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in Cryptography

A talk presented at the 2016 SACNAS National

Conference

Algebra: Much More than Arithmetic

University of Texas at Arlington

14 October 2016

Cryptography

cryptography

noun cryptography \krip-t-gr-f\

Simple Definition of cryptography

: the process of writing or reading secret

messages or codes

cryptology

noun cryptology \krip-t-l-j\

Definition of cryptology

: the scientific study of cryptography

and cryptanalysis

Examples: (

Review: Fields

field is a set together with two binary

A

operations , such that:

is a commutative group

is a commutative group

Notice that in a field both the addition

and the multiplication are associative: so

for we have

Examples: (, (, ,)

Example: A Non-associative

structure

multiplication table described by a Latin

square of size using distinct symbols.

of the symbols appears once

and only once in each row and in

each column.

Latin squares and therefore of quasigroups.

Finite quasigroups

For

the number of distinct Latin squares is

known to be .

How many groups of order 10 exist?

quasigroups is unknown.

How many groups of order 11 exist?

estimated to be about

.

A property of Quasigroups

In

a Latin square each row and each column is a

permutation of the elements of the quasigroup.

Hence, for each pair of elements of the quasigroup

the equation has exactly one solution for .

Similarly, for each pair the equation has exactly

one solution

If for each element there exists another element

such that for all in the quasigroup, then is said to

be a CI-quasigroup.

The relation between and is a permutation; we

denote it by

Golomb, Welch, Denes, 2000 (Patent # US 7280663B1)

Let be any commutative group of n elements, where

is a composite number, say , where and are integers

>1.

Define a new operation on the elements of by the

relation . Then the elements of with the operation

form a CI- quasigroup, where the right crossed inverse

of the element is , where

.

Golomb, Welch, Denes, 2000 (Patent # US 7280663B1)

The quasigroup is distributed as the public part of the

key. The CI-permutation is kept secret.

least and often much larger.

and use encipher key 5.

Then from the table entry

with row index 1 and

column index 5, we obtain

so the ciphertext is . The

sender sends and .

Now the recipient applies

the ci-permutation to the

encipher key, 5, to get .

The recipient then

computes .

This is the entry with row

index 6 and column index

3.

This entry is which is the

original message.

Implementation

Two primes, and are chosen and the product, , is formed.

The integers modulo 33 fall into two sets, those without 3 or

11 as factors and those that are multiples of 3 or 11 or both.

The former set forms a group, under multiplication modulo

33.

For example: while neither nor are factors of 4, 10, or 7.

The 20 elements of this group are

The CI-quasigroup also has size 20, and consists of the

numbers from 1 to 20, with an operation computed from a

non-associative, non-commutative use of the arithmetic of the

group as described below.

For , let where is computed as follows:

Implementation

Two CI-quasigroup elements, are mapped to the group by a

function, Quasi2Group().

Quasi2Group:

In the group, these elements are combined by the formula,

Then is mapped back to the CI-quasigroup by a function

=Group2Quasi ().

Group2Quasi:

Hence to find such that we compute:

The function Group2Quasi(), is simply

Group2Quasi

where the symbol, , indicates the integer part of a number.

A formula for the function Quasi2Group(x) is more cumbersome.

Let .

Then for each , and is tested to see if

=Group2Quasi ()

Exactly one value of will succeed and the corresponding will

be the correct value of Quasi2Group().

The CI-permutation for this quasigroup is obtained by mapping the

elements to the group, raising to the 17 power and mapping back

to the CI-quasigroup.

Suppose a message component is M=3 and the corresponding key

component is . The ciphertext component is

Begin by determining the group elements corresponding to 3 and 2

using the function () .

For 3, g*=3 and it is found that =1.

For 2, g*=2 and =0. So the group elements are 4 and 2.

Next compute 43 mod 33=31 and 27 mod 33=29.

Multiplying 3128 mod 33=8.

Finally (8)=8[8/3] [8/11] =82=6

The result is and the ciphertext component is .

The decipherment proceeds as follows:

The computation is , where and .

To compute , map to (, and compute

.

Then and the decipherment is , which can be computed using the

above algorithm and yields 3, the original value of M.

NEOFIELDS AND SEMIFIELDS

respect to a first operation, called addition. If the zero element

is removed, the remaining elements form a commutative group

with respect to a second operation, called multiplication.

This is the conventional arithmetic that underlies almost all the

cryptographic systems currently in use.

In a neofield, the two commutative groups of a field are replaced

by quasi-groups.

If one of these quasigroups is a CI-quasigroup, the neofield is

called an xip-neofield.

Encryption schemes even more elaborate that those already

described, but using the same principles, can be based on xipneofields.

Semifields

A

(finite) semifield is a non-associative algebra consisting of a set S

multiplication is distributive on both the left and the right,

there exists a multiplicative identity element, and

There are no zero divisors: implies .

The order of a semifield is for some prime number and some positive

integer .

The class I constructed and studied is the class of p-primitive

semifields of order p4.

I conducted an exhaustive computer search to obtain all the semifields

of order . These semifields of order 81 have points and lines. I studied

these structures and classified them.

Semifields of order p4

Conjecture

(Cordero): There are exactly

2

p1

1 ( p 2)

each prime number p>2.

Cardinali, Trombetti, and Polverino (2006)

Abstract: A classification of semifields of order is

given. For prime, this proves the conjecture stated

by Cordero in (10).

Thank

you!

cordero@uta.edu

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