L’Aquila Earthquake

Case Study

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Monday 6th April 2009 3:30am Magnitude of 6.3 In Italy Last earthquake in 1980 where 2,500 people died 289 people died 1,500 injured 30 000 to 40 000 people left homeless 3000 to 10 000 buildings destroyed Happened because of collision margin – African and Eurasian plate collided Italy lies on a major fault line – Apennine mountains Looting took place, people arrested Aid given Power lines were down Bridges closed 26 towns/cities affected by it No earthquake proof buildings causing more damage People went back to their homes to see what they could find

Mount Pinatubo
Case Study

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June 15th 1991 In Philippines Luzon Island 400 smaller eruptions happened 2 days before it erupted 30km plume of ash erupted into sky 6 people were killed and 700 killed by aftershocks Mudslides and rain Happened because of a destructive plate boundary where oceanic slides under continental 1 million farm animals killed – causing farmers to move to cities creating over crowdedness and shanty towns Power lines down Ash 1 foot deep Ash covering fields so crops cannot grow US base shut down People evacuated Scientists knew it was going to erupt – sulphur dioxide by mountain

Hurricane Katrina
Case Study

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New Orleans south of America 80% submerged under water 1million people evacuated 100,000 people stayed behind as they were too poor to move anywhere 1242 deaths $200 billion worth of damage caused 9000 people evacuated to the super dome August 29th 2005 Over 10,000 people homeless President visited places, approving aid Levees broke causing more damage 30% living below poverty line 57 emergency shelters

Brazil – south and north
Case Study

• South east is more economically developed then the north east • North east: • In the north east there are long periods with no rain and high temps • Infertile soil and eroded • Little natural resources • Dry, Rocky and Rugged • Government did not invest much • South east: • Nicer climate, less extreme temperatures • Good supply of raw materials so industry set up here • Flat land • And government has invested here so industries attracted here.

Rustbelt/Sunbelt – Changing industry in the USA
Case Study

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Rustbelt: Near the river and large spaces of flat land Near Raw Materials All industry near each other – easy transport between factories Skilled workers Reasons for change: Modern Industries footloose can locate anywhere as transport has become easier Raw Materials can be imported Decline in demand for steel so factories for that not needed anymore Sunbelt: Nicer climate area – more sunny pleasant Unskilled and skilled workers Less risk of strike due to lower union membership Low labour costs and taxes Old factories closing down and becoming derelict

Bangalore: Indian Call Centres
Case Study

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Why India? Indian call centres are 40% cheaper to run Lower labour costs 1/3 of Indian population living in poverty Higher skilled workers Indian call centres only recruit people who have graduated from university and college Speak good english Why Bangalore: Good skilled work force Good transport links Attracts foreign investment – established infrastructure Biggest University in Asia Over 2mill people graduate from indian unis.

• Negative Impacts: • Loss of jobs in UK • Growth of Indias economy has a negative impact on MEDCs • Only recruit high skilled workers so others left with no jobs • Loss of culture in India • British telecom aiming to reduce its 104 call centres to 34 in the UK • In 2002/3 British call centres moved over 50 000 jobs over seas • Positive Impacts: • More jobs in India – less people living in poverty • Many Indians speak good english • India's GDP grown significantly over last 2 decades

Kuapa Kokoo – Fair Trade
Case Study

• Cocoa farmers can be treated unfairly as weighing scales may be fixed to show a lower weight then actual weight. • Before they joined fair trade farmers earnt less then 50p a day • When they asked for money they did not give it as they knew they would find it cheaper from somewhere else. • All profits go back to MEDC • Big chocolate companies are very powerful can negotiate cheap prices • Kuapa Kokoo was formed by a group of cocoa farmers who realised they could earn more from selling cocoa beans. • Has improved life for its farmers as they will always get a good income and receive approx £14 for each bag they sell. • Can be used to improve community • Get a steady, constant income even though weather varies for their family and themselves. • This is an example of fair trade as they are not being exploited

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