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Disciplined Problem

Solving Process
Rajaram Khose

Steps for Problem Solving

Determination of Problem
Containment and short term corrective
Investigation of causes
- Cause & Effect Diagram
- Master Cause Analysis
- Why -Why Analysis

Steps for Problem Solving (Contd. .)

Verification of root causes
Identification & Evaluate the solution
Implement the actions decided
Verification for implementation and record
the results of action taken
Prevent recurrence (Standardization)

Step-1 : Define the Problem



What is the problem

Complaints due to excessive

processing time

Where, When and to what extent

has it occurred

At Plant-1, from Dec-2003 onward

running at an average of 50 / week

Which object/process is affected by

the problem

Lack of new orders

What need changing, and

Processing time should be reduced

How urgent it is.

Within three months

Step-2 Containment Action

This includes action taken to eliminate the nonconformity & the actions taken to contain the parts
not reaching the customer.
- Correction (Rework/Repair)
- Accept under concession - Internal audit / Customer
- Scrap or other application
- Increased inspection, additional operation, etc.
Types of Disposition
- Point Disposition
- Horizontal Disposition
- Vertical Disposition

Step-3 & 4 Investigation and

verification of Root cause(s)


Seeking out the root cause of the problem by

progressively identifying possible causes and then
analysis and data collection narrowing these down to
the actual root cause.
Carry out Master cause analysis and Why-Why
Master Cause Analysis Table

Is there a
spec. ?

If so,
Is it
Diff. in
Basis for
What is the
What is
Spec. V/s.
the spec.
actual ?
the spec.
and how ?

Step-3 & 4 Investigation and

verification of Root cause(s)
Why -Why Analysis Table







Step-5 Identify & Evaluate


A solution best applied to a problem that yields

optimum results.
A solution chosen by a team approach has the
commitment of that team and it will succeed better
than the best solution
Consider the potential side effects of each solutions

Step-6 Implement the actions


Prepare a plan for implementation of the agreed

solution. Once the plan has been implemented then
go on to collect data on the new situation to test the
solution has worked.

If the solution has been effective we can go on to the

last phase. If not then we need to revisit step 2 to
make certain that the correct root cause was found.

Step-7 Verification for


Verify the action taken and record the results of the

action taken.

Step-8 Prevent recurrence

Prevent the habit of reverting to the previous state through:

- Make changes permanent by changing procedures, SOPs etc.
- Follow up every change to stop pressure to revert
- Make sure that any changes needed elsewhere actually
- Communicate the changes to everyone
- Keep track of the improvements and display the results
- Make the new way of operation attractive to everyone.

Seven QC Tools`
They are

Pareto analysis


Check sheet

Cause & Effect Diagram


Scattered Diagram

Control Charts