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AND CONTROL

INTRODUCTION

How well an airplane flies and how easily it can be controlled are subjects

studied in aircraft stability and control. By stability we mean the tendency of

the airplane to return to its equilibrium position after it has been disturbed.

The disturbance may be generated by the pilot's control actions or by

atmospheric phenomena. The atmospheric disturbances can be wind gusts,

wind gradients, or turbulent air. An airplane must have sufficient stability that

the pilot does not become fatigued by constantly having to control the airplane

owing to external disturbances.

1. ailerons,

2. elevator, and

3. rudder.

They are designed to change and control the moments about the roll, pitch, and

yaw axes. These control surfaces are flap like surfaces that can be deflected back

and forth at the command of the pilot.

Rolling The ailerons control the roll or lateral motion and are therefore

Pitching The elevator controls pitch or the longitudinal motion and thus is

often called the longitudinal control

Yawing The rudder controls yaw or the directional motion and thus is

called the directional control

STATIC STABILITY

Stability is a property of an equilibrium state. To discuss

stability we must first define what is meant by equilibrium. If an airplane is to

remain in steady uniform flight, the resultant force as well as the resultant

moment about the center of gravity must both be equal to zero. An airplane

satisfying this requirement is said to be in a state of equilibrium or flying at a

trim condition. On the other hand, if the forces and moments do not sum to

zero, the airplane will be subjected to translational and rotational

accelerations.

STATIC STABILITY

Statically stable. If the forces and moments on the body caused by a disturbance tend

initially to return the body toward its equilibrium position, the body is statically stable

Statically unstable. If the forces and moments are such that the body continues to move

away from its equilibrium position after being disturbed, the body is statically unstable

Neutrally stable If the body is disturbed but the moments remain zero, the body stays in

equilibrium and is neutrally stable

DYNAMIC STABILITY

A body is dynamically stable if, out of its own accord, it eventually returns to and

remains at its equilibrium position over a period of time. It is important to note that

static stability does not imply dynamic stability. The plane is dynamically unstable but

still statically stable

Dynamically unstable

after initially responding to its static stability, the airplane may oscillate with increasing

amplitude, as shown in Figure . Here, the equilibrium position is never maintained for any

period of time; the airplane in this case is dynamically unstable

LONGITUDINAL STATIC

STABILITY

If the airplane is flying at its trim angle of attack and suddenly encounters a disturbance

that causes it to pitch up or down (e.g., due to a wind gust), the moment will be such that

the plane will return to its equilibrium position. To see that, imagine a wind gust pitching

the plane up from ae to some larger a. By looking at the plot in Fig. , you can see that the

moment coefficient (and hence the moment) will be negative, which makes the plane pitch

down and return to equilibrium

results, which also tends to pitch the nose further away from its equilibrium

position. Therefore, because the airplane always tends to diverge from equilibrium

when disturbed, it is statically unstable

CRITERION

To have static longitudinal stability

1. Cmo must be positive.

2. the aircraft pitching moment curve must have a negative slope, i.e.

dCm/dC <0

COMPONENTS such as

WING

TAIL etc

WING CONTRIBUTION

Wing contribution to the pitching moment:

If we sum the moments about the center of gravity, the following equation is

obtained:

TAIL CONTRIBUTION

There are two interference effects that influence the tail aerodynamics:

1. The airflow at the tail is deflected downward by the downwash due to the

finite wing i.e., the relative wind seen by the tail is

not in the same direction as the relative wind

V seen by the wing.

2. Due to the retarding force of skin friction and pressure drag over the wing,

the airflow reaching the tail has been slowed. Therefore, the velocity of the

relative wind seen by the tail is less than V

On simplifying,

EQUATIONS FOR

LONGITUDINAL STATIC

STABILITY

By definition, CM0 is the value of CM cg When a = 0, that is,when the lift is

zero. Substituting a= 0 into above equation we directly obtain

Consider now the slope of the moment coefficient curve. Differentiating total

moment equation w

ith respect to a, we obtain

There is one specific location of the center of gravity such that

dCM cg/da= 0. The value of h when this condition holds is defined as the

neutral point, denoted by hn.

The location of the neutral point is readily obtained from Eq. (7.28) by

setting h = hn and dCM cg/d a = 0, as follows.

Criterion.

For longitudinal static stability, the position Of the center of gravity must

always be forward of the neutral point.

Equation above shows that the static margin is a direct measure of longitudi

nal static stability. For static stability, the static margin must be positive.

Moreover, the larger the static margin, the more stable is the airplane.

LONGITUDINAL CONTROL

Control of an airplane can be achieved by providing an incremental lift force

on one or more of the airplane's lifting surfaces. The incremental lift force can

be produced by deflecting the entire lifting surface or by deflecting a flap

incorporated in the lifting surface. Owing to the fact that the control flaps or

movable lifting surfaces are located at some distance from the center of

gravity, the incremental lift force creates a moment about the airplane's center

of gravity. Figure below shows the three primary aerodynamic controls.

ELEVATOR EFFECTIVENESS

When the elevator is deflected, it changes the lift and pitching moment of

the airplane. The change in lift for the airplane can be expressed as follows

curve.

By simplifying, we get

Setting the pitching moment of equation equal to zero

(definition of trim) we can solve for the elevator angle required to trim the

airplane:

DIRECTIONAL

STABILITY

Directional stability

The directional stability and control, deal with the equilibrium and its maintainability

about the z-axis

Static directional stability is a measure of the aircraft's resistance to slipping. To have

static directional stability, the appropriate positive or negative yawing moment should be

generated to compensate for a negative or positive sideslip angle .

The greater the static directional stability the quicker the aircraft will turn into a relative

wind which is not aligned with the longitudinal axis

Sideslip is the angle between the plane of symmetry of the airplane and the direction of

motion. It is taken as positive in the clockwise sense.

It is denoted by .

velocity along the y-axis.

Now, let a disturbance cause the airplane to develop positive sideslip of . It is observed

that to bring the airplane back to equilibrium position i.e. = 0, a positive yawing moment

(N) should be produced by the airplane. Similarly, a disturbance causing a negative

should result in N i.e. for static directional stability

= 0 for neutral directional stability and

< 0 for directional instability.

Contribution of wing to Cn

Consider an airplane with wings which have sweep . When this wing is subjected to sideslip

, the components of the free stream velocity

normal to the quarter chord line on the two wing halves will be unequal i.e. V cos( -) on the

right wing and V cos (+) on the left wing. Consequently, even if the two wing halves

are at the same angle of attack, they would experience unequal effective dynamic

pressures and their drags will be different. This will

cause a yawing moment.

The yawing moments due to the right and the left wing halves (Nw)r and (Nw)l are

positive for directional static stability, a positive contribution to Cn is called stabilizing

contribution

Contribution of fuselage to Cn

A fuselage at an angle of attack produces a pitching moment and also contributes to

Cm. Similarly, a fuselage in sideslip produces a yawing moment and contributes to Cn

of the airplane.

However, in an airplane, the flow past a fuselage is influenced by the flow past the wing.

Hence, instead of an isolated fuselage, the contributions of wing and fuselage to Cn are

estimated together. It is denoted by Cnwf

kn is the wing body interference factor which depends on the following fuselage

parameters

(a) Length of fuselage (lf).

(b) Projected side area of fuselage (Sfs).

(c) Heights (h1and h2) of fuselage at lf/4 and 3lf/ 4

The quantity kRl is an empirical factor which depends on the Reynolds number of the

fuselage (Rlf= Vlf/)

A vertical tail at an angle of attack (v) would produce a side force (Yv) and a yawing

moment (Nv)

velocity Vvt. However, the angle v is small

and Yv is taken perpendicular to FRL

The wing body combination has the following influences.

(a) The angle of attack (v) at vertical tail is different from and

(b) The dynamic pressure ( Vvt2) experienced by it (vertical tail) is different from ( V2)

v = +

is called side wash

tail is expressed as:

Differentiating by gives

on the vertical tail. The rudder is a hinged flap which forms the aft portion of the

vertical tail. By rotating the flap, the lift force (side force) on the fixed vertical surface

can be varied to create a yawing moment about the center of gravity

Rudder requirements

Adverse yaw

When an airplane is banked, in order to execute a turning maneuver, the ailerons may create

a yawing moment that opposes the turn (i.e. adverse yaw). The rudder must be able to

overcome the adverse yaw so that a coordinated turn can be achieved. The critical condition

for adverse yaw occurs when the airplane is flying slow (i.e. high CL)

Cross-wind landings

To maintain alignment with the runway during a crosswind landing requires the pilot to

fly the airplane at a sideslip angle. The rudder must be powerful enough to permit the

pilot to trim the airplane for the specified crosswinds. For transport airplanes, landing

may be carried out for cross-winds up to 15.5 m/s or 51 ft/s

The critical asymmetric power condition occurs for a multiengine airplane when one

engine fails at low flight speeds. The rudder must be able to overcome the yawing

moment produced by the asymmetric thrust arrangement

Spin recovery

The primary control for spin recovery in many airplanes is a powerful rudder. The

rudder must be powerful enough to oppose the spin rotation

An airplane possesses static roll stability if, when it is disturbed from a wings-level

attitude, a restoring moment is developed. The restoring rolling moment can be shown to

be a function of the sideslip angle

The requirement for stability is that

The roll moment created on an airplane when it starts to sideslip depends upon wing

dihedral , wing sweep, position of the wing on the fuselage, and the vertical tail

Wing dihedral

The major contributor to Cl is the wing dihedral angle T. The dihedral angle is defined as the

span wise inclination of the wing with respect to the horizontal. If the wing tip is higher than

the root section, then the dihedral angle is positive; if the wing tip is lower than the root

section, then the dihedral angle is negative. A negative dihedral angle is commonly called

anhedral.

When an airplane is disturbed from a wings-level attitude, it will begin to sideslip . Once

the airplane starts to sideslip a component of the relative wind is directed toward the

side of the airplane. The leading wing experiences an increased angle of attack and

consequently an increase in lift. The trailing wing experiences the opposite effect. The

net result is a rolling moment that tries to bring the wing back to a wings-level attitude.

This restoring moment is often referred to as the "dihedral effect"

The additional lift created on the downward-moving wing is created by the change in angle

of attack produced by the side slipping motion. If we resolve the sideward velocity

component into components along and normal to the wing span the local change in angle of

attack can be estimated as

Wing sweep also contributes to the dihedral effect. In the case of a sweptback wing, the

windward wing has an effective decrease in sweep angle while the trailing wing experiences

an effective increase in sweep angle. For a given angle of attack, a decrease in sweepback

angle will result in a higher lift coefficient. Therefore, the windward wing (less effective

sweep) will experience more lift than the trailing wing. It can be concluded that sweepback

adds to the dihedral effect. On the other hand, sweep forward will decrease the effective

dihedral effect .

A simplified estimate of the wing sweep contribution to Clb is presented in Eq

Fuselage contribution

The sideward flow turns in the vicinity of the fuselage and creates a local change in wing

angle of attack at the inboard wing stations. For a low wing position, the fuselage

contributes a negative dihedral effect; the high wing produces a positive dihedral effect.

In order to maintain the same C,p a low-wing aircraft will require a considerably greater

wing dihedral angle than a high-wing configuration

The horizontal tail can also contribute to the dihedral effect in a manner similar to the wing.

However, owing to the size of the horizontal tail with respect to the wing, its contribution is

usually small.

The vertical tail

The contribution to dihedral effect from the vertical tail is produced by the side force on the

tail due to sideslip. The side force on the vertical tail produces both a yawing and a rolling

moment. The rolling moment occurs because the center of pressure for the vertical tail is

located above the aircraft's center of gravity. The rolling moment produced by the vertical tail

tends to bring the aircraft back to a wings-level attitude.

An estimate of the vertical tail contribution to Clb

ROLL CONTROL

Roll control is achieved by the differential deflection of small flaps called ailerons which are

The basic principle behind these devices is to modify the span wise lift distribution so that

a moment is created about the x axis

Spoilers when used for roll control are usually deflected on one side only.

High wing-sweep angles make spoilers and ailerons less effective.

Longitudinal

Short Period

Phugoid

Lateral-Directional

Spiral

Dutch Roll

Roll

Longitudinal modes

Oscillatingmotions can be described by two parameters, the period of time required for

one complete oscillation, and the time required to damp to half-amplitude, or the time to

double theamplitudefor a dynamically unstable motion.

1. a long-period oscillation called aphugoidmode and

2. a short-period oscillation referred to as the short-period mode

The longer period mode, called the "phugoid mode" is the one in which there is a largeamplitude variation of air-speed, pitch angle, and altitude, but almost no angle-of-attack

variation. The phugoid oscillation is really a slow interchange ofkinetic energy(velocity)

andpotential energy(height) about some equilibrium energy level as the aircraft attempts

to re-establish the equilibrium level-flight condition from which it had been disturbed.

The motion is so slow that the effects ofinertiaforces and damping forces are very low.

Although the damping is very weak, the period is so long that the pilot usually corrects

for this motion without being aware that the oscillation even exists. Typically the period

is 2060 seconds. The pilot generally can control this oscillation himself.

With no special name, the shorter period mode is called simply the "short-period mode".

The short-period mode is a usually heavily damped oscillation with a period of only a few

seconds. The motion is a rapid pitching of the aircraft about the center of gravity. The

period is so short that the speed does not have time to change, so the oscillation is

essentially an angle-of-attack variation. The time to damp the amplitude to one-half of its

value is usually on the order of 1 second. Ability to quickly self damp when the stick is

briefly displaced is one of the many criteria for general aircraft

STABILITY)

Lateral-directional modes

"Lateral-directional" modes involve rolling motions and yawing motions.

Motions in one of these axes almost always couples into the other so the modes are

generally discussed as the "Lateral-Directional modes".

There are three types of possible lateral-directional dynamic motion:

1.roll subsidence mode,

2.spiral mode, and

3.Dutch roll mode

Roll subsidence mode is simply the damping of rolling motion. There is no direct

aerodynamic moment created tending to directly restore wings-level, i.e. there is no

returning "spring force/moment" proportional to roll angle. However, there is a damping

moment (proportional to rollrate) created by the slewing-about of long wings. This prevents

large roll rates from building up when roll-control inputs are made or it damps the

rollrate(not the angle) to zero when there are no roll-control inputs.

Roll mode can be improved bydihedraleffects coming from design characteristics, such as

high wings, dihedral angles or sweep angles

The second lateral motion is an oscillatory combined roll and yaw motion called Dutch roll,.

The Dutch roll may be described as a yaw and roll to the right, followed by a recovery towards

the equilibrium condition, then an overshooting of this condition and a yaw and roll to the

left, then back past the equilibrium attitude, and so on. The period is usually on the order of

315 seconds, but it can vary from a few seconds for light aircraft to a minute or more for

airliners. Damping is increased by large directional stability and small dihedral and decreased

by small directional stability and large dihedral. Although usually stable in a normal aircraft,

the motion may be so slightly damped that the effect is very unpleasant and undesirable.

solved by installing ayaw damper, in effect a

special-purpose automatic pilot that damps out

any yawing oscillation by applying rudder

corrections. Some swept-wing aircraft have an

unstable Dutch roll. If the Dutch roll is very

lightly damped or unstable, the yaw damper

becomes a safety requirement, rather than a

pilot and passenger convenience. Dual yaw

dampers are required and a failed yaw damper is

cause for limiting flight to low altitudes, and

possibly lowermachnumbers, where the Dutch

roll stability is improved.

Directional divergence can occur when the airplane does not possess directional or

weathercock stability. If such an airplane is disturbed from its equilibrium state, it will

tend to rotate to ever-increasing angles of sideslip. Owing to the side force acting on the

airplane, it will fly a curved path at large sideslip angles. For an airplane that has lateral

static stability (i.e. dihedral effect) the motion can occur without any significant change

in bank angle . Obviously, such a motion cannot be tolerated and can readily be avoided

by proper design of the vertical tail surface to ensure directional stability

Spiral divergence is a non oscillatory divergent motion which can occur when directional

stability is large and lateral stability is small. When disturbed from equilibrium, the

airplane enters a gradual spiraling motion . The spiral becomes tighter and steeper as

time proceeds and can result in a high-speed spiral dive if corrective action is not taken.

This motion normally occurs so gradually that the pilot unconsciously corrects for it

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