Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
17Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Population Trends in INDIA

Population Trends in INDIA

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3,986|Likes:
Published by cheedikrishna

More info:

Published by: cheedikrishna on Jul 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/29/2015

pdf

text

original

 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Figur
e 1
.
Population of India b
y A
g
e a
n
d S
ex: 199
7 a
nd 2020
Millions80+75–7970–7465–6960–6455–5950–5445–4940–4435–3930–3425–2920–2415–1910–145–90–41997202002060
MaleFemale
Source:
U.S. Bureau of the Census, IPC, International Database.
3040 1070 50
International Brief
by
A
rju
n A
dlakha
IB/97-1Issued
April 1997U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics
and Statistics Administration
BUREAU
OF THE CENSUS
G
Each
y
ear Indi
a a
dd
s m
orepeopl
e to t
h
e w
orld’
s p
opulationtha
n a
n
y o
ther country
. I
n1997
, t
her
e w
er
e a
lmos
t a
sman
y b
abie
s b
or
n in I
ndia(abou
t 25 million) as in a
l
l o
fSub-Sahara
n A
fric
a a
nd moretha
n in C
hina (21 million).
G
Th
e t
ota
l f
ertility rat
e is d
eclin-ing—b
y 42 p
ercen
t s
inc
e t
hemid-1960’s—bu
t t
h
e c
ontinuedincreas
e in t
h
e n
umber ofwome
n o
f reproductiv
e a
gesuggest
s c
ontinue
d h
ig
h n
um-ber
s of b
irths.
G
Contraceptiv
e p
revalenc
e h
asrise
n s
ubstantiall
y f
rom 1
3 p
er-cen
t o
f marrie
d w
ome
n u
singcontraceptio
n in 1
97
0 to 41 p
er-cen
t in 1
993
. Y
e
t c
los
e to 3
5million marrie
d w
ome
n h
av
e a
nunme
t n
ee
d f
or famil
y p
lanning.
G
HIV/AID
S in I
ndi
a is s
preadingfast
. W
it
h an e
stimate
d 2 to 5
millio
n i
nfecte
d p
eopl
e i
nmid-1996
, I
ndi
a h
a
s m
oreadult
s l
ivin
g w
it
h H
I
V t
ha
n a
nyother country.
G
India’
s S
tate
s v
ar
y w
idel
y w
ithrespec
t to f
ertility, mortality
, a
ndcontraceptiv
e u
se
. In g
eneral,ther
e is a n
orth/sout
h g
radient—mos
t w
ester
n a
n
d s
outhernState
s h
av
e l
ower mortality,lower fertility
, a
n
d h
igher contra-ceptiv
e u
se
. In t
h
e n
orth
, U
ttarPradesh
, t
he mos
t p
opulousState
, h
a
s h
igh mortality
, l
owcontraceptiv
e u
se
, a
n
d t
h
e h
igh-es
t f
ertility.
Populatio
n S
ize
, G
rowth
,
an
d S
tructure
India
, w
it
h a c
urren
t p
opulatio
n o
f967 million
, w
il
l m
os
t l
ikel
y s
urpassChin
a in p
opulatio
n s
iz
e by a
boutthe middl
e of t
h
e n
ex
t c
entury
.
India’
s p
opulatio
n is c
urrentlygrowin
g a
t a rate (1.
7 p
ercentannually) abou
t 70 p
ercen
t h
ighertha
n t
ha
t of C
hin
a a
n
d w
il
l c
ontin-u
e g
rowin
g f
aster tha
n C
hin
a f
orman
y y
ear
s in t
h
e f
uture.Currently
, I
ndi
a h
a
s a y
oun
g p
opu-latio
n w
hic
h w
il
l g
ro
w s
omewhatolder largel
y as a r
esul
t of t
h
e
fertilit
y d
eclin
e w
hic
h is a
lread
y
underway
. B
etwee
n n
o
w a
nd2020
, b
ot
h t
h
e w
orkin
g a
g
e
populatio
n a
n
d t
h
e n
umber ofwome
n in c
hildbearin
g a
ge
s w
illgro
w m
ore rapidl
y a
n
d w
il
l b
ecomelarger proportion
s of t
h
e t
ota
l p
op-ulatio
n t
ha
n n
o
w (
figur
e 1
).
Mortalit
y a
n
d H
IV/AIDS
India
, l
ik
e o
ther developin
g c
oun-tries
, h
a
s a
chieve
d s
ubstantia
l
improvement
s in mortality. S
inceindependence (1947)
, l
if
e e
xpec-tanc
y h
as roughl
y d
ouble
d f
romabou
t 3
2-3
3 y
ear
s to 62 y
ear
s i
n1997. Th
e i
nfant mortality rate(IMR) ha
s b
een reduce
d f
rom200-22
5 i
nfan
t d
eath
s p
er 1,000birth
s to 6
6
. I
ndi
a h
a
s a l
ower IMRtha
n i
t
s i
mmediat
e n
eighbors—Pakista
n a
n
d B
angladesh—bu
t a
 
0 20 40 60 80 100Kerala
Tamil NaduAndhra Pradesh
KarnatakaMaharashtra
West Bengal
PunjabOrissaGujaratAssamINDIAHaryana
Madhya Pradesh
RajasthanBihar
Uttar Pradesh
Figure
3
.
Total Fertilit
y R
at
e a
nd Fertilit
y D
eclineb
y S
tate: 1966 to 1993
Percent
Source:
N
RC
, 1
984
; a
n
d I
RG
, 1
996.
Births
p
e
r w
oman
Tota
l F
ertilit
y R
ate(TFR)
, 1
993
Decline in TFR, 1966-93
126 345
Selected
H
ealth Indicators: 1992-93
Percent
of b
irths whic
h a
r
e h
ig
h r
isk
1
52
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent
of b
irths whos
e m
others received
:
Antenatal car
e f
ro
m a d
octo
r or o
the
r h
ealt
h p
rofessional 49
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two
or m
or
e t
etanus toxoi
d i
njections 54
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent
of b
irths in whic
h m
others wer
e a
ssiste
d at d
elivery by:Doctor 22
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nurse/midwife 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Traditional
b
irt
h a
ttendant 35
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent
o
f childre
n 1
2-2
3 m
onths who wer
e f
ully vaccinated 35
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
B
irths fallin
g in o
n
e or m
or
e of t
h
e f
ollowin
g c
ategories
: o
ccurrin
g to w
ome
n u
nderag
e 18 or o
ve
r a
g
e 3
4
, o
ccurrin
g w
ithi
n 24 m
onth
s of l
as
t b
irth
, a
n
d b
irt
h o
rde
r h
ighertha
n 3
.
Source:
I
IPS
, 1
995.
2
Figure
2
.
Infant Mortalit
y R
at
e
fo
r S
electe
d A
sianCountries: 1997
0 20 40 60 80 100 120BangladeshPakistanINDIAIndonesiaChinaPhilippinesThailand
Sri Lanka
Infant
deaths per1,000 live births
Source:
U
.S.
B
urea
u o
f t
h
e C
ensus
, I
PC,International Database.
much
h
igher rat
e t
ha
n C
hina
, S
riLanka
, a
n
d v
ariou
s o
the
r S
outhEas
t A
sia
n c
ountries (figur
e 2
).Amon
g I
ndia’
s m
ajo
r S
tates
, I
MR’s(1992-94) rang
e f
rom 1
5 to 1
09per 1,00
0 b
irths
. U
tta
r P
radesh,th
e l
arges
t S
tate
, h
a
s o
n
e of t
hehighest rates (93).Inadequat
e a
ntenata
l c
ar
e a
n
d
deliver
y s
ervices
, l
o
w l
evel
s of
immunizatio
n a
mon
g c
hildren
, a
nd
a s
ubstantia
l p
roportio
n of h
igh-ris
k b
irths (se
e b
elow) ar
e s
om
e o
fthe reason
s f
or the relativel
y h
ighmortalit
y of i
nfant
s a
n
d c
hildre
n
i
n I
ndia.Futur
e i
mprovement
s in mortalitymay be s
lowe
d o
r eve
n s
talle
d b
yth
e H
IV/AID
S e
pidemi
c in I
ndia.Whil
e H
I
V w
a
s i
ntroduce
d i
nt
o
Indi
a at a l
ater dat
e t
han muc
h o
fthe res
t of t
h
e w
orld
, t
h
e e
pidemici
s e
xtensive
, w
ith rapi
d g
rowt
h i
nsom
e g
eographi
c a
reas
. S
tudieso
f h
igh-ris
k p
opulations (commer-cia
l s
e
x w
orkers
, i
ntravenou
s d
rugusers
, a
n
d s
exuall
y t
ransmitteddiseas
e p
atients) sho
w h
ig
h a
ndrapidly rising rate
s of H
I
V i
nfection,exceedin
g 50 p
ercen
t in s
omearea
s of t
h
e c
ountry
. R
ecen
t s
tud-ie
s s
ho
w t
ha
t t
h
e v
iru
s a
ls
o i
sspreadin
g in t
h
e g
enera
l p
opula-tion. For example
, t
h
e l
eve
l of H
IVseroprevalenc
e a
mon
g p
regnantwome
n in t
h
e S
tat
e o
f Tami
l N
aduquadruple
d b
etwee
n 1
98
9 a
nd199
1 f
rom a rat
e of 0
.
2 to 0
.
8 p
er-cent
; in Manipur it w
a
s 2 p
ercen
t i
n1994 (U.S
. B
urea
u of t
h
e C
ensus,1995).
A r
ecent report (AIDSCAP
, et a
l.,1996) estimate
s t
ha
t b
etwee
n 2
an
d 5 m
illio
n p
eopl
e in I
ndi
a a
recurrentl
y i
nfecte
d w
it
h H
IV
. A
nearlier report (WHO
, 1
995) ha
d e
s-timate
d t
ha
t at t
h
e e
n
d of 1
994,1.75 millio
n a
dult
s w
er
e i
nfected.
2
Th
e l
eve
l of H
I
V s
eroprevalencevarie
s b
y regions
. It is h
igher insout
h a
n
d w
es
t I
ndi
a c
omparedwit
h t
he res
t of t
h
e c
ountr
y
(AIDSCAP
, et a
l.
, 1
996).
Fertility
Fertilit
y in I
ndi
a h
a
s d
ecline
d s
ub-stantially
, f
ro
m a t
ota
l f
ertility rate(TFR) o
f 5
.
7 c
hildre
n p
e
r w
oma
n i
n
2
T
h
e p
opulatio
n a
n
d o
the
r p
rojectedindicators fo
r I
ndi
a h
av
e n
o
t b
ee
n a
djustedt
o t
ak
e a
ccoun
t of A
ID
S m
ortalit
y d
u
e t
olac
k of sufficiently reliable d
ata.
 
0 10 20 30 40 50 60UrbanRuralIlliterate
Less than primary
Primary
High school & above
HinduMuslimChristianSikh
All India
Figure
5
.
Fertility
a
n
d C
ontraceptiv
e P
revalence: 1992-93
Percent
u
sin
g c
ontraceptive12
Source:
I
IPS
, 1
995.
345Births
p
e
r w
oman
Tota
l F
ertilit
y R
ate
Contraceptive Use
Figure
4
.
Percent
D
istribution o
f C
ontraceptiv
e U
sers by Method
Source:
I
IPS
, 1
995
; a
nd UN
, 1
994
Femalesterilization
67%
Female
sterilization 30%Condom 6%Condom 9%
T
raditional 1
1%T
raditional 14%IUD 5%IUD 21%
Mal
e s
terilizatio
n 9
%Mal
e s
terilizatio
n 9
%
Pill 3%Pill 14%Other 4%
India
: 1
992-93
World: 1994
3the mid-1960’
s to 3
.
3 c
hildre
n i
n1997
. S
inc
e t
he mid-1960’s
, I
ndiaha
s c
overe
d t
wo-third
s of t
h
e
distanc
e to t
he replacemen
t f
ertilityo
f j
us
t o
ver tw
o b
irth
s p
e
r w
oman.Fertilit
y v
arie
s w
idel
y a
mongStates
; it is s
ignificantl
y b
elo
w t
henationa
l a
verag
e in t
h
e s
outhernan
d w
ester
n S
tate
s a
n
d h
igher inth
e o
thers
. W
ith a TF
R of 5
.
2 i
n1993
, U
tta
r P
rades
h c
learl
y s
tandsou
t as h
avin
g e
speciall
y h
ig
h f
ertil-ity
, n
earl
y 50 p
ercen
t a
bov
e t
henationa
l l
evel (figur
e 3
).
Contraceptiv
e P
revalence
Th
e n
ationa
l f
amil
y p
lannin
g p
ro-gram
, w
hic
h w
a
s e
stablishe
d i
n1952
, h
a
s p
laye
d an i
mportant rolei
n I
ndia’
s f
ertilit
y d
ecline
. W
henth
e p
rogram began
, t
her
e w
a
s l
ittleawarenes
s o
r us
e o
f moder
n b
irthcontro
l m
ethods. Four decadeslater
, t
h
e 1
992-9
3 N
ational FamilyHealt
h S
urvey (NFHS) foun
d n
ear-l
y u
niversa
l k
nowledg
e of f
amilyplanning
, w
it
h 96 p
ercen
t o
f mar-rie
d w
ome
n a
ge
s 13 to 49 y
earshavin
g h
ear
d of at l
eas
t o
ne mod-ern method
, a
n
d a
lmos
t 41 p
er-cent
, o
r almos
t 70 million w
omen,usin
g c
ontraception.Eighty-nin
e p
ercen
t o
f marriedwome
n w
h
o p
ractice
d f
amil
y p
lan-nin
g in I
ndia relie
d u
pon moderncontraceptive methods. Femalesterilization
, t
he metho
d w
hic
h i
sstrongl
y p
romote
d by I
ndia’
s f
amilyplannin
g p
rogram
, w
a
s by f
ar themos
t w
idel
y u
sed method
. N
early6
7 p
ercen
t o
f marrie
d w
ome
n w
hower
e u
sin
g c
ontraception
, o
r 47millio
n w
omen
, h
a
d b
ee
n s
terilizedcompare
d w
it
h an a
verag
e of o
nly3
0 p
ercen
t f
or th
e e
ntir
e w
orld.Spacing methods
, p
rimaril
y a
vail-abl
e t
hroug
h t
h
e p
rivat
e s
ector,wer
e u
se
d by a s
mal
l p
roportio
n o
fusers
: t
h
e p
il
l by 3 p
ercent
, I
U
D b
y
5 p
ercent
, a
n
d c
ondom b
y 6 p
er-cent (figur
e 4
).Education, religion
, p
lac
e a
ndStat
e o
f residenc
e a
r
e a
mon
g
th
e f
actor
s t
ha
t s
trongl
y c
orrelatewit
h c
ontraceptiv
e u
s
e in I
ndi
a
(figur
e 5
)
. N
earl
y h
al
f of t
he mar-rie
d w
ome
n w
it
h s
om
e p
rimaryschoolin
g u
s
e c
ontraceptioncompare
d w
it
h o
n
e t
hir
d of i
lliteratewomen
. D
ifferential
s b
y religionar
e a
ls
o s
trong
. H
igher prevalencerates (4
8 to 63 p
ercent) ar
e f
oundamon
g s
mal
l m
inority religions(Jains
, S
ikhs
, B
uddhists
, a
ndChristians) tha
n a
mon
g H
indu
s
(4
2 p
ercent)
, a
n
d t
h
e l
owes
t u
se(2
8 p
ercent) i
s f
oun
d a
mong Mus-lims
. A h
igher proportio
n of u
rbanmarrie
d w
omen (5
1 p
ercent) thanrura
l m
arrie
d w
omen (3
7 p
ercent)us
e c
ontraceptives.

Activity (17)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
ReenaSachan liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Nikhil Nautiyal liked this
Ethel Priya liked this
Min Kim liked this
sibani143 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->