Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Standard view
Full view
of .
×
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Add Maths Form 5 CHAPTER 7 Probability

# Add Maths Form 5 CHAPTER 7 Probability

Ratings:

4.0

(2)
|Views: 11,952|Likes:
This is the handout that i use for class discussion.
This is the handout that i use for class discussion.

### Availability:

See More
See less

07/31/2013

pdf

text

original

Sri Bintang Tuition Centre Additional Mathematics Form 5
1
CHAPTER 7: PROBABILITY

July 2009

Probability
is a way to describe the possibility of something happening.For example, when the weather report says that there is a 60% chance of rain today,that is an expression of probability. And if someone says that you have a 50
50chance of guessing a coin toss - that too, is an expression of probability.

In general, we say that the probability of something happening is the ratio of thenumber of ways that thing can happen to the total number of ways for all things tohappen. The thing we want to happen is usually called the event. So we will need toknow the number of ways for the event to happen and the total number of ways for allevents to happen. In a simpler form,waysof nototal happentosomethingforwaysof number )(
=
E P

Probabilities can only take on values from 0 to 1. Keep in mind that 0 and 1 areacceptable values for a probability answer. Mathematically this is represented as0

P
(event)
1

A probability of 0 means that an event is impossible and a probability of 1 means thatan event is certain.For example, for a dice, the probability of rolling a 7 is zero because you can neverroll a 7 with just one dice.
P
(7) = 0
Probability of mutually exclusive events or Addition Rule

The addition rule helps you solve probability problems that involve two events.

Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time.For example, in an experiment where a dice is thrown, the event of obtaining an evennumber and the event of obtaining an odd number cannot occur at the same time.

An event
A
and an event
B
are said to be
mutually exclusive
when:)()()(
BP AP B AP
+=
or
=
B A
O

For events
not mutually exclusive
:)()()()(
B AP BP AP B AP
+=

means ‘or’.

Sri Bintang Tuition Centre Additional Mathematics Form 5
2
Probability of independent events or Multiplication Rule

Two events are independent if the outcomes of event
A
do not influence the outcomesof event
B
.For example, suppose we roll one dice followed by another and want to find theprobability of rolling a 4 on the first die and rolling an even number on the seconddice; these two events are independent because their outcomes are not influenced byeach other.

If events
A
and
B
are independent, then)()()(
BP AP B AP
×=

means ‘and’.

The concepts of the probability of two independent events can be expanded to threeor more independents events.

A tree diagram can be constructed to show all the possible outcomes of anexperiment. Each branch shows the possible outcomes of an event.
Examples
1.

A letter is randomly selected from the word ‘
LIMAU
’.(a)

Write down the sample space of this experiment.(b)

Determine the number of possible outcomes of the event that the selectedletter is(i) a consonant (ii) a vowel.2.

A bag contains 5 red balls, 8 White balls, 4 green balls and 7 black balls. A ball isdrawn at random from the bag. Fine the probability that it is (i) black (ii) not green.3.

There are 25 red marbles and 20 blue marbles in a box.
m
blue marbles are thenadded to the box so that the probability of obtaining a blue marble from the box is54. Calculate the value of
m
.
[Ans: 80]

Sri Bintang Tuition Centre Additional Mathematics Form 5
3
4.

A number is chosen at random from the sample space,}14,12,10,8,6,4,2{
=
S
. Findthe probability of obtaining a number less than 9 or greater than 11.
[Ans:76]
5.

In a college, 140 students wear spectacles. If a student is selected randomly, theprobability that the student wears spectacles is31. Later, another 20 students whowear spectacles join the college. If a student is selected randomly, state theprobability that the student wear spectacles.
[Ans:
114
]6.

Determine whether the following event are mutually exclusive or not.

A dice is tossed once.(i)

getting an even number and getting an odd number,(ii)

getting a prime number and getting an even number.7.

8 cards with number from 1 to 8 are placed in a box. A card is picked randomlyfrom the box.(a)

Is the events of picking an even number and a prime number mutuallyexclusive?(b)

Find the probability that the card chosen is(i)

an even number or a prime number,(ii)

an even number and a prime number.
[Ans: (b)(i)87(ii)8
1
]

## Activity (72)

### Showing

AllMost RecentReviewsAll NotesLikes