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Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

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CHAPTER OUTLINE

What Are Attitudes? Structural Models of Attitudes Attitude Formation Strategies of Attitude Changes Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude Formation

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What are Attitudes?

Attitude

A learned (liability)predisposit ion to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

What are Attitudes?

The attitude object :Product ,services Attitudes are a learned predisposition: Experience about products we learned Attitudes have consistency: relatively Constant with the behavior Attitudes occur within a situation; Event ,circumstances that at particular time influence the relationship between attitude and behavior

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What are Attitudes?

This ad attempts to change the attitude of Identity

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What are Attitudes? Can you identify other examples of ads in print or otherwise that illustrate attempts to change attitude?

How about various AIDS campaigns in Pakistan, have they been able to change the attitude of a taboo subject?

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Structural Models of Attitudes

STRUCTURAL MODELS OF ATTITUDES

Tricomponent Attitude Model Multiattribute Attitude Model The Trying-to-Consume Model Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model

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Structural Models of Attitudes A SIMPLE REPRESENTATION OF THE TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL FIGURE 8.2

Cognition

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Structural Models of Attitudes

THE TRICOMPONENT MODEL

Components

Cognitive Affective Conative

The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources
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Structural Models of Attitudes

THE TRICOMPONENT MODEL

Components

Cognitive Affective Conative

A consumers emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand

Starbucks Coffee
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Structural Models of Attitudes

THE TRICOMPONENT MODEL

Components

Cognitive Affective Conative

The likelihood (probability) or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Structural Models of Attitudes

Multiattribute Attitude Models

Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Structural Models of Attitudes

MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODELS

Types
The attitude-towardobject model The attitude-towardbehavior model Theory-of-reasonedaction model Attitude is function of evaluation of productspecific beliefs and evaluations Useful to measure attitudes toward brands specific attributes
Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Structural Models of Attitudes

MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODELS

Types
The attitude-towardobject model The attitude-towardbehavior model Theory-of-reasonedaction model
Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself Corresponds closely to actual behavior ; Rolex Watches positive attitudes towards an expensive ,negative to purchase such expensive watches

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Structural Models of Attitudes

MULTIATTRIBUTE ATTITUDE MODELS

Types
The attitude-towardobject model The attitude-towardbehavior model Theory-of-reasonedaction model Includes cognitive, affective, and conative components Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude

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Structural Models of Attitudes

A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5

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Attitude Formation

Theory of Trying to Consume

An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumers attempt to consume (or purchase). Trying to consume there are often personal impediments right shoes for new dress or loosing weight but love chocolate

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Attitude Formation

Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying
POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS I wonder whether my hair will be longer by the time of my wedding. I want to try to lose two inches off my waist by my birthday. Im going to try to get tickets for the Rolling Stones concert for our anniversary. Im going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday. I am going to increase how often I run two miles from three to five times a week. Tonight, Im not going to have dessert at the restaurant. POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS The first 1,000 people at the cricket game will receive a team cap. Sorry, the car you ordered didnt come in from Japan on the ship that docked yesterday. There are only 10 iPods in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today. I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of an electrical problem.
Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Attitude Formation

AttitudeToward-theAd Model

A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.

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Attitude Formation

A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model - Figure 8.7

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Attitude Formation

ISSUES IN ATTITUDE FORMATION

Sources of influence on attitude formation Personal experience Influence of family Direct marketing and mass media How attitudes are learned Conditioning and experience new product to be linked to established brand Knowledge and beliefs from the information exposure and their own cognition

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CHANGING THE BASIC MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTION

Utilitarian function: Through showing people that our product can serve a utilitarian purposes that may not have considered it
Ego-defensive function: protect their self- image from feeling uncertainty (teenage acne) advertising Value-expressive function: Attitudes are expression or reflection of the consumer general values. Knowledge function: a cognitive needs

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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

A theory that suggests that a persons level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. High involvement positive change in contrust negative
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WHY MIGHT BEHAVIOR PRECEDE ATTITUDE FORMATION?

Know what to do before we do? Cognitive Dissonance Theory Attribution Theory

Behave (Purchase)

Form Attitude

Form Attitude

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Post purchase dissonance after purchase

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Attribution Theory

A theory concerned with how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other peoples behavior. Why I did this?

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall