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HVAC Systems Primary Functions

Temperature Control
Cooling
Heating

Humidity Control
Humidification
Dehumidification

Air Quality Control


Ventilation
Cleaning
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HVAC Systems Energy Considerations

Typical Energy Use in a Commercial Building

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HVAC Systems

Efficient Use of Energy Requirements

Optimum Energy Designs


Well-Developed Energy Use Policies
Dedicated Management backed up by
Properly Trained and Motivated Operating Staff

Mechanical Engineering Department

HVAC Systems

Minimum Guidelines in Energy


Conservation, Design and Operation
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989, Energy Efficient Design of New
Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
ASHRAE Standard 100, Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings

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HVAC Systems

Typical Building Design Heat Losses or Gains


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HVAC Systems
Some Relevant Energy/Emissions Statistics
Buildings account for:
36% of all the energy
66 % of all the electricity
used in the US
Emissions related to building energy use account for:
35% of CO2 emissions
47 % of SO2 emissions
22% of NOx emissions

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HVAC Systems

Annual Energy Use Per Unit Floor Area


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HVAC Systems

Capital Cost Estimating Factors


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HVAC Systems
Schematic of a Typical Commercial Air-Conditioning System

Mechanical Engineering Department

HVAC Systems
Elementary Air Temperature Control System

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HVAC Systems
Air Handler and Associated Controls for Simple Constant-Volume,
Single-Duct All-Air System

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HVAC Systems
Schematic of a Blow-Through Air Handler With Hot and Cold Decks
and Zone Dampers

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HVAC Systems
Simplified Control Schematic for a Constant-Volume reheat System

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HVAC Systems

Simplified Control Schematic of a Single-Duct VAV System


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HVAC Systems

Simplified Control Schematic of a Dual-Duct System


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HVAC Systems

Multi-Zone System With Hot


and Cold Plenum Reset

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HVAC Systems
Air-Water Induction Unit

From Central A/C Unit

Typically installed at
perimeter wall under
window or overhead

Hot or Chilled Water

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HVAC Systems
Typical Fan-Coil Unit

Air-Conditioned Air

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Chilled Water or Brine/


Hot Water or Steam or
Electric Heater

Recycles Room Air, Cheapest Perimeter


System, Ventilation Provided Separately

HVAC Systems

Typical Air-Conditioning
Ventilator with Separate Coils

Mechanical Engineering Department

HVAC Systems
Schematic View of a Room Air-Conditioner

Mechanical Engineering Department