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FLOW
Here
INSTRUMENTATION 101

Dave Schmitt

Escondido / Irvine
“Serving the Southwest’s Instrumentation
Needs Since 1987”
Overview – S.C. CONTROLS, INC.

##  Rep / Distributor / Integrator

 Escondido / Irvine offices
 Founded in 1987
 Specializing in FLOW, LEVEL,
TEMPERATURE, DENSITY
MEASUREMENTS
 Degreed Engineers
 Offering solutions not just sales
Overview
 Briefly describe the theory of flow
measurements
 Outline different types of flow meters.
applications.
 Present examples of instruments for
measurement solutions
Flow Measurement Theory

 WHAT IS FLOW ??
– Measure of the velocity of a fluid per unit
area in a closed conduit; ie: pipe or duct
– FLOW = VELOCITY (fluid) X Area of
Pipe or Duct or Stack
– FLOW = FPM X FT2 or IN2
– Q = AV (Area X velocity)
– Q = ρ AV (density x area x vel)
• Mass flow
FLOW - In our
everyday lives
 Water flow meter at our home or
apartment
– used for billing purposes
– Mechanical flow meter with local rate and
total
– Relative accuracy
FLOW - In our
everyday lives
 Gas Flow Meter - natural gas measurement of
gas used for cooking and heating
– Mechanical Meter - turbine type
 Liquid flow meter - Gasoline - at the local gas
station where we pumped gas this morning
– Positive displacement type with output
signal to electronic counter for billing

## We use flow meters every day to measure fluids we use.

Why meter?
• Mitigate rising energy costs
• Manage energy consumption efficiently
• Apportion energy costs by usage and not
square footage, creating behavior change

## You cannot control what you do not

measure.

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Basic Flow Theory
 Volumetric Flow
 Mass Flow
 Density - Liquid
 Density - Steam
 Actual vs. Standard Flow - Gas
 Energy Flow - Water
 Flow Profiles & Reynolds Number
 Viscosity
 Accuracy
 Repeatability
 Straight Run Requirements
 Meter Installation

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Volumetric Flow (all fluids)

Q = A *V
= ft ² * ft sec
= ft ³ sec

where:

## Q = volumetric flow ft ³ sec

A = cross sectional area ( ft ² )
V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec )

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Mass Flow

 = Q  = A V 
m * * *
= ft ² * ft sec * lbs ft ³
= lbs sec

where:

m = mass flow ( lbs sec )
 = density ( lbs ft ³ )
Q = average fluid velocity ( ft sec )
A = cross sectional area ( ft ² )

## V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec )

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Density - Liquids
Liquids
The density of a liquid is inversely proportional to temperature:

WATER
Temperature Weight Density
 1 T °F Lbs/gal
32 8.3436
40 8.3451
50 8.343
60 8.3378
70 8.329
80 8.3176
90 8.3037
100 8.2877

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Density - Gases
Gases
The density of a gas varies proportionally with pressure and inversely with
temperature:
 = a 1
T

Density of Gas:

2.7  a  SG
where:  = Density ( lbs ft 3 )
 = a = absolute pressure (psia) = 14.7 + Pgage
Ta
SG =Specific Gravity
Ta = absolute temperature = F° + 460 = ° Rankin

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Density - Steam
Saturated steam: Superheated steam:

## Saturated Steam Table Superheated Steam Table

Pressure Temperature Density Pressure Temperature Density
psia °F lbs/ft³ psia °F lbs/ft³
89.6 320 0.203 20 320 0.044
152.92 360 0.338 20 360 0.041
247.10 400 0.536 20 400 0.039
381.20 440 .820 20 440 0.038
680.00 500 1.480 20 500 0.035
811.40 520 1.780 80 320 0.181
361.50 540 2.150 80 360 0.170
1131.80 560 2.580 80 400 0.161
1324.30 580 3.100 80 440 0.153
1541.00 600 3.740 80 500 0.143

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Actual vs. Standard Flow - Gas
Actual Volume Flow:
Q = V * A (actual ft³ sec, ft³ min, etc)
(actual m³ sec,hr, m³ sec, etc)

## Standard Volume Flow:

Gas flow in standard units relates the volume flow of gas to the same amount of mass flow of gas at standard conditions:

where:
 operating
Qstandard
= Qactual
 standard conditions Qstandard = standard ft³ unit time or
standard m³ unit time
Qactual = actual volumetric flow (ACFM, ACFH, etc…)

SG = specific gravity ( gas air , at standard conditions )
operating = density of gas at operating pressure and temperature
standard = density of gas at standard conditions (at 14.7 psia, 60°F)

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Energy Flow
 Chilled/hot water energy (Btu) calculations require
(1) flow and
(2) temperature inputs.
 Btu is defined as the amount of energy required to
raise the temperature of 1lb water at 39°F by 1°F.

##  = energy flow (Btu

E )

E = m (hs – hr )
sec

 = mass flow
m (lbs sec )

E = A V  (h s - h r )
 ft lbs Btu
A = cross sectional area (ft²)
E = ft²  sec  ft³  lbs
 Btu V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec)
E=
 = density ( lbs
sec
ft³ )
hs = Btu’s (heat content) of water at supply temperature (Btu lbs)
where:
hr = Btu’s (heat content) of water at return temperature (Btu lbs)

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Flow Profiles & Reynolds Number

inertial forces
Re =
frictional forces

density velocity 
diameter
Re =
viscosity

Re =   V D
µ
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Viscosity
 Dynamic viscosity
cP (centipoise)

 Kinematic Viscosity
cst (centistoke)

## VcP = Vcst *SG where:

Vcst = kinematic viscosity
V cP = dynamic viscosity
SG = specific gravity

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Viscosity
Viscosity can be highly temperature dependent in liquids.

Steam/gas – 0.01 cP

Water – 1.0 cP

Honey – 300 cP

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Accuracy
ACCURACY +/-1%
% of Rate

## Error = % of rate  measurement Max flow 1,000lb/h = 1,010 to 990 lb/h

Min flow 100 lb/h = 101 to 99 lb/h

## % of Full Scale % Full scale (FS)

Max flow 1,000 lb/h = 1,010 to 990 lb/h

Error = % of full scale  full scale flow Min flow 100 lb/h = 110 (100 + 10) lb/h
to 90 (100 - 10) lb/h

## i.e. +/- 10% error at

minimum flow

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Repeatability
Accurate & Repeatable

Repeatability:
Differs from Accuracy
Not accurate,
Measures the same all the time
or repeatable

Not accurate,
but repeatable

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Installation – Straight Run
 Straight run requirements

 Minimum 10 pipe diameters upstream and 5 pipe diameters downstream required to get
proper flow profile

##  Less straight run affects meter accuracy

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Installation – Meter Location
Install before valve to avoid air

pipe Top View

insure full pipe

## Gas & steam horizontal orientation

– insure no condensate

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Technologies
Principle

DP An obstruction in the flow,  Low initial cost  Not highly accurate, Liquids
(Differential measure pressure  No moving parts particularly in gas flow Gases
Pressure) differential before and after  Handle dirty media  Orifice plate and pitot tube Steam
Orifice plate the obstruction  Easy to use can become clogged
Pitot tube  Well understood technology  High maintenance to
Variable area  Supported by AGA and API maintain accuracy
Venturi  Typically low turndown
V-Cone  Pressure drop
Accelabar

Vortex Bluff body creates  High accuracy  Can be affected by pipe Liquids
Inline alternating vortices, vortex  No moving parts vibration Gases
Insertion shedding frequency equal to  No maintenance  Cannot measure low flows Steam
fluid velocity  Measures dirty fluids

Turbine Turbine rotates as fluid  High accuracy  Moving parts require higher Liquids
Inline passes by, fluid velocity  Low flow rates maintenance Gases
Insertion equal to blade rotational  Good for steam  Clean fluids only Steam
Dual turbine frequency  Wide turndown

Magnetic Measures voltage generated  High Accuracy Conductive fluids only Conductive
Mag by electrically conductive  Wide turndown Expensive to use on large liquids
Electromagnetic liquid as it moves through a  Bi-directional pipes (condensate)
magnetic field, induced  No moving parts
voltage is equal to fluid  No pressure loss to system
velocity

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Technologies Cont’d
Principle

Transit-time Fluid velocity measured by time  Low cost clamp-on installation  Typically not used on Most liquids
Ultrasonic arrival difference of sound  Non-intrusive pipes < 2” (condensate)
waves from upstream and  No maintenance  Less accurate than inline or Gas (when spool-
downstream transducers  Bi-directional insertion meters piece)
 Best for larger pipes  Used primarily for liquids
 Susceptible to changes in fluid
sonic properties

Doppler Fluid velocity measured by Low-cost, clamp-on installation Can’t be used in clean liquids Most liquids
Ultrasonic sensing signals from  Non-intrusive  Less accurate than in-line or containing
reflective materials within the  Measures liquids containing transit-time ultrasonic reflective
liquid and measuring the particulates or bubbles materials
frequency shift due to the  Low maintenance
motion of these reflective  Best for larger pipes

materials

Thermal Measure heat loss of heated  Measure flow at low pressure  Susceptible to sensor wear and Gases
Mass wire thermistor in fluid flow  Relative low cost failure
 Measure fluids not dense enough  Not very accurate
for mechanical technologies  Limited to fluids with known
 Easier to maintain than DP meter heat capacities

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Orifice Plate Flowmeter
The orifice plate is a differential pressure
flow meter (Primary element).

## Based on the work of Daniel Bernoulli the

relationship between the velocity of fluid
passing through the orifice is proportional to
the square root of the pressure loss across it.

## To measure the differential pressure when

the fluid is flowing, connections are made
from the upstream and downstream pressure
tappings to a secondary device known as a
DP (Differential Pressure) cell. Fig. 4.3.1 Orifice plate

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Orifice Plate Flowmeter

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Orifice Plates

## Advantages: Complete Customer Data Sheet:

Customer details
 Low cost, especially on large
sizes Fluid

##  Widely accepted Operating temperature

Estimate flow rate
Line size, Pipe Schedule, Material
Flange Specification
 Poor turndown (4:1 typical)
Required package option
 Long installations (20D to 30D)
 Accuracy dependant on
geometry.

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Variable orifice flow meter
 Line sizes 2-8”
 Temp up to 842°F
(450°C)
 Accuracy ±1.0% of
rate
 Gas and Steam
applications
 Compact installation -
6 up and 3 down
 Up to 100:1 turndown

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Digital variable orifice flow meter
 Line sizes 2-4”
 Saturated Steam ONLY
 347°F (175°C)
 Accuracy ±2.0% of
flow
 Internal RTD for
Integrated mass flow
measurement
 Compact installation -
6 up and 3 down
 Up to 50:1 turndown

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Vortex Flowmeter
 Liquid, Gas, and Steam
 1-12” (25 to 300mm)
 Temperature up to 750°F(400°C)
interface
 In-process removable sensor
(below 750psig)
 Fully welded design with no leak
path
 Optional remote mount electronic
 Accuracy
 Liquid ±0.7% of rate
 Gas and Steam ±1.0% of rate
 Turndown up to 20:1 Vortex

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Insertion Vortex Meter
 Liquid, Gas, and Steam
 Model 60/60S Hot Tap, retractable
 Model 700 Insertion low temp, low
pressure
 Model 910/960 Hot tap, retractable
 960-high temp up to 500°F (260°C),
high pressure
 Optional Temperature and/or Pressure
Transmitter
 Line sizes 3-80” (76 to 2032mm)
 No moving parts
 EZ-Logic menu driven user interface
 Accuracy
 Liquid ±1.0% of rate
 Gas and Steam ±1.5% of flow rate
test conditions
 Turndown up to 20:1 VBar

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Turbo-Bar Insertion Turbine Flow Meter
 Liquid, Gas, and Steam
 Liquid flow velocity down to 1 ft/sec
 Model 60/60S Hot Tap, retractable
 Model 700 Insertion low temp, low
pressure
 Model 910/960 Hot tap, retractable
 960-high temp up to 750°F (400°C),
high pressure
 Optional Pressure and/or Temperature
Transmitter
 Line sizes 3-80” (76 to 2032mm)
 EZ-Logic menu driven user interface
 Nominal Accuracy
 Liquids ±1.0% of rate
 Gas and Steam ±1.5% of rate
 Turndown up to 25:1 TMP

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Low-cost Water Vortex Meter
 No Moving Parts 2200
 Flow Range 1 to 15 ft/s (0.3 to 4.5 m/sec)
 Accuracy ±1.0% of Full Scale
 1/2 to 20” Line Size 2300
 Microprocessor-based electronics with
optional local display
 Maximum Fluid temperature 160°F
(70°C)
 Model 2300 for acids, solvents, De-
ionized, and ultra pure water (1/2 to 8”)
 Model 2200 Fixed Insertion for (2 to 20”)
1200
 Model 1200 for water, water/glycol (1-3”)
3100
 Model 3100 retractable insertion (3-20”)
 Models 1200 and 2200 have Aluminum
Enclosure option for wet environments
or heavy industrial installations

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Transit Time
Ultrasonic Flowmeter
 Liquid applications-Clean
 2-100” (50 to 2540mm)
 Accuracy typically ±2.0%
of rate
 Non-Intrusive
 No wetted parts
 Multiple outputs available
interface
 Bi-Directional
 Transducer cable length
up to 300’
Sono-Trak

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Electromagnetic Flowmeter
 Field Serviceable Design
 Field replaceable sensors and coils
 No Liner Required
 No liner failure
 Solid State Sensor Design
 Encapsulated coil and electrode
assembly insensitive to shock and
Vibration
 Plurality of Sensors
 Uniquely powerful magnetic field
 Non-standard Flow Tube Lengths
 Easy replacement of existing meters
 Measures Low Conductivity Media
 Conductivity down to 0.8 µS/cm

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THERMAL MASS FLOW METERS
FOR MEASURING GAS FLOW
WHAT IS A THERMAL MASS
FLOW METER?
 Itis a Meter that directly measures
the Gas Mass Flow based on the
principle of conductive and convective
heat transfer – more detail later…
MEASURE MASS FLOW RATE
OR TOTALIZE COMMON GASES
 Air (Compressed Air, Blower Air, Blast Furnace
Air, Combustion Air, Plant Air, Make-Up Air)
 Natural Gas Industrial (Plant Usage, Sub-
Metering, Boiler Efficiency, Combustion Control)
 Natural Gas Commercial & Governmental
(Building Automation – Reduce Energy Costs,
LEED Credits, Meet Regulations)
 Digester Gas, Bio Gas, Landfill Gas (especially
for EPA regulations and Carbon Credits)
 Flare Gas (Vent Gas and Upset – Dual Range)

##  Other: Propane, Nitrogen, Argon, CO2

WHAT DO THE SENSORS
CONSIST OF?
 The Sensors are RTDs, which are
resistance temperature detectors
 Theyconsist of highly stable reference-
 Infact, we use the same material that is
used as Platinum Resistance Standards at
the National Institute of Standards (NIST)
THE BASIC PRINCIPLE
 The RTDs are clad in a protective 316 SS sheath for
Industrial Environments
 One of the RTDs is self-heated by the circuitry and
serves as the Flow Sensor
 The other RTD acts as a Reference Sensor. Essentially
it is used for Temperature Compensation
SAGE PROPRIETARY SENSOR
DRIVE CIRCUITRY
 Circuitry maintains a constant overheat
between the Flow Sensor and Reference Sensor
 As Gas Flows by the Heated Sensor (Flow
Sensor), the molecules of flowing gas carry heat
away from this sensor, and the Sensor cools
down as it loses energy
 Circuit equilibrium is disturbed, and
momentarily the delta T between the Heated
Sensor and the Reference Sensor has changed
 The circuit will automatically (within 1 second),
replace this lost energy, by heating up the Flow
Sensor so the overheat temperature is restored
HOW DO THE RTDs
MEASURE MASS FLOW
The current required to
maintain this overheat
represents the Mass Flow
signal
There is no need for external
Temperature or Pressure
devices
INSERTION STYLE
 ½” Probes up to 24” long
 Typically for pipes from 1” up to 30”
 ¾” Probes up to 60” Long
 Typically for very large pipes and ducts
 Or use multiple probes, one in each
quadrant and average in large ducts
 Isolation Valve Assemblies available
 Flanged Mounting available (High P or T)
 Captive Flow Conditioners (2” – 24” Dia.)
INSERTIONS NEED STRAIGHT
RUN (Min 10 up, 5 down)*
EEEE

##  *If insufficient straight run, consider Sage inexpensive

Captive Flow Conditioners
CAPTIVE FLOW CONDITIONERS
OPTIONALLY INSTALLED BY USERS
UPSTREAM OF INSERTION METERS
IF INSUFFICIENT STRAIGHT RUN
IN-LINE METERS
 ¼” Flow Bodies up to Built-inFlow
4” NPT or Flanged Conditioning (>1/2”)
TYPES OF MASS FLOW METERS
REMOTE MASS FLOW METERS
DIGITAL THERMAL MASS FLOW
METERS
SAGE PRIMETM

 Powerful State-of-The-Art
Microprocessor Technology
 High Performance Mass Flow
Measurement at Low Cost-of-Ownership
 Proprietary Digital Sensor Drive Circuit
Provides Enhanced Signal Stability
 Low Power Dissipation, under 2.5 Watts
(<100 ma at 24 VDC)
SAGE PRIMETM
(Continued)
 High Contrast Photo-Emissive Organic
LEDs (OLEDs)
 Displays Calibration Milliwatts (mw) for
Ongoing Diagnostics (Zero Calibration Check)
 Modbus Compliant RS485 RTU
Communications (IEEE 32 Bit Floating Point)
 Remote Style has Lead-Length Compensation
– Up to 1000 Feet
 24 VDC or 115/230 VAC Power

##  12 VDC Option (for Solar Energy)

SAGE PRIME DISPLAY (CONTINUED)

##  High Contrast OLEDs Visible even in Sunlight

 Graphical Display – Displays Pctg of FS Rate
 Flow Rate in any Units (per Sec, Min or Hour)
 Totalizes up to 9 digits, then rolls over
 Displays Temperature in ºF or ºC
 Continuously Displays raw milliwatts (mw) for
ongoing Diagnostics (zero mw on Certificate)
 Diagnostic LEDs for Power and Modbus
INPUT/ OUTPUTS

##  24 VDC Power (draws less than 100 ma)

 115 VAC/ 230VAC or 12 VDC Optional

##  Outputs 12 VDC Pulses of Totalized Flow

(Solid State, sourcing, transistor drive – 500ms Pulse)
 Modbus® compliant RS485 Communications
ELECTRONICS MOUNTING
RECONFIGURABILITY
 Basis MODBUS ADDRESSER Software and
Ulinx

##  DONGLE shown below (no computer

needed)
(OVER OTHER TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES)

##  Direct Mass Flow – No need for

separate temperature or pressure
transmitters
 High Accuracy and Repeatability
 Turndown of 100 to 1 and resolution as
much as 1000 to 1
 Low-End Sensitivity – Detects leaks,
and measures as low as 5 SFPM!
(Pressure Independence)

## 15 Data Points at 110

psig (BP), than same
output, even at 0 psig
(No Back Pressure)
Separate Rear Enclosure
 The rear compartment,
which is separated from
the electronics, has
large, easy-to-access
and well marked
terminals, for ease of
customer wiring
Building Automation Contractors
 Mandate to Reduce Energy
Consumption
 Needs Assessments/Portable Testing

##  Permanent Monitoring tied to Control

Systems - -NG, Air, N2
Compressed Air
 Facilities
Monitoring
 Sub-metering/Billing

 Leak Detection

 Energy Conservation

 Compressor Optimization

 Performance Testing
??????????????????????

QUESTIONS
AND