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# Applications to Deformations in Structures

L δ
P2L PL
P U= ;δ =
2 AE AE
A

External Work done by forces on structure = internal Strain Energy

Consider the truss shown
at the right:
External Work =½F∆
where ∆ = deflection at
B.
All 7 members have same
AE (axial stiffness)

7 Pi 2 Li U =∑ i =1 2 Ei Ai .This assumes that the system is linear-elastic. F ∆ . and therefore the deflection ∆ is a linear function of F. Load. Deflection at B The total strain energy stored in the system is the sum of the individual strain energies in each of the truss members numbered i=1 to 7.

Equating External Work to Internal Strain Energy: 1 7 Pi 2 Li ∆ F∆ = ∑ 2 i =1 2 Ei Ai B 1 7 Pi 2 Li ∆= F ∑ i =1 Ei Ai Since. 1 7 2 ∆B = ∑ FEA i =1 Pi L . EA is constant for all members. in this case.

. has a height. 1 7 2 Let’s use an Energy method! ∆B = ∑ FEA i =1 Pi L . Lo=1m.Try it! A lightweight aluminum truss. F=20kN. E=70000 MPa. and is made of tubular stock with a cross sectional area of 250 mm2. OK!…. Determine the deflection at B when the load.

both add to the total strain energy since the P term is squared. . Solution: Solve the truss using statics to determine the forces in each member: Forces Length of Pi2Li Members P1=-F L1=L0 F2 L0 2 P2 = 2 F L2= 2L0 2 2F L0 P3=-F L3=L0 F2 L0 P4=-2F L4=L0 4F2 L0 2 P5 = 2 F L5= 2L0 2 2F L0 P6=F L6=L0 F2 L0 P7=0 L7=L0 0 Sum (7+4√ 2) F2 L0 Note: It doesn’t matter if the axial load is compressive or tensile.

∆= ( 7 + 4 2 ) FL0 EA = ( ) 7 + 4 2 (20000) N (1000)mm mm 2 2 (70000) N / mm (250)mm = 14. if Sy>160MPa . already find the deflection….OK.4mm What is the maximum stress in the truss? P4 =-2F=40kN (compression) S=P/A = 40000/250 = 160 MPa ∴ assumptions about linear elasticity are OK.

is subjected to bending. This element is subjected to a normal stress: σ x=My/I 1 The Strain Energy Density on this element is: u = 2 σ xε x 1 2 For linear elastic material = σx 2E . Beam Elements: F(x) x y z dA dx y y A beam that is symmetrical in x-section about the z-axis. Consider a infinitesimal volume element of length dx and area dA as shown.

My Substituting. is dU = ∫ udxdA A M2 = ∫ 2 2 dx y dA 2 EI A x ∫ A y 2 dA = I xx M2 dU = dx dx 2 EI y . the Strain Energy for a slice of the beam. σ x = and multiplying by the Volume of the element I M 2 y2 udxdA = 2 dxdA 2 EI Hence. of width dx.

. • These assumptions are generally valid for long slender beams. Assumptions…. and hence the contribution of shear strain energy is negligible. • There is no axial force on the element (case of pure bending) • The shear stress & strain on the element is relatively small.

Strain Energy in Entire Beam Consider the cantilever beam as shown L F x δ I y M= F(x-L) U =∫ L [F (x −L )]2 dx 0 2 EI F 2 L3 = 6 EI .

Deflection L F x Linear-elastic. F∝δ δ I y 1 External Work. W = Fδ = Strain Energy 2 2 3 F L = 6 EI 3 FL δ= Classical Solution 3EI .

Try it! P x Determine Elastic Strain Energy due to L/2 L/2 bending for simply supported 3-point y P/2 bending member of Shear Force constant X-section. . -P/2 For 0 ≤ x≤ L/2: M=Px/2 Moment PL/4 Note by symmetry we can find the total strain energy by doubling the strain energy of the LHS.

L 2 L/2 M M2 U =∫ dx = 2 ∫ dx 0 2 EI 0 2 EI L/2 P2 x2 =2∫ dx P 0 8 EI 2 3 L/2 P x = L/2 ∆ B L/2 12 EI 0 2 3 y P L = 96 EI Determine ∆ B……. .

OK .000 MPa. ∆ B can be determined by an energy method:. Izz =bh3/12 1 P 2 L3 W = F∆ B = 2 96 EI z h=50mm PL3 ∴∆B = 48 EI y b=20 mm Find the Deflection for the x-section shown: L=2m. Sy=400MPa Mc PL / 4( h / 2) PL 3 20000(2000) 3 σx = = ∆B = = I zz (b)(h) 3 / 12 48 EI 48(200000)(50)(100)3 / 12 20000(2000) / 4(50 / 2) = = 4mm (50)(100) 3 / 12 = 60 MPa < Sy . SAE1045 Steel. h=50mm. P=20 kN. E=200. b=20mm.

Elastic Strain Energy due to Transverse Shear Stress 1 y U = τ xyγ y a 3 2 τ 1 xy u = τ xyγ xy . τ xy = Gγ xy 2 τ xy 2 = x 2G γ xy δ = γ xy a .

Shear Strain Energy F(x) x z y dA 1 τ xy 2 dx y U = ∫ udV = ∫ dV 2 G τ xy = T / dA.2 = ∫ dx Tube f=2.11 1 fT 2 Rectangle f=1.Where T = shear force 1 T2 U = ∫ 2 dAdx f is called a form factor: 2 AG Circle f=1.00 2 AG I section f=A/Aweb .

.Try it. P x Determine Elastic Strain Energy due to L/2 L/2 shear strain for simply supported 3-point y P/2 bending member of Shear Force constant X-section. -P/2 For 0 ≤ x≤ L/2: T=P/2 Moment PL/4 Note by symmetry we can find the total strain energy by doubling the strain energy of the LHS.

4E we find that:  3h 2  U τ = U b  2  And for slender beam. 3T  y 2  τ xy = 1 − 2  2A  c  z h=2c for rectangle x-section y A = 12 I / h 2 bmm Izz =bh3/12 2 2 2 2 A=bh fP Lh 1.03U b which may be neglected . L/h=10 L  U τ = 0.2 P Lh Uτ = = 96GI 96GI For most metals G≈ 0.