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Collection & Conveyance of

Systems of Sanitation.
Methods of Collection
The sanitation of town or city is done
by two methods:
Conservancy System
Water-Carriage System

Conservancy System
Sometimes this system is also called drySystem. This system is in practice from
very ancient times. Actually it is out of
date system even though it is prevailing
in small towns, villages and undeveloped
portions of the large cities. Various types
of refuse and storm water are collected,
conveyed and disposed of separately by
therefore, it is called conservancy system.

Garbage or dry refuse of a town is collected in dust bins

placed along the roads and streets, from where it is
conveyed by trucks or covered carts once or twice in a day
to the point of disposal.
All the non-combustible portions of the garbage such as
sand, dust, clay ashes etc., are used for filling the low level
areas to reclaim land for further development of the town.
The combustible portion of garbage such as dry
leaves, waste paper, broken furniture etc. are burnt.
The decaying fruit and vegetables, grass and other
things are first dried and then disposed of by burning
or in the manufacturing of Manure.

Human Excreta or Night Soil is collected separately in

privies or conservancy laterins. The liquid and semi-liquid
wastes are collected in separate drains of the same latrine,
from where they are removed through human agency.
The night soil is taken outside the town in closed
animal drawn carts, trucks or tanks mounted on the
trailers. The night soil is buried in trenches.
In conservancy system the Sullage and Storm waters are also
carried out separately in closed or open drains, upto the point
of disposal, where they are allowed to mix with stream, rivers
or sea without any treatment.

Merits of Conservancy System

The following are the merits of Conservancy System
It is cheaper in Initial cost because storm water can
pass in open drains and conservancy latrines are
much economical.
The quantity of sewage reaching at the treatment
plant before disposal is low.
As the storm water goes in open drains, the sewer
section will be small and will run full for the major
portion of the year, due to which there will be no
silting and deposits in sewer-lines.
In floods if the water level of river rises at the out-fall,

Demerits Conservancy System

It is possible that storm water may go in sewer causing
heavy load on treatment plants, therefore it is to be
In crouded lanes it is very difficult to lay two sewers or
construct road side drains, causing great inconvenience
to the traffic.
Buildings cannot be designed as compact unit, because
latrines are to be designed away from the living rooms
due to foul smell, which are also inconvenient.
In the presence of conservancy system, the aesthetic
appearance of the city cannot be increased.
Decomposition of sewage causes insanitary conditions
which are dangerous to public health.
This system completely depends on the mercy of

Water Carriage System

With the development and advantages of the cities,
urgent need was felt to replace conservancy system
with some more improved types of system in which
human agencies should not be used for the collection
and conveyance of the sewage. After a large number
of trials it was found that the water is the only
cheapest substance, which can be easily used for
collection and conveyance of sewage. Therefore it is
called Water-Carriage System.
In this system the excremental matters are
mixed up in large quantity of water and are
disposed off after necessary treatment in a
satisfactory manner.

Collection & Conveyance of

Systems of Sanitation.
Merits & Demerits of Water Carriage System
It is hygienic method, because all the excremental matters are collected and
conveyed by water only and no human agency is employed for it.
There is no nuisance in the street of the town due to offensive matters,
because all the sewage goes in closed sewers under the ground. The risk of
epidemic is reduced.
As only one sewer is laid, therefore it occupies less space in crowded lane.
Due to more quantity of sewage, self-cleansing velocity can be obtained even
at less gradients.
Buildings can be designed as compact one unit.
The land required for the disposal work is less as compared with conservancy
system in which more area is required.
The usual water supply is sufficient and no additional water is required in water
carriage system.
This system does not depend on the manual labours
Sewage after proper treatment can be used for various purposes.

1. Sewage
Indicates liquid waste from community which includes domestic or industrial
establishments that is carried away in sewers or drains for dumping or for
conversion of a form that is not toxic.

Domestic Sewage
Liquid waste originating
from kitchen sinks, urinals,
latrines, bathrooms, wash
basins etc of the residential,
commercial or institutional
Extremely foul due to
presence of human excreta in

Industrial Sewage
Liquid waste from industrial
processes like dyeing, paper
making, brewing etc.
Quality depends upon the
chemicals used.

Sources of Sanitary Sewage


Water supplied by water authority for domestic usage, after desired use it is
discharged into sewers as sewage.

2. Water supplied to the various industries for various industrial processes by local
authority. Some quantity of this water after use in different industrial
applications is discharged as wastewater.

The water supplied to the various public places such as, schools, cinema theaters,
hotels, hospitals, and commercial complexes. Part of this water after desired use
joins the sewers as wastewater.


Water drawn from wells by individuals to fulfill domestic demand. After uses
this water is discharged in to sewers.


The water drawn for various purposes by industries, from individual water
sources such as, wells, tube wells, lake, river, etc. Fraction of this water is
converted into wastewater in different industrial processes or used for public

2. Storm Drainage / Drainage

Runoff resulting from storms.
Generally no treatment required for this

3. Sewerage

The term sewerage is applied to the art of collecting, treating and disposing of
the sewage

Types of Sewerage Systems:

1. Combined System
When drainage is taken along with sewage by
carrying it through the sewers of the sewerage system

2. Separate System
When drainage and sewage are taken independently
of each other through two different sets of conduits
3. Partially Separate System
A part of the drainage water especially that
originating from the roofs or paved courtyards of
buildings is allowed to be admitted into the sewers and
sometimes the domestic sewage
coming from
residences or institutions etc. is allowed to be admitted
into the drains

Merits and Demerits of Separate

Followings are the merits of Separate
The sewage flows in separate sewer,
therefore the quantity to be treated is
small which results in economical design
of treatment works.
combined system, because only sanitary
sewage flows in closed sewer and the
storm water which is unfoul in nature can
be taken through open gutter or drains,
whereas both types of sewage is to be

Followings are the demerits of separate

Generally self-cleaning velocity is not available,
due to small quantity of sewage, therefore flushing
is required at various points.
There is always a risk that storm water may enter
the sanitary sewer and cause over flowing of sewer
and heavy load on the treatment plant.
As two sets of sewer are laid, therefore its
maintenance cost is more.
In busy lanes laying of two sewers is difficult which
also causes great inconvenience to the traffic
during repairs.

Sewerage System

Merits and Demerits of Combined System

Merits of Combined System
There is no need of flushing, because self-cleansing velocity is
easily available at every place due to more quantity of sewage.
Rain water dilutes the sewage, therefore it can be easily and
economically treated.
House plumbing can be done easily because only one set of pipes
will be required
Demerits of Combined System
Initial cost is high as compared with separate System
It is not suitable for areas having rainfall for small period of the
year, because the dry weather flow will be small due to which selfcleaning velocities will not be available resulting in silting up of
the sewers.
If the whole sewage is to be disposed off by pumping, it is
During heavy rains, the overflowing of sewers will endanger the
public health.

Merits and Demerits of Partially

Separate System
Following are the merits of Partially Separate
As it is an improvement over separate System,
economical and reasonable size of sewers are
The work of house-plumbing is reduced, because
the rain water from roof, sullage from bath and
kitchens etc. can be taken in the same pipe carrying
the discharge from the water closets.
No flushing is required, because the quantity of
sewage is increased as small portion of storm water
is allowed to enter in sanitary sewage.

Merits and Demerits of Partially

Separate System
Following are demerits of partially
Separate System
The Cost of Pumping is Increased at
disposal plants than separate system
because a portion of storm water is mixed
with sanitary Sewage.
There are possibilities of overflow, requiring
storm overflows.
In dry weather, the self cleaning velocities
may not develop.

Components of Sewerage

House sewers
Lateral sewers(Branch sewer)
Main sewer
Trunk sewers
Intercepting sewer

Different types of Sewers:

Following are different types of sewers classified on the
basis of wastewater carried by them and their size:
Soil pipe
It is the pipe carrying sewage from latrine in a house
drainage system. It is one of the component of a house
drainage system
Waste Pipe
It is the pipe carrying wastewater from bathrooms sinks
and kitchens, it is one of the components of house
drainage system
Lateral sewer
It is sewer receiving domestic wastewater from house
sewer. It is one of the component of sewerage system of
a town or city.

House Sewer
In house drainage system the domestic wastewater of a
house is carried by the house sewer to the municipal
sewer called lateral. House sewer is one of the
component of house drainage system.
Branch Sewer
The sewer which receives water from laterals sewers is
called as branch sewer. It is one of the component of
sewerage system of a city or town.
Main sewer
A main sewer is the sewer which receives wastewater
from the branch sewers. It is one of the component of a
sewerage system of a city or town.
Outfall Sewer
The sewer conveying wastewater to the treatment plant
is known as outfall Sewer.

Characteristics of Sewage



Total solid Content

pH Value
Chloride Content
Nitrogen Content
Fat, Grease and oil content
Sulphates, sulphides and
H2S gas
7. Dissolved Oxygen
8. Chemical oxygen Demand
9. Biological Oxygen
Demand (BOD)

The microorganisms found
in water

Physical characteristics
1. Turbidity
Turbidity is a measure of the light-transmitting properties of water
Sewage is normally turbid
Measured by turbidimeters or turbidity rods
2. Colour
Can be detected by naked eye
Indicates the freshness of sewage
Fresh sewage- yellowish , grey or light brownish
Stale and septic sewage- Black or dark brown
3. Temperature
Temperature of wastewater is commonly higher than that of water supply
due to the additional heat produced during the utilisation of water.
Average temperature of sewage is 20
4. Odor
Odor is produced by gas production due to the decomposition of organic matter
or by substances added to the wastewater.
Detection of odor: Odor is measured by special instruments such as the Portable
H2S meter which is used for measuring the concentration of hydrogen sulfide.

Chemical characteristics
Chemical characteristics help in indicating the stage of sewage
decomposition, the extend and type of treatment required for making it
safe for disposal
1. Solid content - Sewage = 99.9% water + 0.05 to 0.1% solids
Solids are classified into the following types :

Total Solids (S1): All the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation of the
Determined by evaporating a known volume of sewage and weighing the dry
residue left.

S1 = mg/L

2. Suspended solids or Non- Filterable solids(S2): Those solids which remain floating
in sewage or those solids which are
retained on a filter of 1 m pores.
Determined by filtering a known volume of sewage through a glass fibre filter apparatus and
weighing the dry residue left behind
S1 = mg/L
3. Filterable solids (S3):
Comprises of Dissolved Solids and Colloidal Solids
Difference between Total solids and suspended solids
S3= S1- S2
4. Volatile (S4) and Fixed (S5) solids
Suspended solids may be either volatile or fixed Suspended solids if burnt and ignited at
about 550C in an electric muffle furnace for about 15 to 20 minutes, the loss of weight due
to ignition will represent the volatile solids (S4)
Fixed Solids, S5 = S2 S4

5. Settleable solids
Determined using a specially designed conical glass vessel called Imhoff
cone of capacity 1 liter.
Sewage is allowed to stand in Imhoff cone for 2 hours and quantity of solids
settled in the bottom of the cone can be directly read out or the liquid from
the cone can be decanted off and the solids collected at bottom of cone
should be dried and weighed

2. pH value
pH value- Negative log of Hydrogen ion concentration present in sewage
Determination of pH is important because efficiency of certain treatment methods
depends on pH value
If pH < 7 Sewage is acidic
pH > 7 Sewage is alkaline
Fresh sewage is generally alkaline. With time it turns acidic due to production of acids by
bacterial action.

3. Chloride Content
Normal chloride content of domestic sewage 120 mg/L.
(Permissible chloride content for water supplies- 250mg/L)
But large chloride content may be found in sewage from certain industries like ice cream
plants, meat salting etc.
Presence of high chloride content indicates industrial waste or infiltration of sea water.
Determined by titrating the waste water with std. silver nitrate solution using potassium
chromate as indicator (Mohrs Method)

4. Nitrogen Content


Indicates the presence of organic matter.

It may occur in the following forms:Albuminoid nitrogen (Organic compound)
Free ammonia (ammonia nitrogen)

Kjedal Nitrogen

(a) Albuminoid Nitrogen

) Indicates quantity of nitrogen present in sewage before decomposition of organic matter
has started
) Measured by adding strong alkaline solution of pottassium permanganate (KMnO4) to
the already boiled sewage and then boiling the same The amount of ammonia gas
liberated gives albuminoid nitrogen
(b) Free ammonia
) Indicates the very first stage of decomposition of organic matter
) Measured by boiling the sewage and measuring the ammonia gas liberated
(c) Nitrites
) Indicates the presence of partially decomposed organic matter. Also indicate the
intermediate stage of conversion of organic matter of sewage into stable form.
) Estimated using colour matching methods (Colour is developed by adding sulphonilic
acid and naphthamine)

(c) Nitrates
Indicates the presence of fully decomposed organic matter
Nitrates is the most stable form of nitrogenous matter, thus indicating well
oxidized and treated sewage
Estimated using colour matching methods (Colour is developed by adding phenoldi-sulphonilic acid and potassium hydroxide)
The colour is then compared with the std. colour of known concentrations

Even though nitrates are non objectionable final end products in aerobic treatment of
sewage, its concentration in potable water should be controlled due to the
following:Nitrate concentration > 45 ppm cause nitrate poisoning in babies- Blue baby Syndrome
/ Methaemoglobinemia

5. Fats, Greases and Oil Content

Form scum on top of the sedimentation tanks and clog the filtering media
Determination :
Sewage sample is first evaporated
Residual solids are mixed with ether (hexane)- Oils and greses are soluble in
Solution is then poured off and evaporated leaving behind fats and greases as
residue which can be weighed

6 Sulphide, Sulphates and Hydrogen Sulphide gas Content

Sulphide, sulphates and H2S are formed due to decomposition of sulphur
containing materials
In aerobic digestion of sewage aerobic bacteria oxidise the sulphur and its
components to form sulphide which ultimately breakdown to form sulphate
In anaerobic digestion of sewage aerobic bacteria oxidise the sulphur and its
components to form sulphide and H2S gas. Along with methane and CO2

7. Dissolved Oxygen
Minimum DO required in water before disposal into rivers- 4 ppm
Estimated by Winklers Method (Iodometric test)- Oxidation reduction process to
liberate iodine in an amount equivalent to DO originally present
DO in water depends upon temperature. Higher the temperature, lesser is the DO.
Solubility of oxygen in water is 95% of that in distilled water.

8. Chemical Oxygen Demand

COD gives the total organic matter (bio-degradable + non bio-degradable) present in
sewage. It is the oxygen required to completely oxidise the organic matter to CO 2
and H2 O and other oxidised species.
COD is determined in the following manner:
A solution of sewage and a strong oxidant like potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr2 O7)

or potassium permangnate (KMnO4) is prepared

Mixture is heated in the presence of H2SO4
K2 Cr2 O7 oxidizes the organic matter. To determine the molecular oxygen used
the K2 Cr2 O7 solution is titrated

9. Biological Oxygen Demand

Total organic matter
Active or BioDegradable

Biologically Inactive
or Non BioDegradable

COD gives total organic matter

In order to find biologically active organic
matter Biological Oxygen demand is to be found
out by BOD testing
The std demand is taken as BOD of waste water
during 5 days at 20C
BOD or BOD5 = 68% of total demand
= 90% of total demand

BOD5 in ppm = Oxygen consumed in the test by

the diluted sample

Dilution Factor

Population Equivalent =

Indicates the strength of wastewater for

estimating the treatment required at
treatment plant
Help in assessment of the realistic
charges for the treatment to be charged
from an industry instead of charging by
volume of sewage

Relative Stability
The term is defined as the ratio of oxygen available in the effluent
(as DO, nitrite or nitrate) to the ratio of oxygen required to
satisfy its first stage BOD demand.
It is expressed as percentage of total oxygen required.
Relative Stability= S= 100[ 1- (0.794)^t20 ]
= 100[ 1- (0.630)^t37 ]
t20 t37 represents the time in days for a sewage sample to
decolourise a standard volume of mythelene blue solution when
incubated at 20
The decolourisation caused by enzyme produced by anaeroic
bacteria is an indication of available oxygen

Hence if decolourisation take place sooner (less than 4 days) the

Bacteriological Characteristics
Due to the presence of micro-organisms
which include bacteria, algae, fungi,
protozoa etc.
Micro-organisms mostly originates from
human feces
Bacteria are of 2 kinds:
1. Non Pathogenic: Harmless and
sometimes beneficial to human beings
2. Pathogenic: May cause diseases
. Depending upon their oxygen
requirement, bacteria may be classified
based as:
1. Aerobic

Design of pipes and sewers are similar

except for the following: Sewage contain some amount of solid
particles also, some in suspension and
some which may settle
Hence a self cleansing velocity is to be
provided at different possible discharges
The sewer material must resist wear and
The sewer pipes carry sewage as gravity
conduits and not under pressure.
Hence it must be laid at a continuous

Minimum self cleansing velocity: for removing the

deposition in sewer
Generally taken as 0.8m/s
Maximum velocity (Limiting or Non Scouring
Velocity): Depends upon the material of sewer

Provision of freeboards:

To account for any large scale infiltration of

storm water due to wrong or illegal connection
Low estimates of the average and max flows
made due to some wrong data
Unforeseen increase in population or water
consumption and the consequent increase in
sewage production
For sewer pipes of diameter < 0.4m - design for
running half full
For sewer pipes of diameter > 0.4m - design for
running rd or full at max discharges

Design Period:
The future period for which the provision is made in designing the capacities of
the various components of the sewerage scheme is known as design period.
The design period depends upon the following:

Useful life of the component structures (material and equipment).

Ease and difficulty in expansion
Amount and availability of investment,
Anticipated rate of population growth, including shifts in communities,
industries and commercial investments
Hydraulic constraints of the systems designed

Following design period can be considered for different components of

sewerage scheme.
1. Laterals less than 15 cm diameter (Requirements change faster) : Full
2. Trunk or main sewers (Difficult and costly to enlarge): 40 to 50 years
3. Treatment Units : 15 to 20 years
4. Pumping plant (Installation of additional pumps is easy and less time
consuming) : 5 to 10 years

Estimating Sewage Discharge

The quantity of sewage is to be properly estimated before design of

sewerage system
The quantity of sewage likely
to enter the municipal sewers


The quantity of water supplied

to the contributing area

But apart from accounted water supplied by water authority that will be
converted to wastewater, following quantities are considered while
estimating the sewage quantity:
Addition due to unaccounted private water supplies
Addition due to infiltration
Subtraction due to water losses
Subtraction due to water not entering the sewerage system

Generally net quantity of sewage produced is considered

as 75 to 80 % of the accounted water supply from water

Dry weather flow is the flow that occurs in

sewers in separate sewerage system or
the flow that occurs during dry seasons in
combined system. This flow indicates the
flow of sanitary sewage.
This depends upon the rate of water
supply, type of area served, economic
conditions of the people, weather
conditions and infiltration of groundwater
in the sewers, if sewers are laid below
groundwater table.

Variation in Sewage Flow

Fluctuation in flow occurs from hour to hour and from season to season

Typical hourly variations in sewage flow

For estimating design discharge following relation can be considered:

Maximum daily flow = 2 times the average daily flow
(representing seasonal variations)
Maximum hourly flow = 1.5 times the maximum daily flow
(accounting hourly variations).
= Three times the annual average
daily flow

Minimum daily flow

= 2/3 Annual average daily
Minimum hourly flow
= minimum daily flow
= 1/3 Annual average daily

Storm Water Flow

The part of the rainfall after infiltration or percolation flows
over land depending upon the permeability of ground, its
surface slope etc.
This water which flows over the ground surface, pavements,
house roofs etc. is called runoff or storm water.
Storm water flow depends upon the following factors:1.

Catchment area
Ground slope
Permeability of the ground
Extend of impervious area
Extend of vegetation growth
Rainfall intensity and duration
Condition of ground prior to rainfall
Climatic conditions like wind, humidity, temperature etc.

Time of Concentration (tc)

It is the time required for the flood discharge to reach to the maximum
limit or the time required from the beginning of rainfall to the one
corresponding to the achievement of maximum rate of runoff
It is the period after which the entire area will start contributing to the

duration of rainfall is
equal to the time of
called as critical rainfall

The time of concentration

is equal to sum of inlet
time and time of travel.

tc = Ti + Tt

Ti Inlet time or Time of entry or Overland flow time

The time required for the rain in falling on the most remote
point of the tributary area to flow across the ground
surface along the natural drains or gutters up to inlet of
sewer is called inlet time
The inlet time Ti can be estimated using relationships
similar to following. These coefficients will have different
values for different catchments.
Ti = [0.885 L3 /H]0.385
Where, Ti = Time of inlet, in minutes
L = Length of overland flow in Kilometer from critical
point to
mouth of drain
H = Total fall of level from the critical point to mouth
of drain,

Tt - Time of Flow or Time of Travel or channel flow

time or gutter flow time
The time required by the water to flow in the
drain channel from the mouth to the point under
consideration or the point of concentration is
called as time of travel.
Time of Travel (Tt) = Length of drain/ velocity in


of Storm Water Flow

(i) Rational Method

()Used when area draining the water into sewer is small (<
400 hectares)
Q = . CIA
where, Q- Runoff in cumecs
C- Coefficient of runoff
A- Catchment area in hectares
I- Intensity of rainfall in mm/hour for a duratoion equal to time of c

Q = 0.278 C.I.A
Where, Q is m3 /sec; I is mm/hour, and A is
area in square kilometer

(ii) Emperical Method

Empirical formulae are used for determination of runoff
from very large area. Various empirical relationships are
developed based on the past observations on specific
site conditions suiting a particular region. These
empirical formulae can be used for prediction of storm
water runoff for that particular catchment.

These relationships between rainfall intensity
and duration are developed based on long
term experience in field under Indian
conditions, intensity of rainfall in design is
usually in the range 12 mm/h to 20 mm/h. In
general the following empirical relationships
are used: