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Project Management

Plan
• Introduction • Project planning
• Project planning – Resource analysis
– Gantt chart and WBS • Risk management
• Project planning • Quality
– Network analysis I • Budgets and cost
• Project planning control
– Network analysis II • Project teams

Review
This Lecture
• Introduction
– What is a project?
– The project management process
– Project management information systems
A Project
A unique process, consisting of a set of
coordinated and controlled activities with start
and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an
objective conforming to specific requirements
including constraints of time, cost and
resources

(Lockyer and Gordon, 1996)


A Project
• Unique process
• Coordinated and controlled activities
• Start and finish dates
• To achieve an objective
• Specific requirements
• Constraints of time, cost and resources
Project Characteristics
• Organisation is temporary
• Often forms part of a larger project
• Objectives and product characteristics may be
defined and achieved progressively
• Result may be the creation of one or several
units of a project
• Interrelation between activities may be
complex
Project Characteristics

‘Project management is principally concerned


with the management of change’
(Lockyer & Gordon, 1996)

 Change management in IS development


 Change management in organisations
Project Factors
• Size of the project
– Budget/costs, Size of team, Size of product
• Complexity
• Industry in which it is carried out
– Civil engineering
– Manufacturing
– IS/IT
Classifying Projects (Lock, 1996)
• Civil Engineering
– Realisation phase is outdoors, large capital(investment) =
many contractors = communication headaches
• Manufacturing Projects
– Development of specialised hardware, physical design
• Management Projects
– Projects that do not result in a produced piece of hardware
(including software projects?)
• Research Projects
– Include a higher element of risk (including software
projects?)
All Projects Should Have:
• Project plan
• Time frame
• Product specification
• Statement of required quality
• Budget
• Cost plan
• Identification of areas of ambiguity
• Risk evaluation and responses
Introduction
• What is a project?
• The project management
process
• Project management information
systems
Process Overview
• A project is broken down into stages
• Each stage in turn will be broken down into
smaller and more manageable tasks
• It is important to include planning as part of
the project management process
Four Phase Model
• Lockyer (1996) describes a four phase model
of the project process
– Conception - assess the feasibility of the project
– Development - prepare the project plan
– Realisation - carry out the plan
– Termination - close the project
Conception Reports On…
• The capability of the organisation to
– Produce the product in the time required
– Support capital outlay
– Procure external items or services

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Conception Reports On…
• The final price for the product
• The cost involved in development
• The project budget
• Specification of the product including quality
and reliability requirements

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Conception

Can it be done?

Yes or No?

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Conception ≈ Feasibility
• It is possible that we will
reject the project!

• What are the


consequences of:
– Too much detail?
– Insufficient detail?
Development
• As the organisation is now committed to the
project it must:
– Appoint a project manager
– Assemble project team
– Draw up a detailed plan of work

Conception
Development
Realisation
Termination
Realisation
• A reporting system is required to keep
everyone informed:
– Team, top management, customers etc.
• A log is also kept of problems and how they
were resolved

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Termination
• Uses the project log to evaluate the
project and the process and indicate:
– The success/failure of methods used
– How team members performed
– How reliable suppliers were

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Termination
• Capital equipment that was used for the
project is now likely to be redundant
• Termination also involves getting rid of such
equipment as profitably as possible

Conception
evelopment
Realisation
Termination
Introduction
• What is a project?
• The project management process
• Project management
information systems
PM Information Systems
• Projects need systems that can collect data in
real time concerning the project progress and
costs
• Data analysis and distribution of information
must be carried out as rapidly as possible
MS Project – Gantt Chart
MS Project – Pert Chart
Resource Analysis
Other Software Tools
• Project Management Tools
• Accounting tools
– e.g. spreadsheets, invoice generators
• Documentation tools
– Word processors, report generators
• Group work tools
– Discussion forums, GDSS
Questions
• Is the development of an information system a
project?
– Explain your answer using information from this
lecture
• How does the four phase model compare to
the waterfall model of software development?
Useful Links
• The OGC Project Management Web Site
– http://www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/deliverylifecycle/impplans/p
roj_mgmt.html
• Project Management Software Tools
– http://www.project-management-software.org/
– http://www.startwright.com/project1.htm
• Example Project Definition Document
– http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/sccwebsite/sccwspublications.nsf/f2d920e0
15d1183d80256c670041a50b/547330bbc5c2e99f80256c2a0059f4c7/$
FILE/Project%20Definition%20Document.pdf