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Aircraft

LANDING
GEAR Systems

Landing gear
The

main structural component of an


aircraft that supports the weight of
the aircraft on land and water.

purpose
Supports

the aircraft during ground


operations
Cushions the landing impact
Dampens vibrations while taxing and
towing
Provides a means for controlling the
aircraft on ground

requirements

Shock absorber
Must be able to absorb the energy developed
by the airplane in dropping from a specified
height at maximum landing weight
Drop test

A positive means must be provided to


maintain the landing gear in the extended
position when the aircraft is on ground.
Safety switches
Down locks
Ground locks (Safety pins or clips)

Emergency

means

for extending the landing gear must be


provided in case of probable failure in
the extending system.
Indication

Indication must be provided for the pilot


if the landing gear is secured in the
extended or retracted position.
Red light
Green light

Warning
Land planes must be provided with an aural warning
device that functions continuously if the throttles are
closed and the landing gear is not extended and
locked.
If manual shut off is provided for the warning device,
it must be installed in such a way that it will reset
when the throttles are opened.

Control knob
Must be shaped like a small wheel and tire.
Must be located forward of the throttles.
Must be easily operable by both the pilot and copilot.

classification

Based on function (purpose)


Main landing gear
Auxiliary landing gear

Based on arrangement
Conventional landing gear
Tricycle landing gear

Based on dissipation of the landing energy


Non- absorbing landing gear.
Shock absorbing landing gear.

Based on external configuration


Fixed landing gear
Retractable landing gear

Based on no of wheels
Single wheel landing gear
Multiple wheel landing gear

Main landing gear

Provides main support of the airplane both


on land and water.
May include combination of

wheels
floats and skis
shock absorbing equipment
Brakes
retracting mechanisms
Cowling and fairing
structural members and
hardware

Auxiliary landing gear


May

consists of

A tail or nose wheel


Skids
Pontoons
Cowling and reinforcements

Auxiliary
gear

Conventional landing gear

Consists of
Two main wheels ( forward of the CG) and one
tail wheel
Seldom used on modern aircraft
Advantages
Provides good propeller-ground clearance
Advantageous if aircraft operates on rough field

Disadvantages
Restricted visibility
Nosing over
Ground looping

Tricycle landing gear


Two

main wheels (aft of the CG) and


a nose wheel
Widely used on modern airplanes
Advantages
Allows more forceful application of the
brakes with out nosing over
Offers better visibility
Tends to prevent ground looping

Non absorbing landing


gears

Don't have the means to dissipate the


landing energy.
The initial shock of landing absorbed by
this types of landing gears is returned back
to the aircraft structure at a later time.
Include

Rigid landing gear


Shock chord landing gear
Spring type landing gear

Non absorbing landing gear

Absorbing landing gear

This type of landing gear dissipates the


landing energy through some means.
This is done usually by forcing a hydraulic
fluid through an orifice, which generates
heat .
The heat is dissipated into the surrounding
atmosphere.

types
Spring oleo type landing gear
Air oleo type landing gear

Absorbing
landing gear

Fixed landing gear


This

type of landing gear has a fixed


attachment on the aircraft structure.
Remains exposed to the air stream
during flight increasing drag.
Fairings and wheel pants can be used
to reduce drag.

Fixed landing gear

Retractable landing gear


Can

be drawn (retracted) into a


housing on the fuselage or the wings
during flight.
This reduces drag at the expense of
added weight for the retracting and
extending systems.

Retractable landing gear

Multiple wheel landing gear


spreads

the weight of the aircraft on


a larger area.
Provides a safety margin if a tire
fails.

Major landing gear


components

Landing gear assemblies are made up of


various components designed to support
and stabilize the assembly.

Trunnion
Strut
Piston
Torque links
Truck
Drag link

Side brace link

trunnion
Is

the portion of the landing gear


assembly which is attached to the
airframe.
It is supported at its ends by bearing
assemblies which allow the gear to
pivot during extension and retraction.
The landing gear strut extends down
from the approximate center of
trunnion.

Landing
gear
support
beam

trunnion

strut
The

vertical member of the landing


gear assembly that contains the
shock absorbing mechanism.
The top of the strut is attached to ,or
is an integral part, of the trunnion.
The strut forms the cylinder of the air
oleo shock absorber.
It is also called the outer cylinder.

strut

piston

Is the moving part in the air oleo type


shock strut
It fits inside the strut.
Its bottom portion is attached to the axle
or other component on which the axle is
mounted.
It is also called piston rod, piston tube
and inner cylinder.

piston

torque links
Are

two airframe type members used


to connect the strut cylinder to the
piston and axle.
The torque links restrict the extension
of the piston during gear retraction and
hold the wheel and axle in a correctly
aligned position in relation to the strut.
They are also called scissors

truck
Is

used when wheels are used in tandem


or in a dual tandem arrangement.
Is located on the bottom of the piston
with the axles attached to it.
It can tilt fore and aft at the piston
connection to allow for changes in
aircraft attitude during take off, landing
and taxiing.
It is also called a BOGIE

Drag link
Is

designed to stabilize the landing


gear assembly longitudinally.
It is hinged at the middle if the
landing gear retracts forward or aft
to allow the gear to retract.
It is also called a drag strut.

Side brace link


Is

designed to stabilize the landing


gear assembly laterally.
It is hinged in the middle if the
landing gear retracts sideways to
allow for retraction.
It is also called the side strut

Wheels, floats, and skis


Wheels

Are used for operation on land.


Floats

Are used for operation on water.


Skis

Are used for operation on ice.

Floats

skis

Shock absorbing
mechanisms
shock

chord
Spring gear
Spring oleo strut
Air-oleo strut

Shock chord

Is a tightly wound rubber chord mounted in such a


way that it will stretch during the landing touch
down.
The stretched chord stores the initial landing
impact
The stored energy is returned to the aircraft
structure during the landing roll.
Must be replaced periodically, especially if it is over
5 years.
Is color coded to indicate when it was
manufactured.

Spring gear
Is

a single tapered strip or tube of


strong spring steel bolted to a heavy
structural member of the aircraft.
The axle is bolted to this strut.

The

strut flexes and stores the initial


landing impact.
The stored energy is returned to the
aircraft structure during the landing
roll.

Spring-oleo shock strut


Consists

of

a piston and cylinder arrangement


Provides an oil chamber and an orifice
through which oil is forced during landing.

A heavy coiled spring

Continued

Operation
when the airplane is airborne
the strut is extended.
Oil flows to the lower chamber.

When the airplane lands


The piston with the orifice is forced into the cylinder
The oil is forced through the orifice into the upper
chamber.
The metered oil flow provides a cushioning effect to
absorb the primary shock of landing.

After touch down


The strut collapses and the spring is compressed.
Thus the spring supports the weight of the aircraft on ground,
and during taxing.

Air-oleo shock strut


Consists

of

An outer cylinder
A piston
The piston with a tapered metering pin
or tube can move up and down through
the cylinder.
The lower chamber is filled with oil ,and
the upper chamber with air.

Continued..
Operation

When aircraft is airborne


The lower chamber is filled with oil and the
upper chamber with air.

Continued
During touch down
The piston with the metering pin moves into
the cylinder forcing the oil through the
orifice.
The metered flow reduces the speed at
which the piston moves into the cylinder.
This gives a cushioning effect to reduce the
shock of landing.

As the oil moves into the upper chamber the


air is compressed providing more cushioning
effect.
The compressed air will support the weight
of the aircraft on ground.
A snubber device prevents the strut from
extending too rapidly during take off or
during a bad landing.

Centering devices
The nose wheel piston can swivel inside
the cylinder to allow steering on ground.
Provision must be made to establish the
wheel alignment in a straight ahead
direction when the gear is retracted.
This is done by:

External mechanical centering devices or


Centering cams

Centering cams
A

cam ring is installed near the top of


the piston to form the upper cam.
Another cam is mounted inside the
bottom of outer cylinder.
When the strut is fully extended, the
cam faces mate aligning the nose
wheel in a straight ahead direction.

Centering
cam

The following features are also present on


shock struts.
A fluid filler inlet and air valve
For servicing the shock struts with oil and air

Packing gland
To seal the sliding joint between the outer and lower
cylinders.

Packing gland Wiper rings


To keep the sliding surface of the piston free from dirt,
dust, mud ice and snow.

Locking or disconnect pin


To allow quick turning of the aircraft on ground

Jacking points and towing lugs


Instruction plate
Servicing procedures
Correct type of hydraulic fluid

Servicing shock struts


Proper

fluid and air pressure must be


maintained for efficient operation of
shock struts.
To check fluid level
The shock strut must be deflated and
compressed

procedures
Position

the aircraft in a normal


ground position.
Remove the cap from the air valve.
Check the swivel nut for tightness.
Release air pressure trapped between
the valve seat and valve core.
Remove valve core.
Release air pressure in the strut

Air Valve
AN 812

AN6287-1

MS28889

Ensure

compression of the struts.


Remove air valve assembly.
Fill hydraulic fluid.
Reinstall the air valve assembly.
Reinstall valve core
Inflate the struts
Tighten swivel hex nut
Reinstall valve cap

Bleeding shock struts


Bleeding

might be necessary if:-

Fluid level is low


Air is trapped in the strut cylinder

Bleeding

is usually done with the


aircraft on jacks

procedures

Prepare a bleed hose and container.


Jack the aircraft.
Release air pressure.
Remove air valve assembly.
Fill the strut with hydraulic fluid.
Attach the bleed hose.
Place an exerciser jack below the struts and
compress and extend the struts until air bubbles are
eliminated.
Remove the exerciser jack.
Remove bleed hose.
Install air valve and inflate.

Retraction systems
The

is

purpose of retractable landing gear

to reduce drag.
To adapt the aircraft for landing on
different surfaces.
Landing

gear retraction systems can be

Mechanical
Hydraulic or
electrical

Mechanical systems
Is

Is

used
On older aircraft or
On light aircraft for emergency
extension

powered by the pilot moving a


lever or operating a crank
mechanism.

Electrical retraction systems


The

system includes

Motor for converting electrical energy


into rotary motion.
A gear reduction system
Gears to change rotary motion into push
pull movement.
Linkage for connecting the push pull to
the shock strut.

The system is basically an electrically driven


jack for raising or lowering the gears.
When a switch is placed in the up position an
electric motor operates to retract and lock
the gears in the up position.
When the switch is placed in the down
position the motor reverses and moves the
gears down.
The sequence of operations is similar to
hydraulic retraction systems.

Electrical retraction system

Hydraulic retraction system

Uses hydraulic pressure to move the gear


between the extended and retracted
position.
Commonly used for all types of aircraft.

Exclusively for landing gear which is too heavy


to be economically operated by other methods.
The hydraulic pressure can be generated by

Electrically operated pumps or


Engine driven pumps
Hand pumps for emergency

system devices

Actuating cylinders
Selector valves
Up-locks
Down-locks
Sequence valves
Tubing
Other components
Are interconnected to permit the proper sequenced
retraction and extension of the landing gear and the
landing gear doors.

Emergency extension
system
Lowers

the landing gears if the main


power system fails.
Some aircraft have an emergency
release handle in the cockpit, which
is connected through a mechanical
linkage to the gear up lock.
It releases the up lock allowing the
gears to free fall or extend under
their own weight when operated.

Landing gear safety devices


Accidental

retraction of a landing
gear may be prevented by

Mechanical down locks


Safety switches
Ground locks

Mechanical down locks


Are built in parts of the gear retraction
system
Are operated automatically by the gear
retraction system
Electrically operated safety switches are
installed to prevent accidental operation
of the down locks.

Safety switches
Is

usually mounted in a bracket on


one of the main gear shock strut.
Is actuated by the linkage through
the landing gear torque links.
The torque links spread apart or
move together at the shock strut
piston extends or retracts in the
cylinder.

When the aircraft is on the ground the torque


links are close together causing the adjusting
links to open the safety switches.
During take-off as the struts extend the torque
links close the safety switch.
A ground for a solenoid is completed when the
safety switch closes.
The energized solenoid locks the selector valve so
that the gear handle can be positioned to raise
the gear.
They are also called squat switches or
wow switches

Ground locks

Most aircraft are equipped with additional


safety devices to prevent collapse of the
gear when the aircraft is on the ground.
One common type is a pin stalled in aligned
holes drilled in two or more units of the
landing gear support structure.
Another type is spring loaded clip design to
fit around and hold two or more units of the
support structure together.
All types usually have red streamers
permanently attached to them to readily
indicate whether they are installed or not.

Landing gear position


indicators
A

typical gear position warning and


indicator employs: When the landing gear is down and
locked
A Green light for each gear or
A silhouette of each gear and
A Warning light which is off.

When the gears are in transit


Red warning light and.
Diagonal red and florescent strips.

When the landing gears are up and


locked
Warning light is off.
Tab type indicators.

warning
Gear

warning devices are incorporated


on all retractable gear aircraft.
Usually consist off
A horn or some other aural device and
A red warning light
The

horn blows and the red warning


light comes on when one or more
throttles are retarded and the landing
gear is in a position other than down
and locked.

Steering systems
Are used to control the direction of
movement of an aircraft while taxiing.
types

Mechanical steering systems


Power steering systems

Some small aircraft do not have a


steering system
Steering is obtained by the differential
application of the brakes.

Mechanical steering
systems
Are found on small aircraft where the
pilot can press on the rudder pedal
and cause the nose wheel or tail
wheel to turn with out any form of
powered resistance.
Some aircraft have the rudder pedals
directly linked to the nose wheel
steering arm while others use a spring
interconnect.

Power steering systems

Are used for aircraft which require large


amounts of force to be applied to the nose
wheel to achieve efficient steering control.
Power steering systems can be controlled
by: Rudder pedals
A steering wheel
By a combination system
Allowing full directional control with steering wheel and
Small degree of control with the pedals.

Operation of either of the controls causes


hydraulic pressure to move an actuator on the
nose wheel and changes the direction of
movement.
A follow up system is used to provide only as
much nose wheel deflection as the pilot
requires based on the amount the pedal or the
steering wheel is deflected.
A compensator unit in the system keeps fluid
in the steering cylinder pressurized at all
times.
A safety valve allows the wheels to trail or
swivel in the event of hydraulic failure.

System components

Each steering system usually contains

A cockpit control.
Mechanical or hydraulic connection.
A control unit usually a metering valve.
A source of power usually system hydraulic
pressure.
Tubing
Steering cylinders
A pressurizing assembly usually a compensator
to keep the cylinders pressurized.

A follow up mechanism

To return the metering valve to the off position

Safety valves

System operation

The steering wheel connects through a shaft to a


steering drum.
The rotation of the drum is transmitted to the control
drum of the differential assembly.
Movement of the differential assembly is transmitted
by the differential link to the metering valve assembly.
This moves the selector valve to the selected
direction.
System hydraulic pressure is routed through the
selector valve to one of the steering cylinders.
Actuation of the cylinders turns the spindle which
pivots at a point.
The spindle is attached to the strut.

This turns the nose wheel to the desired direction.

Steering control valve and


compensator
The

valve routes system pressure to


one of the actuators while at the
same time connecting the opposite
to the return.
The compensator opens to allow fluid
into system return when pressure is
developed.

Steering
control valve

Follow up linkage

Returns the metering valve to the neutral


position after the nose wheel is deflected
to the selected angle.
Components

The steering spindle


Orifice rod
Centering cams
Steering follow up links
Follow up cables
Differential assembly
Differential link

Follow up linkage operation


The spindle, as it turns the nose wheel,
drives a pinion gear in the opposite
direction.
The pinion gear drives the orifice rod which
in turn drives the scissor follow up links.
The follow up links turn the follow up drum,
whose movement is transmitted to the
differential assembly by the follow up cables.
This causes the differential link to move the
metering valve toward the neutral position.

Shimmy dampers (shimmy


dampeners)
The

nose wheel has a tendency to


shimmy (oscillate from side to side)
due to its geometry.
A Shimmy damper is a hydraulic
snubbing device that reduces the
tendency of the nose gear to
oscillate.

Shimmy dampers
Types

Piston type
Vane type
Steer damper

Piston type shimmy damper


Components

the cam assembly


The damper assembly

The damper assembly


Is

mounted on a bracket at the lower


end of the outer cylinder
Consists of
Spring loaded reservoir piston
To maintain the fluid under constant pressure

An operating cylinder and piston


a ball check valve
Allows flow of fluid from the reservoir into
the operating cylinder.

Piston type shimmy damper

The cam assembly

Attached to the inner cylinder and rotates


with the nose wheel.
Consists of
Two cams with lobes which are mirror images
of each other.
The lobes are located in such a way that maximum
resistance is offered when the wheels are centered.

A cam follower crank with an arm connected to


the operating piston shaft.
Incorporates rollers that follow the cams to restrict
rotation

operation

Turning of the nose wheel turns the cams


The cams push on the rollers of the cam
follower
This tends to rotate the cam follower arm
The arm pushes or pulls on the operating
piston forcing it to move inside the cylinder.
But the movement of the piston is restricted
by the flow of the confined fluid through the
orifice on the piston.
This dampens the oscillation of the nose
wheel.

Vane type shimmy damper


Installation

Is installed on the shock strut internally


or externally
Components

The replenishing chamber


The working chamber
The lower shaft packing chamber

The replenishing chamber


Is

the top part of the housing


Stores supply of fluid
A spring loaded piston pressurizes
the chamber.

The working chamber


Separated

from the replenishing


chamber by the abutment and valve
assembly.
Contains two one way check valves.
Allow fluid to flow from the replenishing
chamber to the working chamber.

Divided into four sections by


two stationary vanes
also called abutment flanges
Keyed to the inner wall of the housing

two rotating vanes.


Are integral part of the wing shaft
The shaft contains an orifice valve through which
fluid must pass to go from one chamber to the other.

operation
As

the shaft is turned in either direction

The rotating vanes displace fluid in two of the


chambers reducing the volume of the chambers.
Since flow of the fluid is restricted by the orifice
on the shaft sudden rotation of the shaft is
damped.
A bimetallic compensator adjusts the size of the
orifice to compensate for temperature changes.
if exceptionally high pressure is developed in the
working chamber: The closing flange moves down ,compressing the
spring to allow fluid to flow below the vanes

Steer damper
Can

be used both for steering and


shimmy damping.

Brake systems
Purpose

Are used for slowing, stopping, holding,


or steering the aircraft.
Requirement

Must develop sufficient force to stop the


aircraft in a reasonable distance.
Must hold the aircraft for normal engine
run up.
Must permit steering of the aircraft on
ground.

types
Independent

brake systems
Power control brake systems
Power boost brake systems

Independent brake system

Is used on small aircraft


Is called independent because it has its
own reservoir and is entirely independent
of the aircraft main hydraulic system.
is powered by master cylinders
Consists of
One or two master cylinders
Mechanical linkages

To connect the brake pedal to its corresponding


master cylinder

Connecting fluid lines


Brake assembly on each main landing gear

Each master cylinder is actuated by toe


pressure on the brake pedal

Builds up pressure by the movement of the piston


inside a sealed fluid tight cylinder.

The resulting hydraulic pressure is transmitted


to the brake assembly on each wheel
each brake assembly creates the necessary
friction to slow and stop the rotation of the
wheel.
The piston is returned to the off position by
the return spring when the pedals are
released.

typical master cylinder has a


compensating port or valve
It permits the fluid to flow from the
brake chamber back to the reservoir
when excessive pressure is developed in
the brake line due to an increase in
temperature.
This prevents the brake from locking or
dragging.

Master cylinders
The

two well known types are

the GOODYEAR master cylinders and


WARNER master cylinders.

GOODYEAR master cylinder


Fluid

is fed from an external reservoir


by gravity.
Parking brake may be applied by a
ratchet type lock built into the
mechanical linkage between the
pedals and the cylinder.

Warner master cylinder


Incorporates

(in a single housing)

A reservoir
Pressure chamber and
A Compensating device

The

reservoir is vented to the


atmosphere

Power brake systems


Are

used on aircraft which require


high volume of fluid for the brakes.
In a typical system
A line is tapped off from the main
hydraulic system pressure line.
A check valve is installed in the line to
prevent loss of hydraulic fluid

System components
Check

valve

Prevents loss of brake system pressure


Accumulator

Stores reserve supply of fluid under


pressure
When pressure drops, fluid enters from
the system and is trapped by the check
valve.
Also acts as a surge chamber for excess
loads on the system.

System components

Power brake Control valves

Regulate and control the volume and pressure of


the hydraulic fluid which actuates the brakes.

Brake Deboost valves

Reduce the pressure and increase the volume of


fluid.

Antiskid control valves

Close the line to reduce the brake pressure, if the


wheel tends to skid.

Shuttle valves

Isolates the emergency brake system from the main


brake system

Brake assemblies

Power brake control valve


(spool type)

Consists of (in a
housing)
A sleeve
A spool
A plunger (feel) spring and
Provides feel to the brake
pedal

A return spring
Returns the spool to the
off position

has three ports


Pressure
Brake
return

operation

The spool moves inside the sleeve closing or


opening either the return or the pressure line.
When brakes are applied
The plunger pushes the spool to open system pressure
port
The system pressure flows to the brakes

When a steady force is applied


The return spring with system pressure compresses the
feel spring closing the system pressure line.
Constant pressure is maintained in the brake line.

When released
The return spring forces the spool to open the system
return line releasing brake pressure

Brake Deboost valves

Purpose
to reduce system pressure and increase volume
for brake application

Components

Housing
A piston with small diameter
A piston with a larger diameter
A check valve
A pintle and
A reset handle

operation
When

brakes are applied

System pressure acts on the small piston


The force exerted on the small piston is
directly transmitted to the large piston.
The large piston develops a smaller
pressure displacing large volume of fluid
which is supplied to the brake assembly.
When

brakes are released

The spring returns the piston backward

Lock-out
brake
Deboost
valve

The

pintle opens the check valve , if


the fluid in the brake chamber is
depleted.
The reset handle, when operated,
opens a valve to allow fluid to fill the
brake chamber.

Power boost brake systems


Are used for aircraft that land too fast
to employ the independent brake
system but are too light to require
power control valves.
In this system

A line is tapped off the main hydraulic


pressure line.
This pressure is used to assist the pedals
through power boost master cylinders.
The system pressure doesn't enter the brakes.

System components
A

typical system consists of

A reservoir
Power boost master cylinders
Shuttle valves
Brake assemblies

Boosted
brake
master
cylinder

System operation

Main hydraulic system pressure is routed to the


power boost master cylinders
When the brake pedals are depressed: System pressure acts on the master cylinder piston to
assist the pedals.
Fluid from the master cylinder is forced to actuate the
brake assembly

When the pedals are released: The system pressure port on the master cylinder is
closed.
The return spring forces the piston back
The compensator port opens to relief the brake pressure

Boosted
brake
master
cylinder

Brake assemblies
The

most commonly used brake


assemblies on aircraft are:

Single disk brakes


Dual disk brakes
Multiple disk brakes
Segmented disk brakes
Expander tube type brakes

Single disk brake


Components

A brake disk
Housing
Cylinders
In each cylinder
A piston
A return spring
An automatic adjusting pin

Brake lining or puck

Installation
The disk is keyed with the wheel
Rotates with the wheel
Can freely move laterally within the brake cavity

The housing is bolted to the axle on the


flange

operation

When brakes are applied


Hydraulic pressure from the brake control
unit enters the cylinder, forcing the
pistons with their pucks against the
rotating disk.

When brake pressure is released


The return spring forces back the pistons
to their normal position

Braking is accomplished by applying


friction to both sides of the disk.

Dual disk brakes


Are

used when more braking action


is desired.
Similar to single disk type ,except
that two rotating disks are used.

Multiple disk brakes


Are heavy duty brakes used with power brake
control valves or power boost master cylinders.

Components

A bearing carrier
Rotating disks (rotors)
Stationary disks (stators)
Circular actuating cylinder or piston
An automatic adjuster and
Other components

installation
The

bearing carrier is bolted to the


axle flange.
Serves as a housing for the cylinders
The stationary disks are keyed to the
bearing carrier

The

rotors are keyed to the landing


wheel, therefore, rotating with it.

operation
Regulated

pressure is applied to a
chamber in the bearing carrier.
The pressure forces the annular
piston to move outward compressing
the rotating and stationary disks.
The resulting friction causes braking
action.

Segmented rotor brakes


Are

heavy-duty brakes specially


adapted for use with high pressure
hydraulic systems.
May be used with either power control
valves or power boost master cylinders.
Braking is accomplished by means of
several sets of stationary high friction
type brake linings making contact with
rotating (rotor) segments.

components

A carrier assembly
Pistons
Piston Cup seals
Pressure plate
Auxiliary stator
plate
Rotor segments
Stator plates
A compensating
shim
Automatic adjuster
Backing plate

Installation

Part of the carrier assembly is attached to the flange


on the axle.
Grooves or cylinders are machined in the carrier to
receive the piston cups and pistons.
Each rotor plate is notched on the outside
circumference to enable it to be keyed to the wheel
and rotates with it.
The stator plates, with brake lining blocks on both
sides, are mounted between each of the rotor
segments.
A compensating shim is provided following the last
rotor segment so that all the brake lining available
for wear is used.

Operation
When brakes are applied hydraulic
pressure acts on the piston.
The piston pushes against the
pressure plate and the rotors creating
friction between the rotors and stators
This provides the breaking action that
slows and stops the rotation of the
wheels.

Expander tube brakes


Is

a low pressure brake with 360


degree of braking surface.
Is light in weight
Has fewer moving parts
May be used on large aircraft as well
as in small aircraft.

components

The frame
A casting bolted to the flange on the axle

Expander tube

Made of neoprene reinforced with fabric


Has a metal nozzle through which fluid
enters and leaves the tube

Brake blocks
Return springs
A clearance adjuster

operation
When

brakes are applied:-

Fluid from the brake control valve enters the


expander tube inflating it.
The inflating tube forces the brake blocks
against the rotating brake drum.
The resulting friction causes a braking action.
When

brakes are released:-

The return spring forces the hydraulic fluid to


system return manifold

Inspection and maintenance


Inspection

must be conducted at
regular intervals.
Maintenance must be performed
promptly and carefully.
Check for brake lining wear
Check for air in the system
Check for leaks

Checking for leaks


Make

sure that the system is under


operating pressure.
However tighten all fittings with the
pressure turned off.
Check all flexible hose for swelling,
cracking or deterioration. Replace if
deterioration is noted.

Bleeding brakes
purpose

to maintain proper fluid level


To remove air from the system
Air in the system is indicated by a spongy
action of the brake pedals

There

are two general methods

Top down method (gravity method)


Bottom upward method (pressure
method)

precautions
Make

sure that equipment is clean and


proper type of hydraulic fluid is used.
Maintain adequate supply of fluid to prevent
introduction of air.
Continue bleeding until no more air bubbles
are expelled from the system and a firm
brake pedal movement is obtained.
Check reservoir fluid level when complete
and check the entire system for leaks with
brake pressure on.

Anti-skid systems
Purpose

To prevent loss of airplane control on


ground which would be caused by
skidding of the wheels.

System components
Wheel

speed sensors

Detect the rate of deceleration of the


wheels
Control

box

Receives and analyses the signal


Sends a control signal to the valve
Control

valves

Close and open the line

Wheel speed sensors


Types

Ac system sensor
Dc system sensor

Ac system sensor

Is a variable reluctance ac generator


Uses a: permanent magnet surrounded by a pick up coil
in the axle.
soft iron exciter ring mounted on the wheel hub
so that it rotates around the sensor.

Operation
The rotation of the exciter induces a variable
frequency ac voltage on the pick up coil
depending on the rotational speed of the wheel.

DC system wheel speed


sensor
Is

a small permanent magnet dc


generator.
The voltage output of the sensor is
directly proportional to the rotational
speed of the armature.
The armature shaft is mechanically
linked with wheel hub.

Control valve
Components

Flapper valve
Nozzles
Spool valves
Three ports for
System return
Pressure from brake
control valve
Brake pressure

operation

Control box
Purpose

To receive signals from the sensors and


send a usable signal to the control
valves to prevent skidding of the
wheels.
To prevent brake pressure from being
applied prior to touch down.

components

Touch
down

Aircraft landing wheels


Purpose

Provide mounting for tires.


Construction

Most of them are made of aluminum or


magnesium alloys
Can be cast or forged.

Types
Fixed

flange wheels
Removable flange wheels
Split flange wheels

Fixed flange wheel


Were

used on early aircraft where


the tires were flexible enough that
they could be forced over the wheel
rim with tire tools.
But modern aircraft tires are stiff that
they cannot be forced over the rims.

Removable flange wheel


Can

be

A drop center removable flange wheel or


A flat base removable flange wheel
Have

a single flange held in place by a


retainer snap ring.
Wheel bearing races are usually shrunk
fitted into the hub of the wheel casing
with lock nuts on the inner side.
Provide surfaces on which the bearings
ride.

Split wheels

Is the most popular type used on most


aircraft today.
parts
Inboard wheel half
Outboard wheel half
O-ring

The inboard and outboard wheel halves


are bolted together.
The o-ring prevents leakage of air from a
tubeless tire through the wheel half
mating surfaces.

Inboard wheel half


The half of the wheel into which the brake fits.
Rotating brake disks are driven by
Tangs on the disk which ride in steel reinforced key
ways.
Steel disk keys bolted inside the wheel which mate
with slots on the periphery of the disk.

Parts
Grease seal
Covers the bearings to hold grease in the bearing area.

Fusible plugs
Melt and deflate the tire, if high pressure is developed
in the tires.

Outboard wheel half

Bolts to the inboard wheel half


Parts

Bearing cup
Seal
Protects the rollers from dirt and water.
Retains grease

Cap
Covers the axle shaft and the bearings
Is held by a retaining ring

Inflation valve
Provides a connection point for inflating the tire

Fusible
plug

valve

Aircraft Tires
purpose

Provide a cushion of air that helps to


absorb the shocks and roughness of
landings and take offs.
Support weight of the aircraft on ground
Provide traction for braking and
stopping the aircraft.

Classification
Based

on type

Type I through IX
Based

on ply rating

Relates to static loads and inflation pressure


Based

tube

on the presence or absence of a

Tubeless
Tube type

types
Type I
Type II

Smooth contour
High pressure

Type III

Low pressure

Type IV
type V
Type VI
type VII
Type VII
type VIII

Extra low pressure


n/a
Low profile
Extra high pressure
Extra high pressure, high or low speed
Extra high pressure, high or low speed
low profile

Type III tires


The

most popular low pressure tire


Section width is wide in relation to the
bead diameter.
Allows low inflation pressure for improved
floatation and cushioning.
The

section width and bead diameter


are used to designate the size of the
tire
e.g. 9.50-16

Bead diameter and section


width

Type VII tire


Extra

high pressure tire


A standard for jet aircraft
Size is designated by outside
diameter and section width.
E.g. 38x13

Type VIII tire


Are

used for high performance jet


aircraft
Use extra high inflation pressure.
Have a low profile.
Size designation includes outside
diameter section width and rim
diameter.
E.g. 30x11.50-14.5

Ply rating
Old

tires were rated for strength by


number of cotton fabric plies used in
the construction of the carcass.
But newer materials have much
greater strength than the cotton.
Ply rating is a parameter that
indicates the number of plies of
cotton fabric needed to produce the
same strength as the actual plies.

Tube type and Tubeless tires


Tubeless

Has an inner liner about one tenth of an


inch thick that serves as a container for
the air.
Tubeless tires are identified by the word
tubeless on their side wall.

Tube

type tires have no such liner.

Tire construction
Aircraft

tires must be strong to


absorb the tremendous loads of
landing.
They must also operate at high
speeds.

Parts of a tire
The

bead
The carcass
The tread

The bead
Anchors the carcass and provides a firm
mounting for the tire on the wheel.
All the ground forces terminate on the bead
Is made of bundles of high strength steel
wire.
Rubber apex strips stream line the beads so that
the fabric fits smoothly.
Flippers are layers of rubber and fabric that
enclose the bead.
Insulate the fabric from the bead wires

The carcass

Is made up of layers of rubber coated fabric.


The fabric is cut into strips.
The cords of the fabric run at 45 degrees to
the length of the strip.
The strips extend completely through the
tire and lap back over the beads to form the
ply turn ups.
Chaffers enclose the entire bead area
Provide chafe resistance with the wheel.

The tread
The wearing surface on the outer
circumference of of the tire.
Is made of specially compounded rubber
Has a pattern of grooves
Tread patterns

Plain tread
All weather tread
Ribbed tread
deflector

deflector