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52_19_78

52_19_78

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02/06/2011

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FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 4 (52)
78
Recep Eren,Gülcan Özkan,Mehmet Karahan
*
 
Department of Textile EngineeringFaculty of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of Uludag,
*
Uludag University,Vacational School of Technical Sciences,Textile Program,
 Görükle Campus,Görükle, 16059 Bursa, TURKEYE-mail: erecep@uludag.edu.tr 
Abstract
Mechanism models are introduced for rotary dobby, crank & cam shedding motions. Equations governing heald frame motion are derived. Heald frame motion curves areobtained and compared with each other. It is shown that higher heald frame maximumvelocity & maximum acceleration, as well as a longer approximate heald frame dwell, are generated by the rotary dobby rather than the crank or cam shedding motions, due to theintermittent nature of the rotary dobby shaft’s motion.
Key words:
rotary dobby, cam shedding motion, crank shedding motion, weaving, weaving machine.
Comparison of Heald Frame MotionGenerated by Rotary Dobbyand Crank & Cam Shedding Motions
Figure 1.
Crank type of shedding motion; A
0
 ABB
0
 - crank rocker me-chanism, B
0
CD- slider crank mech-anism, 2 - crank, 3,4, 5 - links, 6 - heald  frame.
Figure 2.
Positive cam shedding motion; the rst drawing was taken from ref. [1];
 A
0
 ABB
0
 , B
0
CDD
0
- four bar mechanisms; D
0
 EF - slider crank mechanism, 2, 2’ - double shedding cam; 3, 3’ - rollers; 4 - oscilating follower; 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 - links; 10 - heald frame
.
n
Introduction
Shedding is one of the principal op-erations in the weaving process, whichseparates warp yarns into two layers toform an opening for weft insertion calleda shed. Crank, cam and dobby are shed-ding motions which use a heald framesystem for lifting warp yarns up or downto form a shed. Crank and cam sheddingmotions are mainly used on high-speedair-jet and water-jet weaving machinesfor weaving fabrics with plain and basicweaves. Despite the widespread use of negative dobby on air-jet and water- jet looms in industry, the use of rotarydobby (i.e., positive dobby) with air-jetlooms has been widened in recent years,due to the increase in rotary dobby run-ning speeds. An increase in loom speedsimposes higher demands on heald framedesign, due to the increase in inertialforces. New heald frame designs whichcan resist higher mechanical stresseshave been developed and demonstratedin the exhibitions, and used especiallyon high-speed air jet weaving ma-chines.Heald frame motion characteristics, andtherefore the inertial forces affectingheald frames, differ depending on thetype of shedding motion. This is of im- portance in designing the heald frames to be used with different type of sheddingmotions. No publication was found in theliterature of a comparative study of healdframe motion characteristics of differenttype of shedding motions. This paper deals with heald frame motion character-istics generated by crank, cam and rotarydobby shedding motions. Mathematicalequations are derived, and the healdframe’s displacement, velocity and ac-celeration are calculated and comparedwith each other according to the healdframe dwell period, the maximum healdframe speed and the maximum healdframe acceleration.
n
Working principle of crank,cam and rotary dobbyshedding motions
Figure 1 shows a schematic view of thecrank shedding motion. It consists of acrank rocker mechanism (
 A
0
 ABB
0
) anda slider crank mechanism (
 B
0
CD
). Thecrank (link 2) rotates at half of the loom’sspeed. The crank’s continuous rotation istransmitted to link 4 by link 3. During onerevolution of the crank, link 4 swings be-tween its foremost and rearmost positions.The slider crank mechanism converts theangular displacement of link 4 to the lin-ear displacement of the heald frame. Theforemost position of link 4 correspondsto the bottom position, and the rearmost position of link 4 corresponds to the upper  position of the heald frame. Heald frameschange position in each loom revolution,and therefore the crank’s shedding motiongenerates a heald frame motion only for  plain weave.Figure 2 shows a cam shedding motion,which consists of a double shedding cam(2 and 2’), an oscillating follower (link 4)
 
79
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 4 (52)
Figure 3.
Fimtextile Type RD 3000 rotarydobby cross-section [2]; b - link xed todobby shaft; c - eccentric link; d - metal  piece; e, f, g, h - links; j - electromagnet.
with two rollers (3 and 3’) and a motiontransmission mechanism to the healdframe. This type of cam shedding motionis called a positive cam shedding motion,in which both the upward and downwardmovement of heald frames are carriedout by cams. There are as many doubleshedding cams and motion transmissionmechanisms as there are heald frames.Each double cam has its own rollers,which are mounted on a common fol-lower with a certain angle. When a camcontinuously rotates in a clockwise direc-tion, a follower swings in clockwise andcounter-clockwise directions, and dwellsat the end positions when necessary (de- pending on the weave). The clockwiserotation of the follower (link 4) causeslink 6 to rotate in a clockwise directionalso, and likewise the anticlockwise rota-tion of the follower (link 4) rotates link 6in an anti-clockwise direction. The mo-tion of link 6 is transmitted to link 8 bylink 7. As |
 B
0
|=|
 D
0
 D
| and |
 B
0
 D
0
|=|
CD
|,the motion of link 8 is the same as thatof link 6. Finally, the motion of link 8 istransmitted to the heald frame (link 10) by link 9. Heald frames move upwardswhen the followers rotate clockwiseand they are lifted down with the anti-clockwise rotation of the followers. Thefollowers’ dwell at the end positions cor-responds to the dwell of the heald framesat the upper and lower shed positions.
Figure 3 shows a rotary dobby cross sec-tion. Link b is fixed to the dobby shaft. Ametal piece (d) is pivoted on the eccentric(link c) and can rotate around its pivotaxis. A spring (not shown in the figure)forces the metal piece to rotate in theclockwise direction, and hence the metal piece presses on link b. There is a ball bearing between links b and c (not seenin the figure). There is also a ball bearing between link c and link e. Links g and h,the electromagnet (j) and the metal piece(d) constitute the pattern selection mecha-nism. Link g can rotate around its pivot bythe action of the electromagnet (j) via link h. If link g is rotated in an anticlockwisedirection, then the metal piece rotates inthe clockwise direction, and its bottom tip becomes engaged in the groove on link b.If link g is rotated in a clockwise direc-tion, it presses the upper tip of the metal piece and disengages it from link b by ro-tating the metal piece (d) in an anticlock-wise direction. When the engagementhappens, link f rotates in an anticlockwisedirection during the 180° rotation of thedobby shaft (i.e., link 1). Link f dwells atits foremost position during the 180° rota-tion of the dobby shaft, if the engagementdoes not occur. The dobby shaft stopsafter every 180° degree rotation, and the pattern selection mechanism engages or disengages the metal piece with link b.If the engagement happens, then link f moves to the other position. Otherwise,it remains in the same position. The mo-tion transmission mechanism of the camshedding mechanism can also be used as amotion transmission mechanism for a ro-tary dobby. In this case, link f of the rotarydobby corresponds to link 4 of the motiontransmission mechanism. The foremost position of link f of the rotary dobby cor-responds to the higher position of a healdframe, and the rearmost position of link f corresponds to the lower position. As aresult, the counterclockwise rotation of link g of the pattern selection mechanismcorresponds to the higher position of theheald frames, and the clockwise rotationto the lower position.
In contrast to the continuous rotation ata constant speed of the drive shaft of thecrank- and cam-shedding motions, therotary dobby shaft has to rotate intermit-tently with 180° increments to allow theengagement or disengagement of themetal piece with link b. A mechanismcalled the ‘modulator’ is used to convertthe continuous rotation of a loom mainshaft to the intermittent movement of therotary dobby shaft.
n
Derivation of equationsfor heald frame motion
The motion equation of a heald framewill be derived with respect to the loom’smain shaft angle for each shedding mo-tion as follows.
Crank shedding motion
The crank type of shedding motionconsists of a crank rocker mechanism(A
0
ABB
0
) and a slider crank mechanism(B
0
CD). Figure 4 shows parameters rep-resenting angular and linear positionsof the links of crank rocker and slider crank mechanisms. The angular positionof the link 4 (
ϕ
4
) is obtained with respectto angular position of the link 2 (
ϕ
2
) asfollows [3].
Figure 4.
 Parametric representation of crank shedding motion; A
0
 ABB
0
- crank rocker me-chanism, B
0
CD - slider crank mechanism,2 - crank, 3, 4, 5 - links, 6 - link representing heald frame; s - hold  frame displacement.
Figure 5.
 Parametric representation of motion transmissionmechanism; A
0
 ABB
0
 , B
0
CDD
0
- four bar mechanisms; D
0
 EF - slider crank mechanism; 7, 8, 9 - links; 10 - link representing heald  frame; s - hold frame displacement.
 
FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2005, Vol. 13, No. 4 (52)
80
(1)where:
a
= (1-
2
) cos
ϕ
2
- (
1
-
3
), b = -2sin
ϕ
2
,
c
= (
1
+
3
) - (1 -
2
) cos
ϕ
2
 and
1
=
1
/
2
,
2
=
1
/
4
and
3
= (
22
-
32
+
12
+
42
)/(2
2
4
) 
1
,
2
,
3 
and
4
are the link lengths of the crank rocker mechanism defined asfollows:
1
= |
 A
0
 A
|,
2
= |
 AB
|,
3
= |
 B
0
 B
|, and
4
= |
 A
0
 B
0
|.Equations 2 and 3 are kinematic analysisequations of the slider crank mechanismwhich relate the heald frame displace-ment (
 s
) the to angular position of link 4 (
ϕ
4
) [3].(2)(3)where
4
’ and
5
are link lengths of theslider crank mechanism defined as fol-lows.
4
= |
 D
0
 E 
|
 
and
5
= |
 EF 
|,
ϕ
4
’,
Ψ
,
 s
, are
e
 are other parameters of the slider crank mechanism shown in Figure 4. Consider-ing that the crank (i.e., link 2) rotates athalf of the loom speed, the heald framedisplacement can be calculated withrespect to the loom’s main shaft angleusing equations 1, 2 and 3.
Cam shedding motion
In cam shedding motions, shedding camsconvert the continuous rotation of thecam shaft to the swinging motion of thefollowers. This swinging motion is thentransmitted to the heald frames by themotion transmission mechanism shownin Figure 5, which consists of two four- bar mechanisms (A
0
ABB
0
and B
0
CDD
0
)and a slider crank mechanism (D
0
EF).The followers ‘motion depends on theweave. An analysis of heald frame mo-tion will be carried out for plain weave inthis work. The motion equation of a fol-lower can be written as follows, for plainweave over two loom revolutions.
ϕ
4
=
 f 
(θ)
for 0 ≤ θ ≤
β
(4)
ϕ
4
=
ϕ
40
for 
β
< θ < 2
π
(5)
ϕ
4
=
ϕ
40
-
 f 
(θ - 2
π
)
for 2
π
≤ θ ≤ 2
π
+
β
(6)
ϕ
4
= 0 for 2
π
+
β
< θ < 4
π
(7)(Simple harmonic motion curve)(8) (Cycloidal motion curve)(9)whereθ : the loom’s main shaft angle,
ϕ
4
: the angular displacement of a fol-lower’s arm from its rearmost posi-tion.
ϕ
40
: the angular swing of a follower’sarm between its rearmost and fore-most positions.
β
: the rotation angle of the loom’smain shaft through which the fol-lower’s arm swings in a clockwiseor anticlockwise direction. Thisalso corresponds to the movement period of the heald frames.
Four-bar mechanisms of motion trans-mission system
The first four-bar mechanism (A
0
ABB
0
)of the motion transmission system isshown in Figure 5. The angular positionof link 6 (
ϕ
6
) is obtained as follows, withrespect to the angular position of link 4(
ϕ
4
’) [3].(10)where:
 A
= (1-
 K 
2
) cos
ϕ
4
- (
 K 
1
-
 K 
3
),B = -2sin
ϕ
4
,
= (
 K 
1
+
 K 
3
) - (1 +
 K 
2
) cos
ϕ
4
 and
 K 
1
=
7
/
4
’,
 K 
2
=
7
/
6
and
 K 
3
= (
4
2
-
52
+
72
+
62
)/(2
4
6
) 
4
’,
5
,
6 
and
7
are the link lengths of the four-bar mechanism of the motiontransmission system, defined as follows.
4
’ = |
 A
0
 A
|,
5
= |
 AB
|,
6
= |
 B
0
 B
|, and
7
= |
 A
0
 B
0
|.
 B
0
CDD
0
is the second four-bar mecha-nism which transmits motion from link 6to link 8. This is a special type of four-bar mechanism in which the lengths of op- posite links are equal to each other, i.e.|
 B
0
| = |
 D
0
 D
| and |
 B
0
 D
0
| = |
CD
|. For thisreason, the angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration are thesame for links 6 and 8.
 Slider crank mechanism of motiontransmission system
 The slider crank mechanism (
 D
0
 EF 
)shown in Figure 5 converts the angular movement of link 8 to the linear displace-ment of link 10 which represents a healdframe. Equations 12 and 13 are kinematicanalysis equations which relate healdframe displacement (
 s
) to the angular  position of link 8 (
ϕ
6
’) [3].(11)
 s
=
8
cos
ϕ
8
+
9
cos
Ψ
(12)where
8
and
9
are link lengths of theslider crank mechanism defined as fol-lows.
8
= |
 D
0
 E 
| and
9
= |
 EF 
|,
ϕ
8
,
Ψ
,
 s
and
e
 are other parameters of the slider crank mechanism defined in Figure 5.Heald frame displacement is obtainedwith respect to the loom’s main shaft an-gle, using equations 4 to 12 to obtain the positive cam shedding motion.
Rotary dobby
The rotary dobby shaft’s displacementdiagram can be expressed mathematical-ly over two loom revolutions as follows.
ϕ
2
=
 f 
(θ)
for 0 ≤ θ ≤
β
(13)
ϕ
2
=
π
for 
β
< θ < 2
π
(14)
ϕ
2
=
π
 
-
 f 
(θ - 2
π
)
for 2
π
≤ θ ≤ 2
π
+
β
(15)
ϕ
2
= 2
π
for 2
π
+
β
< θ < 4
π
(16)(Simple harmonic motion curve)(17)(Cycloidal motion curve)(18) In these equations;θ : the angle of rotation of the loom’smain shaft.
ϕ
2
: the angle of rotation of the modula-tor output shaft or the rotary dobbyshaft.
β
: the angle of rotation of the loom’smain shaft, within which the modu-lator output shaft or dobby shaftcompletes the 180° rotation.
Figure 6.
Crank rocker mechanism; desi- gnations as in Figure 4.

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