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Patterns[1]

Patterns[1]

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Published by nidiai

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Published by: nidiai on Jan 30, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
PatternsProblem 1: Missing main verb.
Remember that every English sentence must have a subject and a main verb.SVThe sound of the dryerbothersmy concentrationAvoid using an
-ing 
form, an infinitive, an auxiliary verb, or another part of the speech instead of amain verb.
e.g.:
The prettiest girl in our class has long brown hair and brown eyes.
Problem 2:
 
Verbs that require an infinitive in the complement.
Remember that the following verbs require an infinitive for a verb in the complement.
· agree· appear· arrange· ask · claim· consent· decide· demand· deserve· expect· fail· forget· threaten· wait· want· hesitate· hope· intend· learn· manage· mean· need· offer· plan· prepare· pretend· promise· refuse· seem· tend
SVC (infinitive)MWehad plannedto leaveday before yesterdayAvoid using an
-ing 
form after the verbs listed. Avoid using a verb word after 
want.
e.g.:
He wanted to speak with Mr. Brown.
 Problem 3: Verbs that require an
-ing 
form in the complement. 
Remember that the following verbs require an
-ing 
form for a verb in the complement
· admit· appreciate· avoid· complete· consider· delay· deny· discuss· enjoy· finish· keep· mention· miss· postpone· practice· quit· recall· recommend· regret· risk · stop· suggest· tolerate· understand
1
 
SVC (-ing)MHeenjoystravelingby plane
 Forbid 
may be used with either an infinitive or an -
ing 
complement, but
 forbid from
is notidiomatic.
e.g.:
She is considering not going.
Problem 4: Verb phrases that require an
-ing 
form in the complement. 
Remember that the following verb phrases require an
 –ing 
form for a verb in the complement:
· approve of · be better off · can’t help· count on· do not mind· forget about· keep on· get through· insist on· look forward to· object to· think about· think of 
SV PhC (-ing.)MSheforgot aboutcancelingher appointmentRemember that the verb phrase
 BE likely
does not require an -
ing 
form but requires an infinitive inthe complement.
e.g.
: She is likely to know
Problem 5: Irregular past forms. 
SV
 
(past)MThe concertbeganat eight oclocAvoid using a participle instead of a past for simple past statements.
e.g.:
They did it very well after they had practiced.
Problems with modals and Modal-related patterns.
Modals
are auxiliary verbs. They are used with main verbs to give additional meaning to mainverbs.
 
Can:
possibility – ability – permission
Could:
possibility – ability in the past
 May:
probability – permission
 Might 
: probability
 Must:
necessity – logical conclusion
 Shall:
future with emphasis
 Should:
advice – obligation – prediction
 
Will 
:
future
Would 
:
 
condition
Problem 6: Modal + Verb word
Remember that a
modal 
is used with a
verb word.
A
verb word 
is the dictionary form of the verb.Verb words are very important in many patterns, but they are used most often with modals.Smodalverb wordTheymightvisitusAvoid using an infinitive or an -
ing 
form instead of a verb word after a modal
e.g.:
After you show me the way, I can go by myself.
Problem 7: Logical conclusion – Events in the past. 
Remember that
must 
is a modal.
Must 
followed by the verb word
have
and a participle expresses alogical conclusion based on evidence. The conclusion is about an event that happened in the past.Remember that an observation in the present may serve as the basis for a conclusion aboutsomething that happened in the past.
e.g.:
“here is a message on my desk”It may be concluded that “my friend must have called last night”Smust haveparticiplepast timeMy friendmust havecalledlast nightAvoid using
 should 
or 
can
instead of 
must.
Avoid using a verb word instead of 
have
and a participlewhen referring to events in the past.
e.g.:
The streets are wet; it must have rained last night.
Problem 8: Logical conclusions – Events in the present
Remember that
must 
is a modal.
Must 
followed by
be
and an
-ing 
form or an adjective expresses alogical conclusion based on evidence. The conclusion is about an event that is happening now.Smust be
-ing 
 present tenseMy friendmust becallingnowSmust beadjectivepresent timeHemust beupsetnow
e.g.
: The line is busy; someone must be using the telephone now.

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