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Dale Pietrzak, Ed.D.


Basic Personality Inventory

Administration, Scoring
and Interpretation for
Hand Scoring
Seems OK ...

BPI Overview
• 240 Items
• Counterbalanced True and False Items for
all but the deviation Scale
• Easily hand scored in 10 minutes
• Good Response Set detection in computer
scored report
• Ages 12 through Adult
Hand Scoring
• 1 key for the 12 main scales
– Total number of marked responses for each half
of each scale
• 1 Balanced desirability scale
• Total number of True responses for
I think I can do that!
Adult Norms
Marital %
Single 16.7 Region %
Married 67.6 N East 30.6
Age % SE & SC 14.8
19-20 3.6 Widowed 7.2
Divorced 6.8 N Central 28.2
21-30 26.6 Pac. & Mtn. 26.4
31-40 22.0
41-50 14.0 Occupation %
51-60 15.0 Mang. & Professional 36.4
61-65 8.3 Sales & Adm. Support33.2
66+ 10.5 Skilled Workers 12.4
Service Workers 6.6
Semi-Skilled Wrks. 7.2
Unskilled Wrks. 3.9
Adolescent Norms
• n = 2210: 880 Males and 1380 Females
• Based on pooled samples of 2 Canadian
• Stratified Random Sample
– Sex, Age, Rural-urban & Social Class
– Only sex showed significant differences

Who cares?
Reliability of BPI: Adult
Test-Retest Stability: 1 Month
Holden Kilduff Median
Hypocondrisis .74 .73 .74
Depression .85 .85 .85
Denial .67 .63 .65
Interpersonal Problems .82 .77 .80
Alienation .81 .77 .79
Persecutory Ideas .71 .78 .75
Anxiety .75 .78 .77
Thinking Disorder .64 .71 .68
Impulse Expression .78 .78 .78
Social Introversion .82 .87 .85
Self Depreciation .62 .77 .70
Deviation .70 .69 .70
Internal Consistency: Adult
Normal Psychiatric
KR-20 Alpha
Hypocondrisis .80 .82
Depression .83 .86
Denial .69 .69
Interpersonal Problems .70 .74
Alienation .63 .75
Persecutory Ideas .74 .81
Anxiety .78 .77
Thinking Disorder .65 .78
Impulse Expression .68 .74
Social Introversion .77 .81
Self Depreciation .61 .82
Deviation .63 .55
Reliability of BPI: Adolescent
KR-20 Internal Consistency
Hypocondrisis .77
Depression .80
Denial .61
Interpersonal Problems .72
Blah Why do
Alienation .72
Blah I have to
Persecutory Ideas .73
Anxiety .57 learn
Thinking Disorder .72 this?
Impulse Expression .74
Social Introversion .79
Self Depreciation .73
Deviation .66
Standard Error of Measurement
Consistency Consistency
Stability Adult Adoles.
Hypocondrisis 5.1 4.3
Depression 3.9 3.9
Denial 5.9 5.6
Interpersonal Problems 4.5 5.3
Alienation 4.6 5.6
Persecutory Ideas 5.0 4.7
Anxiety Mean: 4.8
4.9 4.7 5.3
Basic Interpretation
• Uses linear T-scores
• 70 or higher indicates a clinical elevation
– approximately the 97th percentile
• 60 to 69 has elements of scale
– approximately the 85th percentile
• 50 or less generally has positive aspects of
Interpretation Continued
• 65-74 minimal to milder symptoms.
• 75 or more moderate to severe symptoms.
• May have “normal” people score in clinical
– Need to know history.
– Need to be able to abstract more “normal”
displays to very severe displays for each scale
– Clinical judgment is required
BPI Response Set Detection
• Balanced Desirability (Adult)
– 19 or more Fake Good
– 8 or less Fake Bad
• Total Number of True Responses (Adult)
– 153 or more “True” response set
– 77 or less “False” response set
• Denial Scale over 70 with lower scores on other
– Denial of Symptoms
BPI Response Set Detection
• Deviation over 70 with other scales high
– Infrequent symptom pattern
• Random raw scores of 10 2 on almost all
• Hand scored infrequency and consistency
scales under construction

Admit it !
Content Categories
A. Social Deviation/Inadequate Socialization
- Interpersonal Problems Correctional
- Alienation Scales
- Impulse Expression
B. Mood Personal/Emotional Adjustment
- Depression
- Anxiety
- Hypochondriasis
C. Cognitive Functioning E. Critical Deviant Behaviors
- Thinking Disorder - Deviation
- Persecutory Ideas F. Guardedness
D. Self-Perception & Sociability - Denial
- Self Depreciation
- Social Introversion
Higher Order Factor Scales
• Psychiatric Symptomology
– Hypochondriasis, Persecutory Ideas, Anxiety,
Thinking Disorder and Deviation
• Social Symptomology
– Interpersonal Problems, Alienation, Persecutory
Ideas, Impulse Expression and Deviation
• Depression
– Depression, Self-Depreciation & Social
Intended: Identify those with physical symptoms which are either
caused psychologically, or exaggerated psychologically.

Less than 50
Is without excessive bodily concern or preoccupation with
physical complaints. Absenteeism due to illness is below
Many with real physical conditions score in this range.
Frequently concerned about being ill. Complains regularly of
peculiar pains or bodily dysfunctions. Discusses such topics
frequently, revealing a preoccupation with such complaints.
Intended: To identify those who have the cognitive, affective and
some physical symptoms of depression.

49 or less
reports a usual feeling of confidence, cheerfulness, and
persistence, even when experiencing disappointment. Has an
optimistic attitude about the future.

Is inclined to be down-hearted and show extreme despondency;
considers self to be inadequate; may be listless, remote, and
preoccupied; looks at the future pessimistically.
Intended: To identify those who are guarded or denying symptoms.

Less than 50
Accepts feelings as part of self. Is not afraid to discuss unpleasant
topics. Can answer questions about self frankly; avoids impression
management. Shows normal affect. Reasonably insightful.

Lacks insight into feelings and the causes of own behavior. Avoids
unpleasant, exciting or violent topics. relatively unresponsive
emotionally. Questionable validity, especially if clinical scales are
lower than expected.
Interpersonal Problems
Intended: To identify those who have difficulty getting along
with others. Especially due to irritability and
oppositional styles.
49 or less
Reasonably cooperative. Experiences less than average irritation
from their environment and others. Handles noises, interruptions,
changes in routine, disappointments, others mistakes and
authority reasonably well. Prefers clearly defined rules and
regulations; able to handle criticism.
Is often extremely annoyed by little inconveniences, frustrations, or
disappointments; uncooperative, disobedient, resistant to others,
and reacts against discipline, rules and criticism.
Intended: To identify those with asocial, or personalized standards
of right and wrong.

Less than 50
Ordinarily displays socially acceptable ethical attitudes and is
socially responsible. Reports feeling a sense of obligation
toward society and its laws (conscience).
Expresses attitudes markedly different from common social codes;
is prone to depart from the truth and behave in an unethical/illegal
and untrustworthy manner; feels little or no guilt about behavior.
Persecutory Ideas
Intended: To identify those who have paranoid ideation.

49 or less
Trust others and does not feel threatened. Accepts responsibility
for the events in life and does not attribute maliciousness to others.

Believes that certain people are hostile and are trying to make
life difficult and/or unpleasant. Inclined to brood. Distrusts others.
Intended: To identify those who have the cognitive and
affective symptoms of anxiety. Emotional reactivity.
Less than 50
Remains calm, unruffled and not worried even when confronted
by unexpected occurrences. Takes things as they come without
fear or apprehension. Maintains personal control even in crisis
Easily scared and worrisome. Little things, even an idea, can
cause a frenzy of anxiety. Afraid of physical or interpersonal
Thinking Disorder
Intended: To identify those with problems with reality testing
and difficulties with distractibility and/or concentration.

49 or less
Has no difficulty with reality testing. Has no difficulty
distinguishing daydreams from reality. Is able to concentrate and
maintain sensible conversations.
Is markedly confused, distractible and cognitively disorganized.
cannot remember simple things from day to day. reports feeling
that life is dream-like, and that there is a marked difference
between self and others (sees self as different from others-odd).
Impulse Expression
Intended: To identify impulsive, hedonistic minded responses.
Sensation seeking and risky behaviors.

Less than 50
Appears to be even-tempered and level headed; considers the
future and consequences before acting; generally has the
patience to cope with lengthy and tedious tasks. Persistence.
Lacks the ability to think beyond the present and consider the
consequences of action; is prone to undertake risky and
reckless actions; inclined to behave irresponsibly; finds routine
tasks boring.
Social Introversion
Intended: To identify people who avoid others either due to
disinterest, fear or withdrawal.

49 or less
Enjoys company and being with others. Likes to talk and knows
many people. Spends time with others, seeks others out.

Avoids people generally. Has few friends, or is withdrawing from
friends. Says little to others, even friends. Seems to be
uncomfortable when around others. Prefers to keep to self or
asocial activities.
Self Depreciation
Intended: To identify those who are negative and/or self-
depreciating. Poor self-esteem.

Less than 50
Manifests a high degree or self-assurance in dealing with others.
Not afraid to meet strangers; speaks with confidence about a
variety of topics; believes in own abilities and that he/she can
accomplish things.
Degrades self as being worthless, unpleasant, and undeserving.
Generally expresses a low opinion of self and refuses credit for
any accomplishment.
Intended: To identify unusual response styles and behavior
patterns which are very pathological.

49 or less
Generally shows behavior patterns similar to those of a majority
of people. Tends to be free from unusual symptoms and modes
of thought.
Displays behavior patterns very different from most people’s.
admits to unusual and pathological characteristics. If elevated with
most other scales watch for “fake bad.”
Empirical Scale Combinations: Adults

• Hallucinations:
– Thinking Disorder with Persecutory Ideas
(lower depression)
• Delusions:
– Persecutory Ideas with Alienation and Thinking
Disorders (lower depression)
• Mania:
– Impulse Expression with Denial &
E-Scale Combinations Con’t
• Depression:
– Depression with Self Depreciation and Anxiety
• Anxiety:
– Anxiety with Depression and Hypochondrias
(lower Alienation)
• Somatic Complaints:
– Depression, Hypochondrias and self-
depreciation with Anxiety and Persecutory
E-Scale Combinations Con’t

• Insomnia
– Social Introversion with Self Depreciation and
lower Alienation
• Anorexia
– Lower Alienation and Interpersonal Problems
with lower Thinking Disorder and Lower
Persecutory Ideas
E-Scale Combinations Con’t

• Assaultive Behavior
– Interpersonal Problems with
Alienation and Persecutory Ideas
• Alcoholism (In Treatment)
– Moderate elevations on Interpersonal Problems,
Hypochondrias, depression, Alienation, Social
Introversion (Lower Denial)
E-Scale Combinations Con’t
• Drug Abuse (In Treatment)
– Alienation, Interpersonal Problems and
Deviation (Impulse Expression) with Lower
• Suicidal Behavior
– Depression with Deviation, Self depreciation,
Anxiety and Social Introversion
• Neuroticism
– Hypochondrias, Anxiety, Social Introversion
Empirical Patterns: Adolescents
• Pattern 1: Mental Health Difficulties
– Depression, Anxiety, Self depreciation and
• Higher the elevation the worse adjusted
• Pattern 2: Interpersonal Maladjustment
– Interpersonal Problems, Persecutory Ideas, and
Impulse Expression
• Rebellious and anti-establishment (More
Adolescent Patterns Continued
• Pattern 3: Antisocial Delinquency
– Alienation, Interpersonal Problems and Impulse
• Pattern 4: Defensive Denial (offenders)
– Denial other normal to low
– Females Persecutory Ideas common-indicates
feeling unfairly treated

Leave me alone!
Adolescent Patterns Continued
• Pattern 5: Performance Anxiety resulting
in Somatic Complaints (Neurotic)
– Hypochondrias, Anxiety, and Social
• Pattern 6: High risk Rebelliousness
– Depression, Anxiety, Self Depreciation,
Interpersonal Problems, Alienation, Impulse
Expression, and Deviation
Scale Defense Mechanisms
• Hypochondrias: Repression & Denial
• Depression: Rationalization
• Denial: Denial & Repression
• Interpersonal Problems: Projection,
• Alienation: Projection, Blocking
• Persecutory Ideas: Projection and other
Scale Defense Mechanisms
• Anxiety: Rationalization
• Thinking Disorder: Distancing,
Disassociation, Blocking
• Impulse Expression: Ignoring,
• Social Introversion: Withdrawal, Escape
• Self-Depreciation: Self-Blame, Giving up
Other Scale Interactions
• Interpret how the various scales interact
with each other
• No established guidelines: Intuitive Clinical
Hum ...

Interpretation Process

• Investigate Validity and Distortion

• Factor Scale Interpretation
• Content Category Interpretation
• Empirical Patterns
• Specific Scale Interpretations & Scale