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ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

1E9

Lecture 3: Isometric

Projections

What is ISOMETRIC?

It is a method of producing pictorial view

of an object showing all three faces of the

object simultaneously.

It is a type of parallel projection

It is a type of axonometric projection

Axonometric Projections

Observer at infinity

Projectors parallel to each other and perpendicular

to projection plane

Object is inclined with respect to projection plane

Types of Axonometric

Projections

Isometric Projection

Dimetric Projection

Trimetric Projection

Isometric Projections

All angles between axonometric axes are

equal

The three coordinate axes of the object

appear equally foreshortened (about 3/4th

of true length)

The angles between any two of the

three coordinate axes is 120

Isometric Terminology

The three coordinate axes are called isometric

axes

Any line parallel to isometric axes is called

isometric line

A non-isometric line is a line not parallel

any one of the three isometric axis

to

cube and any plane parallel to them is called

isometric planes

Isometric Scale

True lengths of the edges of the object are

equally foreshortened

Correct isometric projection can be drawn

using an isometric scale (always smaller

than ordinary scale)

Isometric Drawing

Isometric Projection:

Drawing prepared

with isometric scale on

isometric axes

Isometric Drawing:

Drawing prepared

with ordinary scale

on isometric axes

Steps:

Step 1

Isometric sketches begin with defining

isometric axes, three lines, one vertical

and two drawn at 30 from the horizontal.

10

Steps:

Step 2

Three lines of the isometric axes represent

the three primary dimensions of the

object: width, height, and depth

11

Steps:

Step 3

Draw the font face of the isometric block.

12

Steps:

Step 4

Draw the rest of the isometric block.

13

Steps:

Step 5

Add details to the block starting from the

front face. Then add details to the other

faces.

14

Steps:

Step 6

Darken all visible lines to complete the

isometric sketch. (make sure that

construction lines are light)

15

and height.

The isometric lines are only drawn to scale. Objects

composed entirely of isometric lines can be drawn by taking

all measurements parallel to main edges of the enclosing box.

Non-isometric lines are drawn by transferring the ordinates

(which are on isometric lines) of the end of the lines

Inclined and oblique surfaces are drawn using end

coordinates. Box construction and offset measurements are

common methods

In an isometric drawing, an angle never appears in its true

size. Angles, irregular curves require special techniques

16

Make an Isometric Drawing with corner A

at the bottom

17

18

Make an Isometric Drawing with corner A

at the bottom

NON-ISOMETRIC LINE

19

20

Lines

Make an Isometric Drawing with apex A

facing front

and offset measurements

Non-isometric lines are not drawn in true length in

isometric drawing (BA is shorter than CA in this

drawing)

21

22

Irregular Objects

Make an Isometric Drawing of the following

irregular object (pyramid)

Irregular Objects

needed in each case

23

24

A circle in a orthographic projection will appear as

an ellipse in an isometric drawing.

Instead of actual ellipses often approximate ellipses

are drawn for isometric drawing.

Four-centre ellipses are used to approximate ellipses

on isometric planes.

25

Approximate Ellipse

centre lines, draw an isometric square with sides equal to the

diameter of the circle.

From the near corners of the box, draw two large arcs with

radius R, using the two red points as centres.

Draw the two smaller arcs with radius r, using two green points

as centres.

26

Cylinder

27

28

Surfaces

Make an Isometric Drawing of the following

curved object

29

orthographic view of an object appears as a non-isometric line

in an isometric drawing.

Curves may be drawn using a series of points by measuring

along the normal lines in the orthographic view (offset

measurements) and transferring these points on isometric

drawing. Accuracy increases with number of points.

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