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The Appendix
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The Mongols
China and Korea
After 1279 CE
The Yuan Dynasty

The Ming Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty

Modern Chinese Painting

China and Korea After 1279 CE

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Korea: The Joseon Dynasty
China and Korea
After 1279 CE
(continued)
Modern Korean Art

China and Korea After 1279 CE

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > The Mongols

The Mongols
• Influence of the Mongols

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > The Yuan Dynasty

The Yuan Dynasty


• Painting under the Yuan Dynasty

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > The Ming Dynasty

The Ming Dynasty


• Painting under the Ming Dynasty
• The Decorative Arts under the Ming Dynasty
• Architecture and Urban Planning under the Ming Dynasty
• Chinese Literati Expressionism under the Ming Dynasty

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > The Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty


• Orthodox Confucian Painting under the Qing Dynasty
• Individualist Painting under the Qing Dynasty

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > Modern Chinese Painting

Modern Chinese Painting


• Modern Chinese Painting

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > Korea: The Joseon Dynasty

Korea: The Joseon Dynasty


• Joseon Ceramics
• Joseon Painting

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China and Korea After 1279 CE > Modern Korean Art

Modern Korean Art


• Modern Korean Art

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Appendix
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China and Korea After 1279 CE

Key terms
• "Four Wangs" A group of Chinese painters of the Qing Dynasty, particularly renowned in the Orthodox school, who sought
inspiration in recreating the past styles, especially the technical skills in brushstrokes and calligraphy of ancient masters.
• Bada Shanren (1626-1705) A Chinese painter of shuimohua and a calligrapher.
• Buddhism The religion and philosophy founded by the Indian teacher Gautama Buddha.
• cloisonne A decorative technique for metalwork, especially brass, whereby colored enamel is baked between raised ridges of
the metal.
• Confucianism A Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher
Confucious.
• Confucianism A Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher
Confucious.
• Cultural Revolution A social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966, with the goal of
enforcing Communism in the country by removing capitalist, traditional, and cultural elements from Chinese society.
• fengshui A Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing with the surrounding environment; it is closely linked to Daoism.
• Forbidden City The palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, which is now preserved as a museum in Beijing, China.
• Hundred Flowers Campaign A period in 1956 in the People's Republic of China during which the Communist Party of China
encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime.
• Joseon Dynasty Korean dynasty lasting from 1392 to 1910.
• lacquerwares Objects (including boxes, tablewares, buttons, etc.) decoratively covered with a clear or colored wood finish that
dries by solvent evaporation or a curing process and produces a hard, durable finish; the finish is sometimes inlaid or carved.

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

• lithography The process of etching an image onto a flat surface, then copying the etched surface by applying ink (or the
equivalent) to it and pressing another material against it
• Manhwa The general Korean term for comics and print cartoons.
• Ming Dynasty The ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644), following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty;
the last dynasty in China ruled by the ethnic Han Chinese.
• New Culture Movement A movement during the 1910s and 1920s in China that sprang from the disillusionment with traditional
Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic.
• numerology The study of the purported mystical relationship between numbers and the character or action of physical objects
and living things.
• porcelain A hard, white, translucent ceramic that is made by firing kaolin and other materials.
• Qing Dynasty The last dynasty of China, lasting from 1644 to 1912.
• Shitao (1641-1707) A Chinese landscape painter and poet during the early Qing Dynasty.
• Silk Road An extensive interconnected network of trade routes across Asia, North and Northeast Africa, and Europe,
historically used by silk traders.
• Songjiang School A school during the late Ming Dynasty that rivaled Wumen, particularly in generating new theories of painting.
• Southern School A style of Chinese literati painting formed during Ming Dynasty in opposition to the formal Northern School of
painting; led by scholar-bureaucrats, who had either retired from the professional world or had never been a part of it.
• Suh Yongsun A contemporary South Korean painter and sculptor.

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

• Wang Meng (c. 1308 – 1385) A Chinese painter of the Yuan Dynasty who famously refused to serve the Mongolian rulers of
their country.
• Yuan Dynasty The empire established by Kublai Khan, the leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan, after the Mongols conquered
the Jin and Southern Song Dynasty in China; lasting from 1271 to 1368.
• Yuanti School A school that was organized and supported by the Ming central government, and served for Ming royal court.
• Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322) A Chinese prince and descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a scholar, painter, and
calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
• Zhe School A school of painters that was part of the Southern School, which thrived during the Ming Dynasty and was known
for its formal, academic, and conservative outlook.

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

Roof Statuettes
This image shows the Imperial roof decoration of the highest status on the roof ridge of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, with 10 statuettes.

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Wikipedia. "HighStatusRoofDeco.jpg." CC BY-SA 1.0 Generic https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forbidden_City#/media/File:HighStatusRoofDeco.jpg View on
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China and Korea After 1279 CE

Illuminated manuscript from the Shahnama


The "Shahnama" is an illuminated manuscript noted for its innovative compositions that blended elements of Persian, Chinese, and European painting
traditions.

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Wikipedia. "Baysonghori Shahnameh 1." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baysonghori_Shahnameh_1.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (c. 1350)


Huang Gongwang rejected the landscape conventions of his era's Academy but is regarded as one of the great literati painters.

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Wikipedia. "DwellingInTheFuchun." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DwellingInTheFuchun.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Wang Meng, Forest Grotto in Juqu (1378)


Wang Meng and the great masters of the Yuan Dynasty exclusively painted landscapes, which they believed to be the visible key to the invisible reality.

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Wikipedia. "Wang Meng.Forest Grotto in Juqu.1378.68,8x42,5 National Palace Museum Taipei." Public domain
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wang_Meng._Forest_Grotto_in_Juqu._1378._68,8x42,5_National_Palace_Museum_Taipei.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Dai Jin, "Landscape in the Style of Yan Wengui", hanging scroll, ink on paper (Early Ming Dynasty)
Painting techniques which were invented and developed before the Ming period became classical during this period. This Chinese landscape painting
uses the "atmospheric perspective" to show recession in space.

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Wikipedia. "Dai Jin-Landscape in the Style of Yan Wengui." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dai_Jin-Landscape_in_the_Style_of_Yan_Wengui.jpg
View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

A Ming Dynasty red lacquer box with intricate carving of people in the countryside, surrounded by a floral
border design.
Carved designs in lacquerwares and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting.

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Wikipedia. "B-ChinesischeLackdose." GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:B-ChinesischeLackdose.JPG View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

A blue and white porcelain vase with cloud and dragon designs, marked with the word "Longevity," Jiajing
period of Ming Dynasty
One of the 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain held at The Palace Museum of the Forbidden City.

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Wikipedia. "China ming blue dragons." CC BY 2.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:China_ming_blue_dragons.JPG View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

The Forbidden CIty


The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China,
and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, as well as the ceremonial and
political center of Chinese government.

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Wikipedia. "Gugun panorama-2005-1." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gugun_panorama-2005-1.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Ming architecture
The yellow roof tiles and red walls in the Forbidden City (Palace Museum) grounds in Beijing, built during the Yongle era (1402–1424) of the Ming
Dynasty.

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Wikipedia. "Beijing-forbidden7." CC BY 2.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beijing-forbidden7.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Yun Shouping, Peonies, Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk (17th- 18th c.)
Yun's style was vibrant and expressive; he attempted to display the inner vitality and spirit of his subjects in painting.

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Wikipedia. "Peonies by Yun Shouping." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peonies_by_Yun_Shouping.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Location of the Forbidden City in the historic center of Beijing


The Forbidden City is located within the larger Imperial City in Beijing, which is in turn encompassed by the Inner City. The Outer City lies south of the
Inner City.

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Wikipedia. "591px-Beijing_city_wall_map_vectorized.svg.png." Public domain
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forbidden_City#/media/File:Beijing_city_wall_map_vectorized.svg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Artwork by Wen Zhengming, a leading Ming dynasty painter


Wen Zhengming often chose painting subjects of great simplicity, like a single tree or rock. His work often brings about a feeling of strength through
isolation, which often reflected his discontent with official life.

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Wikipedia. "Wen Zhengming painting." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wen_Zhengming_painting.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Shen Zhou, Lofty Mt.Lu (蘆) Hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper (1467)
Shen Zhou paintings reveal a disciplined obedience to the styles of the Yuan dynasty, to China's history, and to the orthodox Confucianism that he
embodied in his filial life.

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Wikipedia. "Lofty Mt.Lu by Shen Zhou." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lofty_Mt.Lu_by_Shen_Zhou.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Dong Qichang, Wanluan Thatched Hall (1597): hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper
Dong Qichang created landscapes with intentionally distorted spatial features.

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Wikipedia. "Wanluan Thatched Hall by Dong Qichang." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wanluan_Thatched_Hall_by_Dong_Qichang.jpg View on
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China and Korea After 1279 CE

Bada Shanren, Two Birds (1650-1705)


Bada Shanren paintings feature sharp brush strokes which are attributed to the sideways manner by which he held his brush.

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Wikipedia. "Chu Ta 003." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chu_Ta_003.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Wang Hui, Clearing Autum Sky over a Fishing Vilage, hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper (1680)
Wang Hui and the three other Wangs dominated Orthodox art in China throughout the late Ming and early Qing periods. Of the Four Wangs, Wang Hui is
considered to be the best-known today.

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Wikipedia. "Wang Hui10." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wang_Hui10.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Shitao, Pine Pavilion Near a Spring (1675)


Shitao is one of the most famous individualist painters of the early Qing dynasty. The art he created was revolutionary in its transgressions of the rigidly
codified techniques and styles that dictated what was considered beautiful.

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Wikipedia. "ShiTao-Pine Pavilion Near A Spring." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ShiTao-Pine_Pavilion_Near_A_Spring.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Shitao, Reminiscences of Qin-Huai


Like many of the paintings from the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, Shitao's Reminiscences of Qin-Huai deals with man's place in nature.

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Wikipedia. "Shitao-Qinhuai." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shitao-Qinhuai.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Traditional Chinese Wall Scroll


A wall scroll painted by Ma Lin on or before 1246. Ink and color on silk, 226.6x110.3 cm.

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Wikipedia. "Ma Lin 010." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ma_Lin_010.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Elegance of the Lotus Looking from Heaven, by Shaoqiang Chen, Chinese Ink and Watercolor on Rice
Paper
Shaoqiang Chen created a new style of Chinese painting in the 21st century known as Heaven Style painting.

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Wikipedia. "1920px-Elegance_of_Lotus_Looking_from_Heaven.jpg." CC BY-SA 4.0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaven_Style_Painting#/media/File:Elegance_of_Lotus_Looking_from_Heaven.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Propaganda Art
Red Guards on the cover of an elementary school textbook

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Wikipedia. "1024px-Red_Guards.jpg." Public domain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution#/media/File:Red_Guards.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Joseon white porcelain


White porcelains were preferred and praised more than any other porcelains during the Joseon period.

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Wikipedia. "Baekja-White Ceramic." CC BY 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baekja-White_Ceramic.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

White porcelain jar, 18th century, Korea


The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and
complexity.

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Wikipedia. "Joseon white porcelain jar." CC BY-SA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Joseon_white_porcelain_jar.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Joseon dynasty pottery, Korea. Dongguk University Museum, Seoul.


This blue and white porcelain jar with pine and bamboo designs was made in 1489 during the early Joseon Dynasty.

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Wikipedia. "Joseon_Blue_and_white_porcelain_jar_1.jpg." Public domain
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_pottery_and_porcelain#/media/File:Joseon_Blue_and_white_porcelain_jar_1.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Joseon Dynasty painting by Owon


Owon was the pen name for Jang Seung-eop (1843 - 1897), a painter of the late Joseon Dynasty in Korea. He was one of the few painters to hold a
position of rank in the Joseon court.

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Wikipedia. "Owoncat." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Owoncat.gif View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Early Joseon landscape painting by Seo Munbo in the late 15th century
Early Joseon paintings often followed the Chinese style of idealized general landscapes.

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Wikipedia. "1280px-
%EC%84%9C%EB%AC%B8%EB%B3%B4_%EC%82%B0%EC%88%98%EB%8F%84%28%E5%B1%B1%E6%B0%B4%E5%9C%96%29_15%EC%84%B8%EA
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Arahat, Joseon buddhist painting in the 16th century Korea


Although the influence of Confucianism superseded that of Buddhism during the Joseon Dynasty, Buddhist art itself continued.

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Wikipedia. "%EB%82%98%ED%95%9C%EB%8F%84%28%E7%BE%85%E6%BC%A2%E5%9C%96%29.jpg." Public domain
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_painting#/media/File:%EB%82%98%ED%95%9C%EB%8F%84(%E7%BE%85%E6%BC%A2%E5%9C%96).jpg View on
China and Korea After 1279 CE

A late Joseon painting.


This painting from the late Joseon period—considered the golden age of Korean painting—shows some influences of the Western painting techniques
introduced to Joseon.

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Wikipedia. "Maenggyondo." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maenggyondo.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

The first woodcut manhwa by an unidentified painter, printed in Gamgak Nodong Yahak Dokbon in 1908
Manhwa, or Korean comics, were inspired by classic Asian arts and have been influenced by the dramatic modern history of Korea. In this cartoon, an
Adviser of Workers' Evening School Council says "Hello, we have to work for our country and people have to learn." The worker then replies, "Yes,
thanks. I will do that. "

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Wikipedia. "Manhwa-Yu.Gil-jun-Yahak-01." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manhwa-Yu.Gil-jun-Yahak-01.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Korean paper arts


This image shows colorful hanji strings next to a box of Korean fans.

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Wikipedia. "Korean_paper-Hanji-01.jpg." CC BY-SA 2.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_paper#/media/File:Korean_paper-Hanji-01.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

An artist of the Mansudae Art Studio paints.


The particularities of North Korean communism have reinvigorated old subjects and techniques with a nationalist dimension.

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Wikipedia. "1280px-Artist_at_Mansudae_Art_Studio%2C_Pyongyang_%2810104200854%29.jpg." CC BY 2.0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_art#/media/File:Artist_at_Mansudae_Art_Studio,_Pyongyang_(10104200854).jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Pre-Bell-Man, statue in front of the 'Museum für Kommunikation', Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Nam June Paik (July 20, 1932 – January 29, 2006) was a Korean American artist who worked with a variety of media. He is considered to be the first
video artist.

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Wikipedia. "Frankfurt Medien Denkmal." Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frankfurt_Medien_Denkmal.jpg View on Boundless.com
China and Korea After 1279 CE

Attribution
• Wikipedia. "Chinese art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art
• Wikipedia. "lacquerwares." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lacquerwares
• Wiktionary. "porcelain." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/porcelain
• Wiktionary. "cloisonne." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cloisonne
• Wikipedia. "Ming Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ming_Dynasty%23Urban_and_rural_life
• Wikipedia. "Ming Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ming%20Dynasty
• Wikipedia. "Korean painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_painting
• Wikipedia. "Confucianism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism
• Wikipedia. "Joseon." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon
• Wikipedia. "Korean art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_art%23Painting
• Wiktionary. "Buddhism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Buddhism
• Wikipedia. "Shen Zhou." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shen_Zhou
• Wikipedia. "Yuanti School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuanti%20School
• Wikipedia. "Ming Dynasty painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ming_Dynasty_painting
• Wikipedia. "Zhe school (painting)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhe_school_(painting)
• Wikipedia. "Wu School." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_School
• Wikipedia. "Zhe School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhe%20School

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

• Wikipedia. "Songjiang School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Songjiang%20School


• Wikipedia. "Joseon dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon_dynasty%23Art
• Wikipedia. "Joseon white porcelain." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon_white_porcelain
• Wikipedia. "Korean ceramics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_ceramics
• Wikipedia. "Joseon Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon%20Dynasty
• Wikipedia. "Chinese art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art%23Early_Qing_painting
• Wikipedia. "Qing Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qing_Dynasty%23Arts_and_Culture
• Wikipedia. "Six Masters of the early Qing period." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Masters_of_the_early_Qing_period
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//art-history/definition/four-wangs
• Wikipedia. "Wu School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_School
• Wikipedia. "Confucianism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism
• Wikipedia. "Southern School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_School
• Wikipedia. "Southern School." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern%20School
• Wikipedia. "Dong Qichang." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dong_Qichang
• Wikipedia. "Chinese art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art%23Yuan_painting
• Wikipedia. "Chinese painting." CC BY-SA 3.0
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• Wikipedia. "Chinese art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art%23Early_Qing_painting
• Wikipedia. "Shitao." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shitao
• Wikipedia. "Shitao." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shitao

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

• Wiktionary. "Qing Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Qing+Dynasty


• Wikipedia. "Bada Shanren." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bada%20Shanren
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• Wikipedia. "Zhao Mengfu." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao%20Mengfu
• Wikipedia. "Yuan Dynasty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan%20Dynasty
• Wikipedia. "Chinese art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art%23Yuan_painting
• Wikipedia. "Wang Meng." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang%20Meng
• Wikipedia. "Chinese architecture." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_architecture
• Wikipedia. "Ancient Chinese urban planning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Chinese_urban_planning
• Wiktionary. "numerology." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/numerology
• Wikipedia. "Fengshui." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fengshui
• Wikipedia. "Luoshu." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luoshu
• Wiktionary. "Forbidden City." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Forbidden_City
• Wikipedia. "Korean comics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_comics
• Wikipedia. "Manhwa." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhwa
• Wikipedia. "Korean painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_painting
• Wikipedia. "Korean painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_painting
• Wikipedia. "Suh Yongsun." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suh%20Yongsun

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China and Korea After 1279 CE

• Wikipedia. "Korean art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_art%23Painting


• Wikipedia. "Korean art." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_art%23Painting
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//art-history/definition/lithography
• Wikipedia. "Chinese Art." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_art
• Wikipedia. "Hundred Flowers Campaign." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred%20Flowers%20Campaign
• Wikipedia. "Chinese painting." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_painting%23Late_imperial_China_.281368.E2.80.931895.29
• Wikipedia. "Cultural Revolution." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural%20Revolution
• Wikipedia. "Heaven Style Painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaven_Style_Painting
• Wikipedia. "New Culture Movement." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20Culture%20Movement
• Wikipedia. "Chinese painting." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_painting
• Wikipedia. "Mongol Empire." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_Empire
• Wikipedia. "Culture of Mongolia." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Mongolia
• Wikipedia. "Shahnameh." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahnameh
• Wiktionary. "Silk Road." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Silk_Road

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