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Study of Elements of a 22013233kv Substation

Study of Elements of a 22013233kv Substation

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Published by ARVIND
Study of Elements of a 22013233kv Substation
Study of Elements of a 22013233kv Substation

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Published by: ARVIND on Mar 29, 2010
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In our project we are going to study about the operation of different equipments insubstation. It includes study of transmission lines, bus bars, circuit breakers, isolators,earth switches, various types of transformers such as power transformer, capacitor voltage transformer, current transformers, lightning arresters, wave traps and groundingsystem of substation. We will also discuss about the various protection scheme applied inthe substation for this equipments.The protection system is designed to limit the effects of disturbances in power system, which when allowed persisting, may damage the substation and interrupt thesupply of electrical energy. It covers various types of protection used in substation for 220/132/33 KV transmission lines such as bus bar protection relays, auto reclosingschemes, etc.,
The present day electrical power system is AC i.e., electric power is generated,transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located at favourable places, generally quiteaway from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the power, it may be desirableand necessary to change some characteristics of power supply. This is accomplished bysuitable apparatus called Substation.Generating voltage at the power station is stepped upto high voltage for transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus used for this purpose is thesubstation. Similarly,near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be steppeddown to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by a suitable apparatus calledsubstation. The type of equipment needed in the substation will depend upon the servicerequirement.
2.1 Introduction
 An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation,transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power flows through several substations betweengenerating plant and consumer changing the voltage level in several stages.A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage with decreasingcurrent, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage with increasing the currentfor domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. At first substations were connected to onlyone power station where the generator was housed and were subsidiaries of that power station.
2.2 Elements of Substation
Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection and control equipment. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used tointerrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use re-closer circuit breakers or fuses for protection of branchcircuits. A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltageswitchgear, one or more power transformers, low voltage switchgear, surge protection,controls, grounding (earthing) system, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located inspecial-purpose buildings.High-rise buildings may have indoor substations. Indoor substations are usuallyfound in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.
2.3 Types of Substation 
Substations are of three types. They are:a) Transmission Substation b) Distribution Substationc) Collector Substation
a) Transmission Substation
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplestcase is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substationcontains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for faultclearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert thevoltage from voltage level to other, voltage control devices such as capacitors, reactors or Static VAR Compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. The largest transmission substationscan cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage and currenttransformers, relays and SCADA systems). Modern substations may be implementedusing International Standards such as IEC61850
b) Distribution Substation
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to thedistribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricityconsumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amountsof power. So the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for localdistribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmissionor sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 220KV or whatever is

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