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After studying chapter six and listening to my lecture, you should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Outline the motivation process. Describe Maslows need hierarchy. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance.



Defining Motivation

Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries

Going Beyond the Fringe in Benefits: Especially Creative Reward Practices

Apple Computer Publix Super Markets Advanta Corporation Westin Hotels Worthington Industries Readers Digest Pitney Bowes

Stock purchase options Partial ownership in the company Opportunity to help train new employees Free meals while on the job Haircuts for $2 while at work Fridays off during the month of May Courses in real estate, golf, painting, photography, and cake decorating

Steelcase Delta Airlines

Access to camping facilities and equipment Free airline travel for employees and spouses

SAS Company???

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

Need Hierarchy Theory

Higher-order needs Selfactualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Lower-order needs

Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)

Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction

Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction

Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers

Overview of Expectancy Theory






Valence of reward

Abilities and traits Role perceptions and opportunities


Equity Theory: A Summary and Example

Andy is overpaid compared to Bill Andys outcomes ($30,000/year) Andys inputs (40 hour/week) Andy feels guilty Bill is underpaid compared to Andy Bills outcomes ($25,000/year) Bills inputs (40 hours/week) Bill feels angry

Andy is equitably paid compared to Bill Andys outcomes ($30,000/year) Andys inputs Andy feels (40 hour/week) satisfied

Bill is equitably paid compared to Andy

Bills outcomes ($30,000/year) Bills inputs (40 hours/week)

Bill feels satisfied

Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)

Goal Setting: Some Impressive Effects

Goal level 94 Percentage of Maximum Weight Carried on Each Trip

90 80 70 60 50
Performance at the goal level was sustained seven years after the goal was first set

There was a dramatic improvement in performance after a goal was set

1 2 3
Before goal

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
After Goal Seven Years Later

Four-Week Periods

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)

Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time.

Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development.

If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases.

David McClellands Theory of Needs




Matching Achievers and Jobs

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Reinforcement Theory


Behavior is environmentally caused.

Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.

Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.

Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory

Ken Thomass Model of Intrinsic Motivation

Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from:
Choice the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Meaningfulness pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the tasks purpose.

Equity Theory

Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside

Equity Theory (contd)



Equity Theory (contd)

Choices for dealing with inequity:

1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Change outcomes (increase output)

3. Distort/change perceptions of self

4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person

6. Leave the field (quit the job)

Equity Theory (contd)

Propositions relating to inequitable pay:

1. Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.

2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees

Equity Theory (contd)

Expectancy Theory



Performance Dimensions



Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation