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The Origin of the

Solar System
Life on Earth
Earth’s Magnetic Field
Magnetic field
- Like a bar magnet, Earth’s magnetic field is a dipole, (has both a N and S pole)
- Solar wind contains electromagnetic particles that are deflected by earth’s field.
These particles distort the shape of earth’s magnetic field in space
– two belts in the inner magnetic field where high energy cosmic
- Van Allen belts
rays are trapped. Protects us from solar radiation!
* Five Key Characteristics About Earth’s Structure
* 1. Earth has a dipole magnetic field that deflects
solar wind and protects earth’s surface from
solar radiation
* 2. Earth has a stratified atmosphere, mainly
composed of nitrogen (N2) and oxygen
* 3. Earth is made of a variety of minerals,
glasses, melts, fluids and volatiles, all left
behind during birth of the solar system
* 4. The Earth has layers: a thin silicate crust, a
thick iron- & magnesium silicate mantle, and a
thick metallic core
* 5. Physically, the earth can be divided into a
rigid outer lithosphere and a plastic/ductile
*Earth is the third THE EARTH
planet from the sun.
DIAMATER – 12,756
km at equator and
12,713 km at the poles
*covered by the
*composed of 70.8%
*The distance of the
Earth from the sun is
right for sufficient solar
*The mass of the Earth
gives enough gravity to
pull the atmosphere.
*Earth has rocky

*Planet Characteristics that
Support Life
Silicate rocks
Rocks not accreted
to gaseous outer
Gas Giants = no life
No surface
Enormous Gravity
*What is a mineral?
*A mineral is a naturally occurring,
inorganic solid with a definite chemical
composition and an orderly
arrangement of atoms.
* Mineral Characteristics
* naturally occurring
* inorganic
* solid
* definite chemical composition
* ordered internal structure
* Most common Elements in Earth’s Crust
Element Percentage of Earth's Crust
by Weight

Oxygen 46.6%
Silicon 27.72%
Aluminum 8.13%
Iron 5%
Calcium 3.63%
Sodium 2.83%
Potassium 2.7%
Magnesium 2.09%
Total 98.7%

*Specific Gravity
*A measure of how easily a mineral
can be scratched. Talc is the softest
mineral and diamonds are the
*Mohs Scale of Hardness- developed
by an Austrian scientist Friedrich
Mohs Scale Hardness
Talc(softest) 1
Gypsum 2
Calcite 3
Fluorite 4
Apatite 5
Feldspar 6
Quartz 7
Topaz 8
Corundum 9
Diamond(hardest) 10
*The way a mineral
reflects light.
*It can be metallic or
non metallic.
*It is the ratio of the weight
of a mineral sample
compared to the weight of
an equal volume of water.
*It is the color of a mineral when it is in a
powdered form.
*Minerals with cleavage break along
smooth, flat surfaces in one or more

*It describes any uneven manner
in which a mineral breaks.
*Types of Rocks
* There are three main types of rocks:

1. Igneous - formed when molten rock cools.

2. Sedimentary – formed by the “cementing

together” of small grains of sediment.

3. Metamorphic – rocks changed by the effect of

heat and pressure.
* Igneous Rocks
* These are rocks formed by the
cooling of molten rock (magma.)

cools and

* Sedimentary Rocks
* Sedimentary Rocks are
rocks formed when
particles of sediment
build up and are

Getting older
“cemented together” by
the effect of pressure and
Fragments washed to the sea

Rocks are broken

up by the action
of weather sea

* Metamorphic Rocks
* Metamorphic rocks are formed by the
effect of heat and pressure on
existing rocks.
* This can greatly affect the hardness,
texture or layer patterns of the rocks.

Pressure from
surface rocks

* Exogenic processes include geological
phenomena and processes that originate
externally to the Earth's surface. They are
genetically related to the atmosphere,
hydrosphere and biosphere, and therefore
to processes of weathering, erosion, mass
wasting, sedimentation
Weathering is the general term applied to the combined action of
all physical and chemical processes that disintegrate and decompose rocks
near Earth’s surface through the elements of weather. Weathering begins as
soon as rocks are exposed to one or more elements of weather on the surface
of Earth. It affects the rocks in place and no transport is involved.
a. Physical weathering happens whenever rocks are broken up without any
change in their chemical composition. Sometimes called mechanical
weathering, this type of weathering takes place in different ways, depending
on the surface that acts on the rocks. These factors include pressure, warm
temperature, water, and ice. Examples of physical weathering include block
disintegration, exfoliation, and frost weathering.
* Block disintegration is caused by successive heating and cooling that
causes the expansion and contraction of rocks. This repeated expansion and
contraction creates stress along the joints, eventually breaking. Down the
rock, block by block.
* Exfoliation is the stripping of the outer layers of rocks due to intense
heating. Exfoliation peels off outer layers of rocks which are immediately
affected by heat.
* Frost weathering refers to the alternate freezing and thawing of water
inside the joints of the rocks, causing them to split into small particles or
b. Chemical weathering is the weakening or disintegration of
rocks and the formation of new compounds or new substances
caused by chemical reactions. Chemical processes include
oxidation, hydrolysis, and carbonation.
* Oxidation is the process in which oxygen reacts with the rock
and changes its mineral composition. The greatest impact of this
process is observed on ferrous minerals, which contain iron. The
oxygen in humid air reacts with iron in the rocks to form oxides
of iron called rust.
* Hydrolysis is the chemical breakdown of substance when
combined with water. Therefore hydrolysis is break down of rock
due to reaction between rock and water. The most common
example of hydrolysis is feldspar which can be found in granite
changing to the clay. When it rains water seep down into the
ground and come into contact with granite rock. The feldspar
crystals within the granite reacts with the water and are
chemically altered to form clay minerals which weaken the rock
* Carbonation is the process of rock minerals reacting
with carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is formed when water
combines with carbon dioxide. Carbonic acid dissolves or breaks
down minerals in the rock.
c. Biotic weathering or biological weathering is
the weathering or disintegration of rocks caused by
living organisms. Plants contribute to both
mechanical and chemical weathering. Plant roots
can penetrate soil and break down rocks.
Burrowing animals, such as earthworms, converts
soil into smaller particles. Building houses can
sometimes speed up weathering.
Mass wasting refers to the downslope movement of rock,
regolith, and soil because of gravity. Mass wasting is a natural process
that occurs after weathering.
Based on the type of motion, mass wasting could be generally
classified as a fall, a slide, or a flow. The free-fall movement of
detached individual pieces of rock is called fall. Slides occur when rock
materials remain fairly coherent and move along a well-defined surface.
Flow happens when rock materials are saturated with water and move
downslope as a viscous fluid.
Erosion is the removal of surface material from Earth’s crust,
primarily soil and rock debris, and the transportation of the eroded materials
by natural agencies (such as water or wind) from the point of removal.
* Soil erosion refers to the removal of soil at a greater rate than its
replacement by natural agencies.
* Wind Erosion happens when winds carry large amount of fine soil
particles and sand away from a region, spreading it over adjoining
cultivated land and destroying their fetility. It takes place in and around all
desert regions of the world.
* Sheet erosion is the removal of thin layers of soil because of surface
runoff and rain. This type of erosion is common along the riverbeds and
areas affected by floods.
* Rill erosion is the removal of soil by the action of concentrated
running water. This process creates several centimetre-deep tiny channels
called rills, which carry water during storms.
* Gully erosion is the removal of soil in water channels or drainage
lines. The gullies gradually multiply and spread over a wide area. The land
being dissected is called badlands or ravines.
Sedimentation is the process of deposition of a
solid material from a state of suspension or solution in a
fluid (usually air or water). Broadly defined it also includes
deposits from glacial ice and those materials collected
under the impetus of gravity alone, as in talus deposits, or
accumulations of rock debris at the base of cliffs.
* Geologic processes that occur within the Earth.

There are three main sources of heat on Earth:

1.Heat from the accretion of Earth during its formation.
2.Frictional heating, caused by the sinking or core materials to
the center of the planet.
3.Heat from the decay of radioactive elements.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock
(magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or
moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a
break in the surface called a vent.
Magma is generated when the right conditions are met.
These conditions include the addition of heat, decrease in
pressure, and change in composition of the mantle.
The generation of magma is one of the processes in the
rock cycle. The rock cycle shows the transformation of one rock
type into another. Through metamorphism, the texture and
mineral components of rocks change. Volcanic eruptions contribute
to the recycling of rocks in the plane and the degree of
metamorphism is reflected in the rock’s texture and mineral
A volcano is a vent in the surface of Earth where magma is
expelled during volcanic eruption. It is sometimes referred to as
igneous activity because the rock being formed is an igneous rock.
Lava is the primary material extruded from a volcano in addition
to volcanic rocks, ash, and dust during volcanic eruptions.
Deformation refers to any change in the shape or size
of a rock as a response to the stress. The deformation may
occur by either folding and faulting.
Folding in rocks occur when they are subjected to
tectonic forces from opposite sides. Compressional stress
causes squeezing, tensional stress causes stretching, and
shearing stress causes side-to-side movement. Folding in
rocks often results in the appearance of physical folds called
anticline and syncline
Faulting is the result of the fracture or displacement of
rock layer or strata along a fault plane. A fault shows a
displacement of the two sides of a nonvertical fault: the hanging
wall and the footwall. There are different types of faults based on
their relative movement of these sides.
Dip-slip faults show vertical movement of the hanging wall
and the footwall. Examples of dip-slip faults are the normal fault
(caused by tension) and reverse fault (caused by compression).
Strike-slip faults shows horizontal and parallel
displacements of the fault planes. A transform fault, which is
caused by shear strength, is an example of a strike-slip fault.
Today, the most accepted theory that explains the
movement of plates are the continental drift theory and
the theory of seafloor spreading.
Continental drift is the gradual movement of the
continents over time. The upper layer of the crust is broken
down into large slabs called plates, which sit on a fluid
level of molten rock. The movement of this lower molten
layer, called plate tectonics, causes the plates to shift.
* he is most remembered as the originator of the theory
of continental drift by hypothesizing in 1912 that the continents are
slowly drifting around the Earth. He theorized that the continents
once existed as a single landmass , which he called Pangaea.
* Wegener’s continental drift theory became generally accepted only
after the concept of paleomagnetism was integrated.
* Paleomagnetism: As new oceanic crust cools, it acquires the
magnetic orientation of Earth’s field, creating an alternating stripes
of normal and reversed polarities.

Seven major plate: Largest minor plate:

 African plate  Arabian plate
 Antarctic plate  Carribean plate
 Eurasian plate  Cocos plate
 Indo-Australian plate  Juan de Fuca plate
 North American plate  Nazca plate
 Pacific plate  Philippine plate
 South American plate  Scotia plate
* Divergent Boundary-occurs when two tectonic plates
move away from each other.
* Convergent boundary- occurs when two plates come
* Transform boundary- occurs when two plates sliding past
each other.
Seafloor spreading is a geologic process in which tectonic
plates—large slabs of Earth's lithosphere—split apart from each other.
Seafloor spreading and other tectonic activity processes are
the result of mantle convection. Mantle convection is the
slow, churning motion of Earth’s mantle. Convection currents carry heat
from the lower mantle and core to the lithosphere. Convection currents
also “recycle” lithospheric materials back to the mantle.
Seafloor spreading occurs at divergent plate boundaries. As
tectonic plates slowly move away from each other, heat from the
mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and
less dense. The less-dense material rises, often forming a mountain or
elevated area of the sea floor. Eventually, the crust cracks.
Hot magma fueled by mantle convection bubbles up to fill
these fractures and spills onto the crust. This bubbled-up magma is
cooled by frigid seawater to form igneous rock. This rock (basalt)
becomes a new part of Earth’s crust.
Seafloor spreading disproves an early part of the theory
of continental drift. Supporters of continental drift originally theorized
that the continents moved (drifted) through unmoving oceans. Seafloor
spreading proves that the ocean itself is a site of tectonic activity.
Seafloor spreading disproves an early part of the theory
of continental drift. Supporters of continental drift
originally theorized that the continents moved (drifted) through
unmoving oceans. Seafloor spreading proves that the ocean itself is
a site of tectonic activity.
Seafloor spreading is just one part of plate tectonics.
Subduction is another. Subduction happens where tectonic plates
crash into each other instead of spreading apart. At subduction
zones, the edge of the denser plate subducts, or slides, beneath
the less-dense one. The denser lithospheric material then melts
back into the Earth's mantle.
Seafloor spreading creates new crust. Subduction
destroys old crust. The two forces roughly balance each
other, so the shape and diameter of the Earth remain
Seafloor spreading creates new crust- the older crust moves
away from the mid-Atlantic ridge replaced by new materials.
Earth’s History
“The present is the key to the past”.

This statement summarizes one of the basic principles of geologic

history – that the geologic processes going on today, such as
weathering, erosion, volcanism, and earthquakes, also went on in
the past.
This concept is known as the principle of
* Sequence of Geologic Events

Relative Age versus Absolute Age

The relative age of a rock or event is the age
as compared to other rocks or events.
The absolute age of a rock or event is the
actual age.
There are two major principles used
when interpreting geologic history:
*Principle of original horizontality;
*Principle of superposition.
* Principle of Original Horizontality

*The principle of original horizontality

states that sediments are deposited in
horizontal layers that are parallel to
the surface on which they were
*This implies that tilted or folded layers
indicate that the crust has been
* Principle of Superposition
* The principle of superposition states that, in a series of
undisturbed layers, the oldest layer is on the bottom and
each overlying layer is progressively younger with the
youngest layer on the top.
*Evidence of Events
* Several things provide geologists with evidence of events:
* Igneous intrusions and extrusions;
* Faults, joints and folds;
* Internal characteristics.
When magma forces its way into cracks or crevices in crustal
rock and solidifies, it forms a mass of igneous rock called
an intrusion.
When lava solidifies at the surface it forms a mass of igneous
rock called an extrusion.

Since the rock that the magma moved through, or over,

existed prior to the intrusion, (or extrusion), it must be
*Features such as faults, joints, and folds
must be younger than the rocks in which they
are found.
*A joint is a crack in a rock formation,
similar to a fault but without any
* Internal Characteristics

*Cracks, veins, and mineral cement are

younger than the rocks in which they
*A vein is a mineral deposit that has
filled a crack, or permeable zone, in
existing rock.
*Correlation is the process of matching
rocks and geologic events in one
location to the rocks and events in
another location.
*Methods used for correlation include:
*Continuity of rocks
*Fossil evidence in rocks
*Volcanic time markers in rocks
*Bedrock is the solid, unbroken rock of
the crust.
*An outcrop is bedrock that is exposed
at the Earth’s surface.
*Outcrops provide opportunity for
geologists to directly study the layers
of the bedrock, tracing them from
one location to another – called
“walking an outcrop”.
*Index fossils are fossils or
organisms that lived over an
extensive area, preferably over the
entire Earth, for relatively short
periods of time.
*Index fossils are useful in
correlating the sedimentary rocks
in which they are found.
*Volcanic Time Markers
*Severe volcanic eruptions can deposit
a thin layer of volcanic ash over the
surface of the entire Earth.
*These layers within a rock sequence
may remain distinguishable and
provide a time marker. (Similar to
index fossils)
*Anomalies are differences from
what is expected.
* Determining Geologic Ages
* Without the rock record there would be no geologic
* The older the rock the more difficult to determine
absolute age.
* The geologic history of an area is determined primarily by
fossil evidence, the age of the rocks, and the erosional
record in the rocks.
* Geologic Time: It is very, very long.

* Earth is estimated to be around 4.6 billion years old based on the

rock and fossil record.

* Geologic time is broken up into sections based on major

changes in Earth .
Largest Division: Eons
*Eons divided into Eras:
*PreCambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
*Ceno - recent
*Meso - middle
*Paleo - ancient
*Zoic - life
*Eras are divided into Periods
543 4 billion

*“Age of Bacteria”
* Oldest Era
* Longest era because we know so little about the earth that long
* Life: Very little life: only basic forms including bacteria, the
oldest fossils ever found, seaweed, jellyfish, and worms
Photosynthesis of the seaweed added oxygen to
early atmosphere, paving the way for land life.
One celled plants
(algae) entered the
fossil record
approximately 3
b.y. ago

Large colonies of this

algae are called

Through photosynthesis, O2
was released into the
atmosphere and
ocean allowing
animals to eventually

543 248

*“Age of the Fish”

* Explosion of life in the sea: trilobites, shellfish, Fish
* Life appears on land: Ferns, Amphibians
*Pangaea formed
* Largest mass extinction ever at the end of the Paleozoic.
90% of species became extinct.
In Europe the
Mississippian and
Pennsylvanian periods
are together called the
Carboniferous period.
Vast swamps and
forests from that time
created the huge coal
beds found
throughout eastern
United States.
248 mya- 65mya

*“Age of the Reptiles”

* Life: Reptiles are the dominant life on land. Dinosaurs exist.
Birds appear. Forests of trees appear
* Pangea broke apart during this peroid.
* Dinosaurs become extinct in a mass extinction at the end
of the Mesozoic.
Appeared in the Permian and
* quickly became the dominant life

…until Dinosaurs
took over.

They ruled the planet

throughout the
Mesozoic era (the
“Age of Dinosaurs”). 151
Some of the
dinosaurs are
thought to have
evolved into

Archaeopteryx is
the oldest fossil
bird found to
1. Volcanoes erupt 2. Meteorite
and fill the impact causes
atmosphere with
CO2 and gasses that multiple natural
BLOCK the sun light disasters
preventing plant

*Layer of Iridium
in rock layers

*“Age of the Mammals”

* Life: Large mammals appear, Humans appear
*Ice Ages occur and ice sheets advance

Mammals first appeared in the Mesozoic as small

rodents. After the dinosaurs were erased at
the end of the Mesozoic, Mammals quickly
evolved to become the dominant life form.
The Cenozoic is the “Age
156 of Mammals”.
We live in
epoch, of
period, of

*Erosional Record
* Buried erosional surfaces, called unconformities, indicate gaps
or breaks in the geologic time record.
* 4 steps combine in sequence to form unconformities:
* Uplift, erosion, submergence and deposition
* 3 most common types of unconformities are: angular
unconformities, parallel unconformities, and nonconformities.
*Radioactive Decay
* Radioactive decay occurs when the nuclei of unstable atoms
break down, changing the original atoms into atoms of another
* The rate of radioactive decay is measured in terms of half-life.
* Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half the atoms of a
substance to decay into another element.
* Different substances have different half-life’s
* Examples are Uranium 238 and Carbon 14.
*History and Evolution of
the Earth’s Atmosphere
* Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.
* The primary source of gases for the earliest atmosphere
are thought to be from outgassing by volcanoes.
* Water vapor in the outer atmosphere would have been
broken down into hydrogen and oxygen.
*Fossils preserved in the rocks provide
evidence that many kinds of animals
and plants have lived on Earth in the
past under a variety of different
*Chapter 4

*Volcanic Eruptions
Since 1968, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and
Seismology (PHIVOLCS), the government agency overlooking all
seismic and volcanic activities in the Philippines, have recorded
12 destructive earthwuakes. This is largely due the Philippine’s
location within the Pacific Ring of Fire.
The top 10 provinces that are at risk to Earthquakes include:
1.Surigao de Sur 6. Tarlac
2.La Union 7. Ifugao
3.Benguet 8. Davao Orietal
4.Pangasinan 9. Nueva Vizcaya
5.Pampanga 10. Nueva Ecija
When earthquakes occur, the shaking and rupture
are usually accompanied by other environment risks such
as landslides.
The top 10 provinces that are at risk to earthquake-
induced landslides include:
1.Ifugao 6. Bukidnon
2.Lanao Del Sur 7. Aurora
3.Sarangani 8. Davao del Sur
4.Benguet 9. Davao Oriental
5.Mountain Province 10. Rizal
The Philippines lies within the Pacific Ring of Fire. This
explains the distribution of most volcanoes in the Philippines.
The Mount Pinatubo eruption of 1991 was well known to be the
most violent eruption in the 20th century. There are 22
historically-active volcanoes distributed all over the Philippine
The top 10 provinces at risk for volcanic eruptions include:
1.Camiguin 6. Sorsogon
2.Sulu 7. South Cotabato
3.Biliran 8. Laguna
4.Albay 9. Camarines Sur
5.Bataan 10. Batanes

Atmosphere circulation causes tropical cyclones, monsoons,

floods, and tornadoes.
A monsoon is a consistent reversal of wind pattern or a wind
system generated by large weather system affecting a large area
over a period of several months. There are two prevailing wind
patterns which affect the Philippines-the southwest monsoon
(locally known as Habagat), which occur within the months of May
and October, and the northwest monsoon (locally known as Amihan),
which occur within the months of November and February.
Using PAGASA’s PSWS, the Department of Education
(DepEd) has adopted the following guidelines with regards to
class suspension:
• PSWS 1- All classes in kindergarten are suspended.
• PSWS 2- All classes in elementary and highschool are
• PSWS 3- All classes in all levels, including college and graduate
schools, are suspended.

The different hazards caused by coastal processes:

* Waves
* Tides
* Sea-level changes
* Crustal movement
* Storm surges
* Waves – caused by wind and storms, cause large impacts
round the coastline for the potential coastal erosion, flooding,
and damages they may bring.
* Tides- result of the gravitational attraction of the sun and
moon on the ocens, cause the frequent rise and fall of ocean
* Sea-level changes- is caused primarily by two factors related
to global warming: the added water from melting ice sheets
and glaciers and the expansion ofsea water as it warms.
* Storm surge- is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of
rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather
systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical
cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness
and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, and
the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones
occur as the result of storm surges.

Coastal erosion is the process of wave action, wave

currents, and tidl currents.
To prevent flooding and erosion, structures can be built
to attempt to stop the transport of sand, uncontrolled rise of sea
level, and the forces of waves and tides.
Building seawalls which run parallel to the sea prevents
the direct impact of coastal processes to landforms near the
coast. Seawalls are specifically designed and constructed to
protect areas of human habitation and recreational spots.
Building groynes along with seawalls could also be
helpful. Groynes are built perpendicular to the beach to limit
the movement of sediment and interrupt the natural flow of
water and waves.