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Published by: hitmaaaccount on Feb 23, 2013
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As per the Syllabus According to our Omnibus
Implication of development planning
Financial arrangements
Areas of improvement
Disaster preparedness
Community based disaster management
Emergency response.
Development Planning & Its Disaster Implications
Financial Arrangements for Disaster Management
Areas of Improvement in Disaster Management
Community Based Disaster Management
Role of Media in Disaster Management
Emergency Response to Disasters
Effect of Disasters on Development * Counter Disaster Plans * Planning for Safe National Development
Disasters have a significant effect on the development of any nation. Therefore it isimperative to understand the disaster implications while making national or localdevelopment plans. The effect of the disasters on development can be studied undertwo broad heads
(A) Effects on Contemporary Development
Loss or Destruction of crops which are vital for consumption/export
Loss of livestock, through an outbreak of animal disease or rural wildfire
Loss of Land due to salinity and inundation
Damage to harbors, public buildings and other maritime facilities
Damage to aircraft and airport facilities may pose serious constraints
Damage of roads and bridges may curb important construction programs
Loss of human lives which can never be compensatedThe overall effect of disaster on contemporary progress and development may thereforebe halted or even aborted. The effects of disaster on contemporary development may be
compared with that of the effects of a heart attack, in that it takes some time before thepatient can resume business as usual.
(B) Effects on Long-Term Development
The effects of disaster on long term development should be understood in four levels,The first effect on long-term programs which arises from disaster impact is theeconomic and material loss, which is likely to cause delays in commencing and/orcontinuing such programs.A second major effect may be on the development planning process. Most countriesnowadays work to planned periods of development, such as a series of 5-year nationaldevelopment plans. Disaster can seriously upset this sequence of planning andimplementation by either disrupting the current plan or by making it difficult toforecast development progress,A third effect on national development may emanate from limitations which apply tonormal international assistance programs. A funding nation/agency may agree toundertake a 3-year program on development. If a significant disaster strikes at thehalfway stage of such a program, there will be obvious loss factors.A fourth effect is the reaction of development partners to the setbacks caused bydisaster. For example, the havoc caused by a cyclone has destroyed 70 % of ongoinginfrastructure in a particular area. The effort of 4 years was undermined and not manypeople were ready to start the project again.Thus it is clear that disaster can have far-reaching repercussions on a nationaldevelopment. It can also pose serious restrictions on national image. Therefore, thatthere needs to be a prudent connection between development and disaster managementpolicy. In this regard, the national development planners should always plan forcounter disaster plans whilst planning for national development. There should be aplan to understand and evaluate disaster implications.
A counter disaster plan is a legal planning document that provides a clear and coherentapproach to counter disasters that may emanate from development activities, alongwith clear allocation of responsibilities, budgetary provisions and training focus.
The purpose of counter disaster planning is to anticipate future situations andrequirements, thus ensuring the application of effective and coordinatedcountermeasures.
Counter Disaster Plan Levels
Counter Disaster Plans have to be made at various levels namelyNational LevelState Level/Intermediate LevelLocal Level/Community Level
National Level
Most countries like India have national development to a series of time-period planslike our five year plans.In the five year plans, many nations include disaster aspects in their planning cycles.There is also importance on environmental protection in
today’s national plans.
Therefore, since many disaster events are environmentally related, there is a strong casefor linking disaster and the environment where national planning is concerned.For many countries like India, it is not usually practicable to manage disasters directlyfrom a national level in a very large country because of distance and other factors. Inthis case, the plan which applies to the national level is likely to be broadly concernedwith coordination, mobilization, and deployment of national resources, requests forinternational assistance, and so on, rather than detailed management action.
Intermediate level
In most cases, the plan at intermediate government level will fall into one or two broadcategories.
If the national plan is the main action plan
(i.e., for a small country), the plan atintermediate level will tend to be more concerned with local implementation measuresrather than major decision making. The intermediate plan will therefore tend to be asmaller projection of the national plan.
If, alternatively, the intermediate level plan constitutes the main action plan
, (for a largecountry like ours), the plan will obviously need to be more comprehensive andautonomous. This will particularly apply to aspects such as warning, informationmanagement, decision making and control, and coordination capability.
Community Level
At community or local level, plans obviously tend to cover a range of detailedcountermeasures. The plan should outline the co-ordination of various existing services(e.g., police, fire brigade, ambulance service, etc) and facilitation of the participation ofNGOs, and community members,

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