Other Properties of

Oi/
W Oxidation Inhibitors
W Rust Inhibitors
W Dispersants and Detergents
W Anti Friction
W Saponification
W AntiWear
W AntiScuff
W Extreme Pressure Additives
Oxidation Inhibitors
W 1hese compounds lead Lo vlscoslLy
lncreaseţ formaLlon of sludge and varnlshţ
dlscoloraLlonţ acldlc odorţ corroslon of
meLal parLsţ promoLe foamlngţ and
Lendency Lo emulslfyŦ 8eslsLance Lo
oxldaLlon ls a crlLlcal properLy for all
machlnesţ buL especlally crlLlcal for
machlnes requlrlng exLended llfe aL
elevaLed LemperaLuresţ such as Lurblnesţ
alrcrafL englnesţ and hydraullc sysLemsŦ
W ood oxldaLlon reslsLance prolongs
sLorage llfeŦ CxldaLlon reslsLance may be
due Lo naLural lnhlblLors or commerclal
addlLlvesŦ lour Lypes of oxldaLlon
lnhlblLor addlLlves areť zlnc
dlLhlophosphaLesŤ aromaLlc amlnesŤ
alkyl sulfldesŤ and hlndered phenolsŦ
MeLal surfaces and soluble meLal salLsţ
especlally copperţ usually promoLe
oxldaLlon
Rust Inhibitors
W 8usL lnhlblLors prevenL Lhe
formaLlon of rusL (hydraLed lron
oxlde) on lron surfaces by Lhe
formaLlon of proLecLlve fllmsţ or by
Lhe neuLrallzaLlon of acldsŦ 1yplcal
anLlŴrusL compounds are hlghly
baslc compoundsţ sulfaLesţ
phosphaLesţ organlc acldsţ esLers or
amlnesŦ
W 1he rusLlng of ferrous parLs ln a
lubrlcaLed sysLem ls undeslrableŦ
1he rusL conLrlbuLes Lo sludgeţ
causes loss of meLalţ sLlcklng of
meLal parLsţ and Lhe formaLlon of
solld parLlcles of rusL LhaL are
abraslveŦ 8usL lndlcaLes Lhe
presence of waLer ln Lhe sysLemŦ
D|spersants and Detergents
W 1hese addlLlves keep sludgeţ flne
solldţ and semlŴsolld conLamlnanLs
dlspersed ln Lhe oll raLher Lhan
seLLllng ouL as deposlLsŦ 1he
compounds used are succlnlmldesţ
neuLral calclum and barlum
sulfonaLesţ phenaLesţ polymerlc
deLergenLs and amlne compoundsŦ
W eLergenL dlspersanLs are also baslc
calclum sulfonaLes/phenaLes whlch
neuLrallze sludge precursorsŦ Ash
conLenL ls Lhe percenL by welghL of
noncombusLlble resldue of an ollŦ
1he meLalllc deLergenLs and
dlspersanLs are Lhe prlmary
conLrlbuLors Lo ash and may cause
unwanLed lnorganlc resldue Lo formŦ
Ant| Ir|ct|on
W is defined as the abiIity of a
Iubricant to reduce friction, other
than by its pureIy viscous
properties. Anti-friction additives
reduce friction beIow that of the
base oiI aIone under conditions of
boundary Iubrication. The
additives are adsorbed on, or
react with the metaI surface or its
oxide to form mono Iayers of Iow
shear strength materiaI.
Sapon|f|cat|on
W aponlflcaLlon ls a chemlcal
process of converLlng faLs Lo
soapŦ CerLaln lubrlcanLs such as
worm gear ollsţ sLeam cyllnder
ollsţ machlne Lool way lubrlcanLsţ
and pneumaLlc Lool ollsţ conLaln
faLLy Lype addlLlves Lo lmprove
anLlŴfrlcLlon properLlesŦ
Ant|Ŵwear
W Ant|Ŵwear add|t|ves are those wh|ch
reduce or contro| wearŦ 1hey form
organ|cţ meta||oŴorgan|cţ or meta| sa|t
f||ms on the surfaceŦ S||d|ng or ro|||ng
occurs on top ofţ or w|th|nţ the f||ms
thus reduc|ng meta|ŴtoŴmeta| contactŦ
Ant|Ŵwear add|t|ves on|y reduce the rate
of wearţ wh|ch st||| occursţ but w|thout a
catastroph|c fa||ureŦ 1he f||ms are
sacr|f|ced so that the wear fragments |n
the o|| are pr|mar||y the f||m mater|a|Ŧ
Ant|Ŵscuff
W cufflng ls deflned as damage caused
by solldŴphase weldlng beLween
slldlng surfacesŦ AnLlŴscuff addlLlves
reduce scufflng by formlng Lhlck
fllms of hlgh melLlng polnL meLal
salLs on Lhe surface whlch prevenL
meLal Lo meLal conLacL whlchţ when
exLenslveţ may cause scufflngŦ
W 1he mechanlcal properLles of Lhe fllmsţ
such as melLlng polnLţ shear sLrengLhţ
ducLlllLyţ and adheslon Lo Lhe meLal
surface deLermlne Lhe effecLlvenessŦ
Common anLlŴscuff addlLlves are sulfur or
phosphorous compounds more
chemlcally acLlve Lhan anLlŴwear
addlLlvesŦ A common gear oll anLlŴscuff
addlLlve ls a mlxLure of an organlc sulfur
compound and an organlc phosphorous
compound usually ldenLlfled as /ÞŦ
W xcesslve chemlcal acLlvlLy of anLlŴ
scuff addlLlves creaLes a danger of
corroslve wearŦ lor exampleţ an
acLlve sulfur compound may reduce
Lhe rlsk of scufflng of sLeel gear
LeeLhţ buL severely Larnlsh any
corrodlble meLalŦ
Lxtreme Þressure Add|t|ves
W Cxygen
W Su|fur Compounds
W Þhosphorous Compounds
W Ch|or|ne Compounds
W Cxygen
1he oxygen ln alr dlssolved ln oll forms
meLal oxlde fllms whlch have anLlŴwear
and llmlLed anLlŴscuff properLlesŦ lron
oxldesţ especlally le3C4 on sLeelţ are
effecLlve ln reduclng meLal Lo meLal
conLacLŦ 1hls oxlde ls frequenLly found as
wear fragmenLs ln used oll when low
wear occursŦ Converselyţ lf oll ls
deaeraLed so LhaL Lhe oxlde fllm cannoL
be conLlnuously repalredţ hlgh wear and
scufflng occurs lmmedlaLelyŦ
W Su|fur Compounds
ulfur compounds ln lubrlcaLlng olls and
Lhelr chemlcal acLlvlLy are dlrecLly relaLed
Lo anLlŴwear and anLlŴscuff properLlesŦ
lemenLal sulfur was a hlsLorlcal addlLlve
used ln a gear box Lo reduce oll
LemperaLureŦ ulfur conLenL ls useful ln
undersLandlng boundary lubrlcaLlon
performanceŦ 1he sulfur compounds may
be naLurally occurrlng ln Lhe base ollţ or
added as addlLlvesŦ
W Þhosphorous Compounds
Iarlous phosphorous conLalnlng compounds
are added Lo lubrlcaLlon olls Lo lmprove anLlŴ
wear properLlesŦ 1he mosL common ls Lrlcresyl
phosphaLe (1CÞ)Ŧ CLher organoŴphosphaLes
and phosphaLes are usedŦ 1hese compounds
are LhoughL Lo adsorb on or reacL wlLh Lhe
rubblng meLal surface Lo form proLecLlve fllms
of organomeLalllc or lron phosphaLeŦ ome
Lrlbologlcal parLsţ such as cam shafLsţ are
preLreaLed Lo form Lhlck lron manganese
phosphaLe coaLlngs Lo mlnlmlze meLalŴLoŴ
meLal conLacL durlng breakŴlnŦ
W Ch|or|ne Compounds
Chlorlne compounds conLlnue Lo be used
ln some olls and commerclal addlLlves
based on Lhelr repuLaLlon for reduclng
frlcLlon and lmprovlng anLlŴscuff
properLlesŦ Poweverţ conslderable
danger of corroslon ls presenL because of
Lhe chlorlde lonŦ 1hereforeţ lf a problem
of corroslon lncludlng rusLlng ls foundţ a
chlorlne analysls ls suggesLedŦ lurLherţ
any halogen compound ln oll creaLes
dlsposal or reŴreflnlng problemsŦ
,ANUIAC1UkLk'S AND
USLk'S
kLCC,,LNDA1ICN ICk
LU8kICAN 1S
Manutaerurer
ReeommendarIons
Manutaerurers may
reeommend IubrIeanrs by
brand name or by speeItyIng
rbe IubrIeanr ebaraererIsrIes
requIred tor a maebIne.
DependIng on rbe maebIne,
IubrIeanrs speeItIearIons may
be resrrIerIve, or rbey may be
generaI, aIIowIng
eonsIderabIe IarIrudeŦ
Tbe prIme eonsIderarIons
are tIIm rbIekness and wear.
AIrbougb tIIm rbIekness ean
be eaIeuIared,rbe wear
properrIes assoeIared wIrb
dItterenr IubrIeanrs are more
dIttIeuIr ro assess.
ProtessIonaI soeIerIes bave
esrabIIsbed speeItIearIons and
eIassItIearIons tor IubrIeanrs
ro be used In a gIven
meebanIeaI appIIearIon.
Ir sbouId be nored rbar
rbe equIpmenr
manutaerurer's
reeommendarIon sbouId nor
neeessarIIy be eonsIdered rbe
besr seIeerIon. IndIvIduaI
manutaerurers may bave
dItterenr opInIons based on
rbeIr experIenee and
equIpmenr desIgn.
AIrbougb some
manutaerurers may
reeommend a speeItIe
brand name, rbey ean
usuaIIy provIde a IIsr ot
aIrernarIve IubrIeanrs rbar
aIso meer rbe operarIng
requIremenrs tor rbeIr
equIpmenr.
ubrIeanr Produeer
ReeommendarIons
Wben manutaerurers
reeommend IubrIeanrs tor
rbeIr produers In rerms ot
speeItIearIons or requIred
quaIIrIes rarber rban
parrIeuIar brand names,
rbe user musr IdenrIty
brands rbar meer rbe
requIremenrs.
W Many IubrIeanr produeers
empIoy produer engIneers ro assIsr
users In seIeerIng IubrIeanrs and
ro answer reebnIeaI quesrIons.
GIven a manutaerurer's produer
deserIprIon, operarIng
ebaraererIsrIes, unusuaI operarIng
requIremenrs, and IubrIeanr
speeItIearIon, produer engIneers
ean IdenrIty IubrIeanrs rbar meer
rbe manutaerurer's speeItIearIons.
&ser seIeerIon
Tbe user sbouId ensure
rbar appIIeabIe erIrerIa are mer
regardIess ot wbo makes rbe
IubrIeanr seIeerIon. SeIeerIon
sbouId be In rbe eIass
reeommended by rbe
maebInery manutaerurer
RO0, EP, AW,ere. and be In
rbe same base sroek earegory
parattInIe, napbrbenIe, or
synrberIe.
It rbe manutaerurer's
speeItIearIons are nor
avaIIabIe, derermIne
wbar IubrIeanr Is
eurrenrIy In use. It Ir Is
pertormIng sarIstaerorIIy,
eonrInue ro use rbe same
brand.
GeneraIIy, rbe user wIII make a
seIeerIon In eIrber ot rwo possIbIe
sIruarIons:
W SubsrIrure a new brand tor one
prevIousIy In use.
W SeIeer a brand rbar meers an
equIpmenr manutaerurer's
speeItIearIons. TbIs wIII be
aeeompIIsbed by eomparIng
produeer's speeItIearIons wIrb rbose
ot rbe manutaerurer.
PRECA&TI0N
IN &SING
&RICANTS
CA&TI0N: PETR0E&M ASED
&RICANTS O R0NZE
GEARING~Do nor use Exrreme
Pressure EP IubrIeanrs or
IubrIeanrs wIrb anrI-wear
addIrIves or IubrIeanr
tormuIarIons IneIudIng suItur,
pbospborus, ebIorIne, Iead
derIvarIves,grapbIre .
WARNING: EP &RICANTS IN
F00D PR0CESSING
IND&STRY~EP IubrIeanrs
may eonraIn roxIe subsranees
and sbouId nor be used In rbe
tood proeessIng Indusrry
wIrbour rbe IubrIeanr
manutaerurers' approvaI.
WARNING: SYNTHETIC &RICANTS
IN F00D
PR0CESSING IND&STRY ~SynrberIe
IubrIeanrs may eonraIn roxIe
subsranees and sbouId nor be used In
rbe tood proeessIng Indusrry
wIrbour rbe IubrIeanr
manutaerurers'
approvaI. ubrIeanrs wbIeb meer
&SDA "H eIassItIearIon are
suIrabIe tor tood proeessIng
appIIearIons.

W W W W W W W W 

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