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Sound

Overview

The Facts of Sound


Sound Vocabulary
The Ear and Sound
Musical Instruments and
other uses of Sound
Other types of waves

Sound

The Facts

1. is a form of energy produced &


transmitted by vibrating matter
2. travels in longitudinal waves
3.travels faster through solids than
liquids or gases

Sound waves and

Sound waves travel faster through solids because


there are more particles close together to transfer
the energy.

Speed of Sound

Medium (Matter)
gas
air (0o C)

liquid

solid

air (20o C)
water (25o C)
sea water
iron
copper
glass
diamond

Speed m/sec
331
343
1493
1533
5130
3560
5640
12000

Vibration
- Very fast, repeated backward and forward
movement of particles of matter
-

For example, the vibration of the tuning fork creates pure sound.

The hammer hits the nail and the particles vibrate making noise.

Waves transport energy without


moving matter

Watch the
3 red dots
You will see
them
vibrate, but
not move
with the
wave to
the end.
All the
particles
are
vibrating

Sound Waves
- Alternating areas of high and low pressure
in the air (compressions and rarefactions)

Sound Waves
- ALL sound is carried through matter
as sound waves. In a vacuum there are no
particles so sound cannot travel.

Alternating areas of high and low pressure in the air (compressions


and rarefactions)

Sound Waves
- Because sound waves need particles to be
transmitted they are mechanical waves
-

ALL sound is carried through matter as sound waves. In a vacuum


there are no particles so sound cannot travel.

Alternating areas of high and low pressure in the air (compressions


and rarefactions)

Sound Waves
- Sound waves move out in ALL
directions from a vibrating object.
-

Because sound waves need particles to be transmitted they are


mechanical waves

ALL sound is carried through matter as sound waves. In a vacuum


there are no particles so sound cannot travel.

Alternating areas of high and low pressure in the air (compressions


and rarefactions)

Compression
Where particles are pressed
together as the sound wave moves
through matter.

Compression
- Where particles are pressed together as the
sound waves move through matter
- For example,

- a wave travels through the springs just like


sound waves travel through the air
- the places where the springs are close
together are like compressions in the air.
compression

Compressions - The close together part of the wave.


Rarefactions - The spread-out parts of a wave.

Compression Wave = Longitudinal Wave

Longitudinal Wave
Wave)

(Compression

Each wave particle vibrates back


and forth in the same direction of
the wave.

Sound waves covered till now:


States of matter (solid, liquid, gas)
Speed of sound through matter
No sound in a vacuum
Vibration
Compression + Rarefaction
Longitudinal waves

Remember that .

Waves transfer energy without


moving matter.
If you
watch
the 3 red
dots you
will see
them
vibrate,
but not
move
with the
wave to
the end.

Frequency= waves/time

344 m/s in air at 20C


Speed of Sound depends on:
Type of medium
travels better through liquids
and solids
cant travel through a vacuum
Temperature of medium
travels faster at higher

Wavelength & Frequency


- Wavelength is the distance between one
part of a wave and the same part of the next
wave

- Frequency is the number of waves passing a


point in a certain tme
-

Many waves = high frequency


Few waves = low frequency

Characteristics of sound
wave:
1. Loudness
Loudness of sound largely
depends on the intensity of
sound.
The greater the amplitude,
the louder the sound
produced

Loudness and amplitude


of sound is directly
proportional to each other.
The greater the amplitude
of the sound wave that
reaches your eardrum, the
greater the perceived
loudness of the sound.

Amplitude
is the maximum distance
the particles in a wave
vibrate from their rest positions.

Amplitude = loudness
The intensity of a
sound decreases as
you move away from a
sound. The sound is
softer.
As the source of a
sound comes closer
the sound becomes
louder, more intense

soft

loud

A loud sound has a


high amplitude
A soft sound has low
amplitude

2. Pitch and frequency.


Pitch refers to the highness or
lowness of sound
The pitch sound depends on the
frequency
The greater the frequency, the
higher the pitch of sound

Pitch = Frequency
How high or low a sound is
Pitch depends on the frequency of a sound wave
For example,

- Low pitch

- High pitch

- Low frequency

- High frequency

- Longer wavelength

- Shorter wavelength

Frequency is measured in Hertz


For example:

If 20 waves are made per


second, then the frequency
is 20 cycles per second =
20 Hertz

Hz

The human ear can only hear


sounds between
20Hz and 20,000 Hz (Frequency/Pitch)

20 Hz 20,000 Hz
Below 20 Hz is called infrasound
Above 20,000 Hz is called ultrasound

Ultrasound

sound waves with frequencies above the


normal human range of hearing.
Sounds in the range from 20,000-100,000Hz

Infrasound

sounds waves with frequencies below the


normal human range of hearing.
Sounds in the 0.001 - 20Hz range

Amplitude = loudness

The volume or loudness of


sound is measured in
decibels

dB

Loudness of Sound in Decibels


Sound

Loudness (dbs) Hearing


Damage

Average Home

40-50

Loud Music

90-100

After long
exposure

Rock Concert

115-120

Progressive

Jet Engine

120-170

Pain

Sound and Instruments


- Different musical instruments create
different sound vibrations
- Wind instruments by blowing and
vibrating the air e.g. flute, saxophone, organ
- String instruments by touching and

vibrating the strings

e.g. guitar, violin, piano

- Percussion instruments by hitting a


surface e.g. drums, cymbals, triangle

Sound and Instruments


- Instruments can be played at different
pitches (musical notes) by changing
the lengths of different parts.
- For example,

- Another way to make different pitches


is to change the thickness of the
material that vibrates.
A trombones mute absorbs
some of the sound waves
produced, so a different
sound is made.

Ultrasonic sound
- Sonar (Sound Navigation and
ranging ) uses reflected sound waves
(echoes) to find objects in water or air

Animals use sonar or echo location to find their


prey (food); these sounds have such a high pitch
or frequency that the human ear cannot hear
them

Humans use sonar


to locate or find
objects

Ultrasound (above 20,000 Hz)


Ultrasound waves are used in medicine
They are also reflected sound waves

Wave concepts covered in this power point:


Sound Waves

States of matter (solid, liquid, gas)


Speed of sound through matter
No sound in a vacuum
Vibration
Compression + Rarefaction
Longitudinal waves
Wavelength
Frequency = Pitch
Hertz Hz
20 20,000 Hz
Ear (outer, middle, inner ear)
Amplitude = Loudness = Volume
Decibels dB
Sonar
Ultrasound, infrasound

Other waves

Transverse waves
Crests
Troughs
Electromagnetic waves
Water waves