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Application of Biotechnology

-Soy Source

Yong-Cheol Park
(ycpark@kookmin.ac.kr)

Department of Advanced Fermentation
Fusion Science & Technology
Kookmin University

F &B T 1/22
L

1. Classification of Ganjang
 Definition of Ganjang soy sauce in Korean codex (식품공전)
1. Fermented sauce mixed with NaCl solution and Meju (메주) or koji solution
containing proteins and carbohydrates
2. Sauces processed with filtrated materials of hydrolyzed soybean solution by
enzymes and acids

 Classification 1
Category Source Microorganism Soy sauce
Korean Soybean Bacillus subtilis 재래간장 (막간장, 겹장)
Ganjang
Japanese Soybean, Aspergillus oryzae 양조간장, 다마리장유, 혼합장유
Ganjang starch
Fish(魚) fish protease 어간장(한국), Patis(필리핀),
Ganjang Budu(말레이시아), Nuoc-
mam(베트남)

F &B T 2/22
L

Mixed soy sauce (혼합간장) : a soy sauce mixture of original fermented solution and acid-hydrolyzed solution made of soy bean (1) Current type of fermented soy sauce : a soy sauce extracted from fermented solution consisting of original solution of acid-hydrolyzed soybean. barely and wheat) 2. Classification of Ganjang  Classification 2 (한국공업규격) 1. and plant proteins or starch sources (2) Mixed soy sauce without additional fermentation steps *Quality standard of 혼합간장 : dependant on the content of fermented soy sauce (>60% 특급. Fermented soy sauce (양조간장) : soy sauce from fermented solution. which comes from a mixture of NaCl and koji solution made with plant protein (soy bean) only or a mixture of starchy sources (rice. >20%  표준) F &B T 3/22 L . >40%  고급. 1.

15~20% in total mass .80% is potassium and phosphorus  alkali foods (=foods containing a large amount of inorganic matters) (tofu.) 5. E  tocopherol : anti-aging effect F &B T 4/22 L .unsaturated fatty acids of linoleic acid and linolenic acid  prevention of cholesterol attachment on veins and removal of cholesterol in arteries 3. Others – vit B1 and B2 are sufficient. no vit C. Protein .amino acid supplement for Asian people 2. Containing rare sugars such as raffinose and stachyose  Growth promotion of intestinal lactic acid bacteria Suppressing caries production  Reduction of blood cholesterol level. Carbohydrate – 25~35% in total mass .no starch. Fat . Inorganic matters – 4~6% in total . milk etc. . 3.30~50% in total mass . Prevention of colon cancer 4.abundant Vit. Healthy effects of dyeonjang/ganjang  Components of soybean 1.

methionine. Soybean contains 16 amino acids among total 20 amino acids. phenylalanine. lysine. 3. valine. tryptophan .It has 8 essential amino acids such as threonine. leucine. isoleucine. Composition change by fermentation  Making new amino acids and changing the composition by microbial fermentation F &B T 5/22 L . Healthy effects of dyeonjang  Excellent composition of amino acid in dyeonjang 1. .Lysine & leucine are insufficient in rice and barely 2.

Lecitin and linoleic acid : prevention of cholesterol attachment on blood vein  prevention of the arteries hardening and high blood pressure F &B T 6/22 L . Normal liver : destruction of fat and provision of fatty acid to other organelles Abnormal liver : unable to decompose fat which accumulates inside the liver (reason : nutrient imbalance. Lecithin(레시틴) : one of phospholipid. 3. important in cell structure and metabolism . memory ability will be reduced. Additional effect : removal of aldehyde from alcohol and nicotine toxin in tobacco  Reduction of cholesterol level by soybean lipid 1. Intake of methionine  choline synthesis for fatty acid hydrolysis  activation of fatty acid hydrolysis  removal of fat on fatty liver 4. 2. Healthy effects of dyeonjang  Effects of methionine on caring fatty liver 1. 3. Methionine is essential for fatty acid metabolism. excess alcohol 2.Present in outer membrane of nerve fiber  When its level is decreased.

 Other effects 1. Dyeonjang has the cancer prevention effect and growth inhibition of cancer cells.Cancer prevention effect : traditional Korean dyeonjang >> Japanese miso dyeonjang . submerging and maturing processes. washing. Healthy effects of dyeonjang  Anti-cancer effect of dyeonjang 1. . Ganjang (30%) 3. Treatment of high blood pressure – both dyeonjang and chunggukjang 2.All toxins produced by fungi are destroyed in fermentation. Acceleration of intestinal lactic acid bacteria growth : prevention of toxin-producing microorganisms and acceleration of lactic acid bacteria growth such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus F &B T 7/22 L . 3. Traditional jang sauces prevented gene mutagenesis causing cancers (Korea) . Kochujang (50%). 2. Intake of dyeonjang reduced the occurrence of stomach cancer by 30% (Japan).Dyeonjang (70%).

Making meju + Fermentation & Maturation 2. Important in controlling the content of NaCl Soybean Washing+Submerging Raw Boilin Soy Soy sauce g sauce Steam cooking Submer Matur Separa ging ation tion Meju Matur Dyeon Grinding+Shaping mass ation jang NaCl NaCl Hanging Solution NaCl Meju F &B T 8/22 L . Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process  Production Process : 1.4.

Drying its surface on the rice straw for about 2 weeks .Hanging : tiding Meju with rice straw and hanging on the ceiling in winter  Microorganisms are inoculated naturally and grown on the surface of and inside Meju. Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process 1) Pretreatment of soybean .Shaping : It is regionally different (전라도 메주: 15*15*20cm) .Washing and submerging in water for 8 ~12 hrs .Boiling soybean in hot water for more than 2 hrs  Protein denaturation 2) Making Meju .Grinding with 절구 or 초파기 (직경 8~10 mm) .4. F &B T 9/22 L .

Mainly present in the surface of Mucor abundans Meju Scopulariopsis Hyphae grows on the cracking brevicaulis fissure of Meju.01% Rhodotorula flava Involved in flavors and tastes Torulopsis dattila F &B T 10/22 L .Microorganisms working for Meju fermentation Class Distribution Microorganism Characteristics Fungi 1% Rizopus sp. Aspergillus oryzae Penicillium lanosum Aspergillus sojae Bacteria 99% Bacillus subtilis Growth on the surface of and Bacillus pumilis inside Meju Mucor griseocyanus Only bacteria can grow inside Meju. Secretion of strong proteolytic and carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes Yeast 0. Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process 2) Making Meju .4.

open the cover in the sunshine  Prevention of lowing flavor and taste F &B T 11/22 L .4.Submerging the Meju in NaCl solution .Method : ① Washing the surface of Meju & dividing to 2~3 pieces & fully dry by sun ② After submerging the Meju.Generally late winter and early spring .Formulation of NaCl solution : Strongly related with microbial growth and maturation of sauce Traditional method : water 4 두(斗) + NaCl 1 두(斗) similar to the current method (Be’19o) . spread NaCl powder on the Meju which is over the surface of the NaCl solution  Prevention of spoiling M/O ③ During fermentation and maturation. Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process 3) Submerging & Maturation .

Le.Microorganisms related to maturation ① Aerobic bacteria : Bacillus species ② Salt-resistant lactic acid bacteria : Pediococcus halophilus. rouxii.4. Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process . casei. L. S. plantarum. mesentoroides ③ Salt-resistant yeast : S. Torulopsis dattila ④ Lactic acid bacteria and yeast are related to unique flavor and taste of soy sauce. L. Change of microbial population F &B T during maturation of Korean soy sauce 12/22 L . acidofaciens.

Boiling : boiling raw soy sauce for 10 ~20 min ① Improvement of storage time. aldehydes. flavor and taste ② Concentration of soy sauce ③ Color of soy sauce : Melanin and melanoidin from amino acid residues * For acid-hydrolysis soy sauce. Korean Soy Sauce (1) Production Process 4) Filtratio & boiling (pasteurization) . Contains enzymes and M/O. volatile acids. phenols ⑤ Traditional taste of soy sauce: β-mercaptopropyl alcohol F &B T 13/22 L . esters. caramel (like 물엿) is used for coloring. ④ Flavor of soy sauce : alcohols.Raw soy sauce : Soy sauce before boiling.4.Filtration : Separation of solution part (soy sauce) and solid part (meju) . ketones. Young taste and flavor .

8 6.0 0.3 23.1 . organic acids.36~0.9 24.5%)  Flavor & taste : Aromatic and sweet taste.95%  Organic acid : butyric acid propionic acid. flavors.4 0.7 4.0 17.8 5. formic acid (total acid: 0.1 0. salt  Amino acid : Its content and composition varies according to making process  Salt content : 19~25%  Total nitrogen : 0.0 20.1 43. Korean soy sauce (2) composition  Various kinds of Korean soy sauce  Major component : amino acids. salty taste General composition of sauce made of soybean meju (scale.2 4.2 4.7 23. 4.0 4. %) Water Ash Protein Lipid Fiber Carbohy Salt drate Soybean 9.6 F &B T 14/22 L .6 38. 2. acetic acid.3 Korean soy sauce 68.2 Traditional meju 3. alcohols.

sojae  Types of Japanese soy sauce ① Koikuchi type : more than 90% of Japanese soy sauce.Sterilization : High temperature condition ② Usukuchi type : less than 10%.Hydrolysis : A.2% total nitrogen content. Dark color .  Making Japanese soy sauce : Koji making (Aerobic growth of fungi to produce hydrolyzing enzymes) + Fermentation & Maturation (lactic acid bacteria + yeast) : Koji  enzyme sources for hydrolysis of protein and carbohydrates in soybean M/O : Aspergillus oryzae or A. 5. Bright color F &B T 15/22 L . Japanese soy sauce  Japanese soy sauce (Japanese Shoyu) : Major sources are soybean and wheat.Fermentation & maturation : lactic acid and alcohol fermentation . 1.Source : mixture of the same amount of soybean and wheat . oryzae .

MgCl2 : bitter taste . 5.Use NaCl salt with a low content of iron F &B T 16/22 L . lecitin. flavonoid . MgCl2. KCl) . Japanese soy sauce (1) Material  Soybean : supply of protein and fat.Unique flavor and taste are formed  Salt & water : NaCl (more than 90%) + various salts (CaSO4.More than 92% is imported : Soybean oil (75%) + food product (25%)  Skimmed soybean : Used after oil extraction with n-hexane  Wheat grain : starch source (more than 80%) . essential fatty acid. MgSO4.

S. Japanese soy sauce (2) Process  Source treatment + fermentation + shaping  Source : soybean+wheat grain  Fermentation starter : koji  Additional inoculation : P. 5. rouxii  Filtration & boiling Process for making koikuchi-tyype shoyu F &B T 17/22 L . soyae.

submerging. Aspergillus species is inoculated and grown in processed wheat grain (and cooking soybean) for production of protease and amylase  Aspergillus strains (국균) : A.N.K. A. 5. Japanese soy sauce (2) Process 1) Source treatment : washing. 회전증자+진공냉각) 2) Koji making  After processing wheat grain (cooking). sojae F &B T 18/22 L . cooking  Cooking soybean .process for easy hydrolysis of soybean protein by proteases from koji fungi .(Nippon Kikkoman)-type cooking (평압증자법.Protein denaturation by cooking increases the proteolytic ability of protease . oryzae.

rouxii 5) Mixing and Heating  Mixing : control of total nitrogen content by mixing with sub-materials (sugarcane.3L salt solution  Use of salt solution at -5oC : prevention of acid-forming M/O  remaining of hydrolysis enzymes  Content of salt : NaCl 23. sterilization. sojae. 60~70oC.6%  Salt content in final submerging solution : 16. Japanese soy sauce (2) Process 3) Submerging  Koji is added into a container with salt solution  Ratio : kogi 1L + 1. 10 min F &B T 19/22 L . 5.2~24. L.1~1.5~18% 4) Maturation : fermentation by salt-resistant M/O  P. caramel) or acid-hydrolysis soy sauce  Heating : destroy of residual enzyme. harmony of taste and flavor. S. delbruckii.

Acid-hydrolyzed Soy Sauce  Acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce : amino acid soy sauce or chemical soy sauce  Sauce solution : Amino acid solution by hydrolysis of soybean and wheat protein with hydrochloric acid. 6.2 산분해간장 제조공정 F &B T 20/22 L . neutralization with alkali and concentration 18% 60~70시간 분해 분해취 억제 NaOH.8~5. pH 4.

Acid-hydrolyzed Soy Sauce  Components : . succinic acid. 6. High arginine .Organic acid : High level of oxalic acid.Amino acid : No tryptophan. formic acid. propionic acid (biologically) <양조간장과 산분해간장에서 총질소 및 유기산 함량 (단위. Low Serine/threonine. levulinic acid (chemically) Low level of lactic acid. mg%)> F &B T 21/22 L .

Specification of soy sauce F &B T 22/22 L . 7.