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Three-Phase AC machines

Resource 2

THREE-PHASE CAGE ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

Aims

1. To understand the principle of the operation of the motor

2. To describe the construction of a cage rotor induction commercial


motor

3. To understand the factors that affect the performance of the motor


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

Objectives
At the end of this lesson you should be able to:

• Describe the principle of the rotating magnetic field


• Describe the principle of rotor cage induction
• Describe the construction of a commercial stator
• Describe the construction of a commercial cage rotor
• Explain and calculate synchronous speed
• Explain and calculate fractional slip
• Describe the effect upon the performance of the motor by connecting
the stator in star and delta
• Performance simple calculations involving electrical and mechanical
parameters that describe the performance of the motor
• Describe the performance curve for a cage rotor induction motor
Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Simple stator made of 3 pole pairs of coils around iron pole pieces
A’
Iron Pole • Current enters coil
C Pieces A and leaves coils A’

Iron • Magnetic flux set


B
Stator up in coils with
Ring North Pole at the
bottom and South
B’ Pole at the top

Phase
C’ Coils

A Phase connections
Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Changing which coils are energised alters direction of magnetic flux
A’ A’ A’

C C C
N
B B B

B’ B’ B’
S
C’ C’ C’

A A A

AA’ energised CC’ energised BB’ energised


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Energising two sets of coils together in sequence

Compass settles half way between poles


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Sequence produces one complete rotation of the magnetic field

1. CC’ & B’B

2. AA’ & B’B

3. AA’ & C’C

4. BB’ & C’C

5. BB’ & A’A

6. CC’ & A’A

7. CC’ & B’B


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Three-Phase supply provides the correct sequence for stator coils

1. CC’ & B’B

2. AA’ & B’B

3. AA’ & C’C

4. BB’ & C’C

5. BB’ & A’A

6. CC’ & A’A

7. CC’ & B’B


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Three-Phase supply provides the correct sequence for stator coils

1. CC’ & B’B

2. AA’ & B’B

3. AA’ & C’C

4. BB’ & C’C

5. BB’ & A’A

6. CC’ & A’A

7. CC’ & B’B


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Rotor cage added in the centre of the stator field
Cage rotor

Copper end ring Cage conductors


Three-Phase AC Machines Three-phase Cage Rotor
Resource 2 Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
As magnetic field rotates, cage conductors cut lines of magnetic flux

This induces currents in cage conductors


Induced currents produce magnetic field in rotor
Magnetic field in rotor attracted towards rotating stator field
Rotor turns in same direction as stator field but slower