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Chapter 3 Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane

Chapter 3 Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane

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Published by Deepa Manogaran
notes for form 4 chapter 3
notes for form 4 chapter 3

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Published by: Deepa Manogaran on Nov 11, 2009
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02/17/2015

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Chapter 3 Movement of Substances across the PlasmaMembrane
3.1 Movement across the Plasma Membrane
Substances required by the cell are
 
nutrients (glucose and minerals) andoxygen
Substances to be eliminated are metabolic wastes
Why is this important?
 To continue cellular life process, concentration of ions inside the cell must bedifferent than outside the cell
Maintain a constant cellular environment (homeostasis)
Structure
Composed of phospholipids and proteins
Fluid-mosaic model
Phospholipid bilayer
 
barrier which isolates two sides of membrane
Contains cholesterol
 
stabilize and strengthen plasma membrane
Pore protein
 
forms channel/pore
Carrier protein
 
acts as carrier
Glycoprotein
 
protein with carbohydrate attached
Fluidity of membrane
 
cells are more flexible
 The plasma membrane is semi-permeable/selectively permeable (onlysome substances can pass through)
Factors determining whether molecule can pass through
size andpolarity
Molecules that can pass through
Lipid-soluble molecules (fatty acids and glycerol)
Non-polar molecules (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Small molecules such as water ( Basically water is a polar molecule. However, itssmall size enables it to slide between phospholipid bilayer)
Pore proteins allow small water–soluble molecules and ions to pass through
Carrier proteins have site that can bind to specific molecules (glucosemolecules) before transporting them to plasma membrane.Passive transport (movement of substances across plasma membrane withoutinput of energy) Example: gaseous exchange in alveolus and blood capillary
Simple diffusion
 
Movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to a region of lowerconcentration, thus, going down a concentration gradient until a dynamic equilibrium isreached
Osmosis: Diffusion of water
Movement of water molecules from a dilute solution (water concentration high) to aconcentrated solution (water concentration low) through semi-permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion
Movement of substances across plasma membrane with the aid of carrier proteins andpores following the concentration gradient
Example: ions, nucleic acids, amino acids and glucose
Carrier protein are specific (only can bind with certain molecules)
Pore proteins form pore/channel
Active transport
Movement of solute/ion across plasma membrane against concentration gradient
Requires energy and carrier protein
Energy comes from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) generated during respiration inmitochondria
Carrier protein has an active site to bind with molecule and another active site tobind with ATP. The carrier protein changes shape when phosphate group from ATPbinds to it. Then, the solute is moved across the membrane.
Ex. Absorption of water and intake of ions in plants
Passive TransportDifferencesActive TransportFollows concentrationgradientConcentration gradientOpposes concentrationgradientDoes not need energyCellular energyConsumes energyCan take place in livingcells or non-livingphysical conditionsConditionCan only take place inliving cells
 
3.2 Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane in Daily Life
 
Hypotonic-
A solution with higher water potential than another solution
Hypertonic-
A solution with lower water potential than another solution
Isotonic-
A solution with same water potential with another solution
Haemolysis-
 The bursting of red blood cells
Crenation-
 The shrinking of red blood cells
Plasmolysis-
A shrinking of cytoplasm due to osmosis
Deplasmolysis-
A process of a cell gaining its turgidity back
Animal and Plant Cells in an Isotonic Solution
Water diffuses into and out of cell at equal rate. Hence, the cell retains its normalshape.Likewise with the plant cell.
Animal and Plant Cells in a Hypotonic Solution
In animal cell, water enters the cell and causes it to swell up and eventually to burst(red blood cell). This is because the plasma membrane is too thin towithstand thepressure. The bursting of red blood cells is known as haemolysis. In plant cell, waterenters the large central vacuole of the cell, causing the vacuole to expand and swellup and the plasma membrane pushes against the cell wall. In this condition, the cellis said to be turgid. The cell does not burst because the rigid cell wall able towithstand the pressure. This condition creates turgor pressure. Turgidity is importantto support, give shape, and causing the guard cell to swell so that the stomataremains open for photosynthesis.
Animal and Plant Cells in a Hypertonic Solution
In animal cell, there is a net movement of water from inside to outside of the cell. This causes the cell to shrink. In red blood cell, the cell shrivel and the plasmamembrane crinkles up. The cell has undergone crenation. In plant cell, water diffusesout of vacuole through osmosis. Both vacuole and cytoplasm shrink and plasmamembrane pulls away from cell wall (plasmolysis). The cell becomes flaccid. Theflaccidity causes the plant to become limp and stem to drop (wilting). The cell candeplasmolysed by immersing it back to a hypotonic solution.
Wilting occurs in plants when too much fertilizers like potassium nitrate isgiven. Too much fertilizers cause the soil to turn hypertonic to the plant cell.As a result, water diffuses from the cell sap into the soil by osmosis and thecell is plasmolysed. Water shortage in soil also causes the plant to wilt.
Food such as mushrooms, fruits and fish can be preserved using naturalpreservatives (salt and sugar). The preservative makes the surroundingsmore hypertonic to the food and causes water to leave through osmosis. Thefood becomes dehydrated. Microbes loses water to the surrounding and dies.
3.3 Appreciating the Movement of Substances across the PlasmaMembrane
 The proper functioning of plasma membrane is important to:

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YuvarajSomaSundram added this note
very helpful
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StupidZz' KeNg added this note
no , the osmosis process has no mistake...... Osmosis is the net of movement from a region of LOW solute concentration to a region of HIGH concentration through a semi-permeable membrane ^^ (** high water concentration is a low concentration of solutes**)
Mas Berto added this note
sitti zaharrah thank a lot . . without this maybe i still not understand what my teacher have been teach . .^^
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