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Lifting and Handling

The Different Types Of Lifting Equipment
Used In Construction

 Construction projects involve lifting of various heavy materials such as

mortar and cement. There is need for construction companies to invest in
lifting gear or equipments to make it easy for their personnel to move
materials from one storey to another without necessarily building
scaffolding. There is a wide array of different lifts in the market hence no
matter your specific construction needs; you will find one that that best suits
your project best.
 Here is an in-depth look at the different types of lifting equipments
Knuckle lifts:

 This are also referred to as articulated boom lifts. Its base is mounted on
very sturdy wheels and a turntable that enables it to make 360 rotations
easily. The work platform is connected to a steel arm that can bend to
reach around obstacles. It is an ideal choice for maintenance or
landscaping projects. For example, information pills they can be used to
repair exterior piping or access outdoor areas that are hard to clean. There
are available in different models such as electrical, healinggasoline
powered, solid tire and inflated tire versions that are perfect for more
rugged or uneven terrain.
Scissor lifts:

 Their capability to lift construction material is limited as compared to boom

lifts as they have to be positioned below the work site at all times.
Nevertheless, they have a large platform that allows the operator to access
an expansive work area when the lift is raised. For best results, make sure
that the base is firmly rooted on a flat or even ground. Scissor lifts can be
used to carry out window installation and repairs as well as exterior
construction repairs.
Bucket trucks:

 They are also called cherry pickers in some countries. As the name
suggests, they have a bucket that is attached to its boom on one end.
They are can used by construction companies to install various fittings in
new and old buildings. The boom can be mounted on a truck and
transported for long distances. The bucket should always insulated when
working near potential shock hazards such as power lines.
Telescoping boom lifts:

 This is very similar to the bucket truck lifts. Its bucket is mounted on a straight
extendable arm that sits on rotating turntable. They are a perfect choice
for jobs that require maximum height because its arm is extendable. They
can be used to carry out exterior repairs on medium height buildings
without necessarily having to set up a pulley system. Most buckets can only
accommodate one personnel at a time. Some of them fitted with electric
motors that rely heavily on electricity. There are also models that run gas
powered motors.

Hydraulic elevators:

 These is a modern lifting gear that have strong hydraulic tubes that can be
used to transport construction materials in solid or solution form. Mobile
hydraulic elevators can be used to work on medium height buildings while
permanent hydraulics elevators can be used to work in tall buildings.
Construction Material Belt:

 This is a unique lifting gear used in construction industry to move materials

up and down the site. The belt is an angled plane that is made from rigid
segments that are interconnected to give it a spine look. Once the
materials are placed on the belt it raises them to the designated sites
through circulation motions. The modern material belt can be used to
transport materials up to eight stories or more.
Electric hoist:

 As the name suggests, this is a modern hoist powered by electricity. It

consists of a motorized pulley that is fastened by a strong cable. The body is
usually mounted on a fixed structure for stability. The pulley can be lowered
or raised by the operator by pressing some buttons on the control panel. It
is recommendable to regularly carry out maintenance practices on the
pulley to enhance its ability to move construction material from one area to
 All these lifting gear should only be operated by trained personnel to avert
accidents in the construction sites. Investing in quality construction lifting
equipment is a sure way of ensuring that the construction project is
completed on time and as per the set architectural design. Be sure to install
the equipment as per the instruction provided by the manufacturer to
derive maximum utility from it.

 A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire

ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower
materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy
things and transporting them to other places. The device uses one or
more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move
loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly
employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight,
in the construction industry for the movement of materials, and in the
manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.
Overhead crane
 An overhead crane, also known as a bridge crane, is a type of crane where the hook-and-
line mechanism runs along a horizontal beam that itself runs along two widely separated
rails. Often it is in a long factory building and runs along rails along the building's two long
walls. It is similar to a gantry crane. Overhead cranes typically consist of either a single
beam or a double beam construction. These can be built using typical steel beams or a
more complex box girder type. Pictured on the right is a single bridge box girder crane
with the hoist and system operated with a control pendant. Double girder bridge are more
typical when needing heavier capacity systems from 10 tons and above. The advantage
of the box girder type configuration results in a system that has a lower deadweight yet a
stronger overall system integrity. Also included would be a hoist to lift the items, the bridge,
which spans the area covered by the crane, and a trolley to move along the bridge.
 The most common overhead crane use is in the steel industry. At every step of the
manufacturing process, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, steel is handled by
an overhead crane. Raw materials are poured into a furnace by crane, hot steel is stored
for cooling by an overhead crane, the finished coils are lifted and loaded
onto trucks and trains by overhead crane, and the fabricator or stamper uses an
overhead crane to handle the steel in his factory. The automobile industry uses overhead
cranes for handling of raw materials. Smaller workstation cranes handle lighter loads in a
work-area, such as CNC mill or saw.

 The most basic type of mobile crane consists of a truss or telescopic boom
mounted on a mobile platform — be it on road, rail or water. Common
terminology is conventional and hydraulic cranes respectively.
Truck-mounted crane

 A crane mounted on a truck carrier provides the mobility for this type of
crane. This crane has two parts: the carrier, often referred to as the Lower,
and the lifting component which includes the boom, referred to as the
Upper. These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper
to swing from side to side. These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually
single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage
and the crane. The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the
turntable from the pump mounted on the lower. In older model designs of
hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines. One in the lower pulled the
crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and
jacks. The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its
own. Many older operators favor the two-engine system due to leaking
seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes.
Sidelifter crane

 A sidelifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer, able to hoist and

transport ISO standard containers. Container lift is done with parallel crane-
like hoists, which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway
Rough terrain crane

 A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is

designed for pick-and-carry operations and for off-road and "rough terrain"
applications. Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for
 These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines, with the same engine
powering the undercarriage and the crane, similar to a crawler crane. In a
rough terrain crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage
rather than in the upper, as with crawler crane. Most have 4 wheel drive
and 4 wheel steering which allows them to traverse tighter and slicker
terrain than a standard truck crane with less site prep. In addition, there are
rough terrain cranes with the operating cab mounted on the lower as
opposed to the P&H.
All terrain crane

 A mobile crane with the necessary equipment to travel at speed on public

roads, and on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab
steering. AT‘s combine the roadability of Truck-mounted Cranes and the
maneuverability of Rough Terrain Cranes.
Crawler crane

 A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks (also

called crawlers) that provide stability and mobility. Crawler cranes range in
lifting capacity from about 40 to 3,500 short tons (35.7 to 3,125.0 long tons;
36.3 to 3,175.1 t).
 Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages depending on
their use. Their main advantage is that they can move around on site and
perform each lift with little set-up, since the crane is stable on its tracks with
no outriggers. Caterpillar tracks are also far better at traversing soft ground
without sinking in, as they spread the weight out over a great area.
Floating crane

 Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction,
but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially
heavy or awkward loads on and off ships. Some floating cranes are
mounted on pontoons, others are specialized crane bargeswith a lifting
capacity exceeding 10,000 short tons (8,929 long tons; 9,072 t) and have
been used to transport entire bridge sections. Floating cranes have also
been used to salvage sunken ships
Aerial crane

 Aerial crane or 'Sky cranes' usually are helicopters designed to lift large
loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas that are difficult to
reach by conventional cranes. Helicopter cranes are most commonly used
to lift units/loads onto shopping centers and highrises. They can lift anything
within their lifting capacity, (cars, boats, swimming pools, etc.). They also
perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and during wild-
fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish fires.
Tower crane

 Tower cranes are a modern form of balance crane that consist of the same
basic parts. Fixed to the ground on a concrete slab (and sometimes
attached to the sides of structures), tower cranes often give the best
combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction
of tall buildings. The base is then attached to the mast which gives the
crane its height. Further, the mast is attached to the slewing unit (gear and
motor) that allows the crane to rotate. On top of the slewing unit there are
three main parts which are: the long horizontal jib (working arm), shorter
counter-jib, and the operator's cab.
Handling Equipment
Different Types of Material Handling

 Material handling equipment encompasses a diverse range of tools,

vehicles, storage units, appliances and accessories involved in transporting,
storing, controlling, enumerating and protecting products at any stage of
manufacturing, distribution consumption or disposal.
Categories of Material Handling Equipment

 transport equipment, positioning equipment, unit load formation

equipment, and storage equipment.
Transport equipment

 Transport equipment is used to move material from one location to another

(e.g., between workplaces, between a loading dock and a storage area,
etc.), while positioning equipment is used to manipulate material at a single
location. The major subcategories of transport equipment are conveyors,
cranes, and industrial trucks. Material can also be transported manually
using no equipment.

 are used when material is to be moved frequently between specific points

over a fixed path and when there is a sufficient flow volume to justify the
fixed conveyor investment

 are used to transport loads over variable (horizontal and vertical) paths
within a restricted area and when there is insufficient (or intermittent) flow
volume such that the use of a conveyor cannot be justified. Cranes provide
more flexibility in movement than conveyors because the loads handled
can be more varied with respect to their shape and weight. Cranes
provide less flexibility in movement than industrial trucks because they only
can operate within a restricted area, though some can operate on a
portable base. Most cranes utilize trolley-and-tracks for horizontal
movement and hoists for vertical movement, although manipulators can
be used if precise positioning of the load is required. The most common
cranes include the jib, bridge, gantry, and stacker cranes.
Jib Crane
Industrial trucks

 are trucks that are not licensed to travel on public roads (commercial
trucks are licensed to travel on public roads[7]). Industrial trucks are used to
move materials over variable paths and when there is insufficient (or
intermittent) flow volume such that the use of a conveyor cannot be
 Hand trucks (including carts and dollies), the simplest type of industrial
truck, cannot transport or stack pallets, is non-powered, and requires the
operator to walk. A pallet jack, which cannot stack a pallet, uses front
wheels mounted inside the end of forks that extend to the floor as the pallet
is only lifted enough to clear the floor for subsequent travel.

 An order picker allows the operator to be lifted with the load to allow for
less-than-pallet-load picking. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are
industrial trucks that can transport loads without requiring a human
Pallet Jack and Unit Load AGV
Positioning equipment

 is used to handle material at a single location. It can be used at a

workplace to feed, orient, load/unload, or otherwise manipulate materials
so that are in the correct position for subsequent handling, machining,
transport, or storage. As compared to manual handling, the use of
positioning equipment can raise the productivity of each worker when the
frequency of handling is high, improve product quality and limit damage to
materials and equipment when the item handled is heavy or awkward to
hold and damage is likely through human error or inattention, and can
reduce fatigue and injuries when the environment is hazardous or
 Examples of positioning equipment include lift/tilt/turn tables, hoists,
balancers, manipulators, and industrial robots
Unit load formation equipment

 is used to restrict materials so that they maintain their integrity when

handled a single load during transport and for storage. If materials are self-
restraining (e.g., a single part or interlocking parts), then they can be
formed into a unit load with no equipment. Examples of unit load formation
equipment include pallets, skids, slipsheets, tote pans, bins/baskets, cartons,
bags, and crates
Storage equipment

 Storage equipment is used for holding or buffering materials over a period

of time. The design of each type of storage equipment, along with its use
in warehouse design, represents a trade-off between minimizing handling
costs, by making material easily accessible, and maximizing the utilization
of space (or cube).
Pallet Racks and Vertical Carousel