Week 5

:
Practitioner perspectives on managing change

Week 5:
Managing effective Change programs
Acknowledgement of sources
Text: Waddell, Cummings & Worley (2000). Other sources: French & Bell (1999); Senior (1997).

Learning Objective • To understand the different elements of a successful change program

Change Management Activities
Creating Vision • Describing the Core Ideology • Constructing the Envisioned Future Developing Political Support • Assessing Change Agent Power • Identifying Key Stakeholders • Influencing Stakeholders Managing the Transition • Activity Planning • Commitment Planning • Management Structures • Creating readiness for change • Overcoming resistance to change

Motivating Change

Effective Change Management
Sustaining Momentum • Providing Resources for Change •Building a Support System for Change Agents •Developing New Competencies and Skills •Reinforcing New Behaviors •Staying the Course

Motivating Change
• Organizational change involves moving from the known to the unknown. • Creating Readiness for Change
– Generally people’s readiness for change depends on creating a felt need for change.
• Sensitize the organisation to pressures for change • Identify gaps between actual and desired states • Convey credible positive expectations for change
Organisation Development & Change 8-5

Motivating Change
• Sensitize the Organisation to Pressures for Change
– Innumerable pressures for change operate both externally and internally to organization. – External pressures to change include heavy foreign competition, rapidly changing technology, and the draw of global markets. – Internal pressures to change include new leadership, poor product quality, high production costs, and excessive employee absenteeism and turnover.

Motivating Change
• Identify Gaps Between Actual and Desired States
– Desired states may include organizational goals and standards, as well as a general vision of a more desirable future state. – Significant discrepancies between actual and ideal states can motivate organization members to initiate corrective changes, particularly when members are committed to achieving those ideals.

Motivating Change
• Convey credible positive expectations for change
– Organization members invariably have expectations about the results of organizational changes. – Expectations can serve as a self-fulfilling prophecy, leading members to invest energy in change programs that they expect will succeed. – Members are likely to develop greater commitment to the change process and to direct more energy into the constructive behaviors needed to implement it. – The key to achieving these positive effects is to communicate realistic, positive expectations about the organizational changes.

Motivating Change
• Managing Resistance to Change
– Change can arouse considerable anxiety about letting go of the known and moving to an uncertain future. – People may be unsure whether their existing skills and contributions will be valued in the future, or have significant question about their they can learn to function effectively and to achieve benefits in the new situation. – Resistance to change can come from three sources at the organization level
• Technical Resistance to Change • Political Resistance • Cultural Resistance

Motivating Change
• Three major strategies for dealing with resistance to change
– Empathy and Support – Communication – Participation and Involvement

• Empathy and Support
– A first step in overcoming resistance is learning how people are experiencing change. – This will help to identify people who are having trouble accepting the changes, the nature of their resistance, and possible ways to overcome – it requires a great deal of empathy.

Creating a Vision
• Discover and Describe the Organisation’s Core Ideology
– What are the core values that inform members what is important in the organisation? – What is the organisation’s core purpose or reason for being?

• Construct the Envisioned Future
– What are the bold and valued outcomes? – What is the desired future state?

Managing Political Support • Assess Change Agent Power • Identify Key Stakeholders • Influence Stakeholders

Sources of Power and Power Strategies for Change Agents
Knowledge Playing it Straight

Others’ Support

Using Social Networks

Personality

Going Around the Formal System

Managing the Transition
• Activity Planning
– What’s the “roadmap” for change?

• Commitment Planning
– Who’s support is needed, where do they stand, and how to influence their behavior?

• Management Structures
– What’s the appropriate arrangement of people and power to drive the change?

Change as a Transition State

Current State

Transition State

Desired Future State

Sustaining Momentum
• Provide Resources for Change • Build a Support System for Change Agents • Develop New Competencies and Skills • Reinforce New Behaviors • Stay the Course

NEXT WEEK
• Overview of interventions • Reading: Chapters 9, 17 & 18
• Additional reading: French & Bell (1999) Chapter 8; Senior (1997) Chapter 8

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