each others gear; thus the liquid cannot go from
suction to discharge.

PERFORMANCE OF GEAR PUMP


Capacity RPM
Capacity space between gears
Pressure developed depends on discharge line
pressure drop
Suitable for non-corrosive clear liquid only

SCREW PUMP

SCREW PUMP
ONE OR TWO SCREWS ROTATE IN OPPOSITE
DIRECTION
DIRECTION OF ROTATION IS SUCH THAT THE
SCREW PUSHES FROM SUCTION TO
DISCHARGE SIDE
CAPACITY DEPENDS ON ROTATIONAL SPEED
AND PASSAGE OF THE SCREW
PRESSURE DEVELOPED DEPENDS ON NO OF
THREADS

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP


Progressive (or Progressing) Cavity pumps, a type
of Single Screw pump, are used for highly viscous
liquids such as peanut butter or glue, and also for
liquids with significant amounts of solids such as
cement or sand slurry. The stator is a twisted
cavity with an oval-shaped cross-section. the
wavelength of each helix in the rotor is exactly
half that of the rotor

FILTRATION FACTORS
DRIVING FORCE OR P
VISCOSITY
DENSITY
PARTICLE SIZE
CAKE THICKNESS AND EVACUATION
CLOTH PERMEABILITY

HEAT EXCHANGE
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OR
THICKNESS & HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT OF WALL
THERMAL COEFFICIENT, DENSITY,
VISCOSITY & VELOCITY OF FLUIDS
DIAMETER OF THE PASSAGE OF FLUID

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
The centrifugal force utilized by the compressor
is the same force utilized by the centrifugal pump.
The air particles enter the eye of the impeller,
designated D in previous figure. As the impeller
rotates, air is thrown against the casing of the
compressor. The air becomes compressed as more
and more air is thrown out to the casing by the
impeller blades

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
In the Figure the impeller blades curve forward,
which is opposite to the backward curve used
in typical centrifugal liquid pumps. Centrifugal
compressors can use a variety of blade orientation
including both forward and backward curves as
well as other designs. There may be several stages
to a centrifugal air compressor, as in the
centrifugal pump, and the result would be the
same; a higher pressure would be produced.

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

AXIAL COMPRESSOR

AXIAL COMPRESSOR

AXIAL COMPRESSOR
In the axial compressor, the air flows parallel to
the axis of rotation. The compressor is composed
of several rows of airfoil cascades. Some of the
rows, called rotors, are connected to the central
shaft and rotate at high speed. Other rows, called
stators, are fixed and do not rotate. The job of the
stators is to increase pressure and keep the flow
from spiraling around the axis by bringing the
flow back parallel to the axis.

SCREW COMPRESSOR

SCREW COMPRESSOR
A screw compressor is a positive displacement
machine that uses a pair of intermeshing rotors
instead of a piston to produce compression. The
rotors comprise of helical lobes affixed to a shaft.
One rotor is called the male rotor and it will
typically have four bulbous lobes*. The other rotor
is the female rotor and this has valleys machined
into it that match the curvature of the male lobes.
Typically the female rotor will have six valleys*.

SCREW COMPRESSORS
This means that for one revolution of the male
rotor, the female rotor will only turn through 240
deg. For the female rotor to complete one cycle,
the male rotor will have to rotate 11/2 times.
Because of the number of male lobes, there are
four compression cycles per revolution which
means that the resulting compressed air has small
pulsation's compared to a reciprocating
compressor.

VANE COMPRESSOR
A rotary vane compressor is a positive
displacement machine that uses an eccentric rotor
placed within a cylinder. The rotor has slots along
its length, each slot contains a vane. The vanes are
thrown outwards by centrifugal force when the
compressor is running and the vanes move in and
out of the slot because the rotor is eccentric to the
casing. The vanes sweep the cylinder, sucking air
in on one side and ejecting it on the other.

COMPRESSOR COOLER
The amount of moisture that air can hold is
inversely proportional to the pressure of the air. As
the pressure of the air increases, the amount of
moisture that air can hold decreases. The amount
of moisture that air can hold is also proportional to
the temperature of the air. As the temperature of
the air increases, the amount of moisture it can
hold increases.

COMPRESSOR COOLER
The pressure change of compressed air is larger
than the temperature change. This causes moisture
in the air to condense. Moisture in compressed air
systems can cause serious damage. The condensed
moisture can cause corrosion, water hammers, and
freeze damage; therefore, it is important to avoid
moisture in compressed air systems. Coolers are
used to minimize the problems caused by heat and
moisture in compressed air systems.

SCREW CONVEYOR

TYPE OF VALVES
CATEGORIZED AS PER THE SHAPE OF
SPINDLE HEAD
GATE, KNIFE
GLOBE
BUTTERFLY
AUDCO
NEEDLE

GATE VALVE
THE GATE MOVES UP AND DOWN TO
ALLOW OR OBSTRUCT THE FLUID PATH
GATE SITS ON THE GROOVE
NOT USED FOR CONTROLLING PURPOSE
UNSUITABLE FOR SLURRY AND SCALE
PRONE LIQUID
PRESSURE DROP IS NEGLIGIBLE

KNIFE VALVE
THE VALVE SITS ON COLLAPSIBLE
RUBBER GROOVES
CAN BE USED FOR SLURRY SERVICE IN
EITHER FULLY OPEN OR FULLY CLOSE
CONDITION

GLOBE VALVE
THE GLOBE RESTS ON CIRCULAR METAL
SHEET FOR COMPLETE PLUGGING
USED FOR CONTROLLING ALSO
FV-2 & Y-BODY VALVES ARE USED FOR
SLURRY SERVICE
PRESSURE DROP IS SUBSTANTIAL

BUTTERFLY VALVE
POSITION OF FLAP CHANGES OPENING
AREA FOR FLOW
GENERALLY USED FOR PNEUMATIC
CONTROL VALVE
PRESSURE DROP IS LOW

AUDCO VALVE
RECTANGULAR PASSAGE REMAINS OPEN
IN DIRECTION OF FLOW
THE PASSAGE CLOSES WHEN ROTATED 90O
USED IN SMALL SIZES BECAUSE OF
DIFFICULTY IN OPERATION
NOT USED FOR CONTROLLING PURPOSE

NEEDLE VALVE
A CONICAL NEEDLE CREATES VARIABLE
PASSAGE OPENING IN A CIRCULAR SHEET
USED FOR VERY FINE CONTROL OF LOW
FLOW RATE LIQUID
NOT SUITABLE FOR SLURRY HANDLING

WATER RING BLOWER

WATER RING BLOWER


CIRCULAR ROTOR PLACED
ECCENTRICALLY IN ELLIPTICAL CASING
WATER EXPELS OUT AT BOTTOM PORTION
WHILE ROTATING COUNTERCLOCKWISE
UPWARD, WATER COMES INSIDE THE VANE
AND THE GAS COMPRESSED & GOES OUT
AT DISCHARGE PORT

WATER RING BLOWER


THE WATER FILLED IN VANES EXPEL
GRADUALLY AND VACUUM IS CREATED IN
THE VANE NEAR SUCTION PORT
AIR IS TRAPPED AND MOVE TOWARD
BOTTOM
SEAL WATER ENTERS AT BOTTOM PORTION

ROOT BLOWER

ROOT BLOWER
NAMED AFTER INVENTING SCIENTISTS
PHILANDER H. & FRANCIS M. ROOTS
TWO PISTONS ROTATE IN OPPOSITE
DIRECTION
THE AIR IS TAKEN FROM SUCTION TO
DISCHARGE AT PERIPHERY. ONE END OF EACH
PISTON ALWAYS TOUCHES THE CASING &
OTHER END OF TOUCHES THE BODY OF THE
OTHER.