There is three party
• Sender • Receiver • Carrier

What we have at sender side
• Higher layer- the sender writes the letter, insert the letter in an envelop, writes the sender and receiver addresses and drops the letter in a mail box. • Middle layer- the letter is picked by a letter carrier and delivered to the post office. • Lower layer- the layer is sorted at the post office, a carrier transports the letter.

On the way
• Branch office-> central office-> ………

At receiver site
• Lower layer – The carrier transport the letter to the post office. • Middle layer – the letter is sorted and delivered to the recipient’s mailbox • Higher layer – the receiver picks up the letter, open the envelope and read

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model to describe how information is transferred from one machine to another, from the point when a user enters information using a keyboard and mouse to when that information is converted to electrical or light signals transferred along a piece of wire or radio waves transferred through the air. It is important to understand that the OSI Reference Model describes concepts and terms in a general manner, and that many network protocols such as IP fail to fit nicely into the scheme explained in ISO’s model.

The OSI Reference Model:
• Through the 1970s, proprietary systems were the rule • In 1974, the ISO developed the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Ref. Model • The pieces needed to construct a network • A basis for standardization • The OSI Model is helpful for understanding a wide variety of networks

• ISO developed the seven-layer model to help vendors and network administrators gain a better understanding of how data is handled and transported between networking devices, as well as to provide a guideline for the implementation of new networking standards and technologies.

The OSI Reference Model
• Seven Layers • Each layer provides a set of functions to the layer above, and relies on the functions of the layer below • Each layer communicates with its peer layer on another node by sending messages back and forth.

OSI Model Layers

OSI Layers
Application • Network applications such as file transfer Presentation • Data formatting and encryption Session • Establishment and maintenance of sessions

OSI Layers (cont.)
Transport • End-to-end delivery Network • Delivery of packets, including routing Data-link • Transfer of units of information, framing and error checking Physical • Transmission of binary data

The Physical Layer
Function: • Accept a raw string of bits and deliver it across a link Key issues: • The physical characteristics of interfaces and medium • Representation of bits - Encoding of bits • Data rate – it also define the rate of transmission of bits. • Synchronization of bits – same wave length • Line configuration – connection of the devices to media –p2p • Physical topology • Connection establishment & termination • Transmission mode – simple, half and full duplex • repeating, or amplification to extend range of transmission

The Data Link Layer
Purpose: • Provide error-free transmission across a single link Functions: • Framing • Physical addressing • Error detection & Correction • Flow control • Access control

The Network Layer
Purpose: -Deliver packets from sending computer to receiving computer (host-to-host) across a communications network. -Shields higher layers from the details of how the data get to their destination. Addressing : How do you figure out which machine to send the packet to? Routing: – What’s the best set of links from here to there? Congestion control: What if one intermediate node gets flooded with packets from many quarters?

The Transport Layer
Purpose: – Provide end-to-end delivery, from one computer (host) to another. Issues: – Establishing/terminating connection – Flow Control – Error detection & correction – Quality of service – Multiplexing

The transport layer..
The transport layer is responsible for the actual mechanics of a connection, where it can provide both reliable and unreliable delivery of data. For reliable connections, the transport layer is responsible for error detection and correction: when an error is detected, the transport layer will resend the data, thus providing the correction. For unreliable connections, the transport layer provides only error detection—error correction is left up to one of the higher layers (typically the application layer).

The Transport Layer
Does many of the same things as the data link layer but… The two endpoints are across a network, not just across a wire.

The Session Layer
Purpose: – Provide a means of controlling the dialog between two end users (applications) Issues: – dialogue management (half- vs. full duplex) – synchronization & recovery management The session layer is not often used in existing systems

Session Layer
The session layer is responsible for initiating the setup and teardown of connections. In order to perform these functions, the session layer must determine whether data stays local to a computer or must be obtained or sent to a remote networking device. In the latter case, the session layer initiates the connection. The session layer is also responsible for differentiating among multiple network connections, ensuring that data is sent across the correct connection as well as taking data from a connection and forwarding it to the correct application.

The Presentation Layer
Formatting the data for transmission – End-systems may represent at data in many ways. – Looks at the structure of the data – Presentation-layer functions are today handled by application protocols

The presentation layer
• The presentation layer is responsible for defining how information is presented to the user in the interface that they are using. This layer defines how various forms of text, graphics, video, and/or audio information are presented to the user. For example, text is represented in two different forms: ASCII and EBCDIC. ASCII (the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, used by most devices today) uses seven bits to represent characters. EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code, developed by IBM) is still used in mainframe environments to represent characters. Text can also be shaped by different elements, such as font, underline, italic, and bold.

The Application Layer
Purpose: – Provide general-purpose network-based functions to users • File transfer • Electronic Mail • Directory lookup • Virtual terminal • Network management (sort of) • World-wide Web

• The seventh layer, or topmost layer, of the OSI Reference Model is the application layer. It provides the interface that a person uses to interact with the application. This interface can be command-line-based or graphics-based.