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Transverse Loading Calculation of Bending Moment and Shear Force in Beams

Transverse Loading Calculation of Bending Moment and Shear Force in Beams

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Lecture 9-10
6
Transverse Loading: Calculation of Bending Moment and Shear Force in Beams
Skeletal members that primarily carry loading applied perpendicular to their axes(transversely or laterally) will be referred to as ‘
beams
’. As they carry transverse loadingthey undergo
bending
or
 flexural
deformations and to some extent
shearing
. If the cross-sectional dimensions of a beam are small compared to their
span
(length of the beamundergoing bending) it may be classified as a
slender 
beam. In most practical situations, thebeams may be treated as slender. Slender beams undergo flexural deformations where oneside of the beam gets stretched while the other side gets shortened as shown in Figure 9.13.Figure 9.13.There will also be a
shearing
type deformation, which is considerable in beams that are short(cross-sectional dimensions being comparable to the span). The deformations shown in thediagrams above are grossly exaggerated, and in practice the displacements are very small.Beams are used in most structures and machines, and the effect of transverse loading onbeams is often the main criteria in structural design. Typical examples include bridges, roof structural elements (purlins, rafters), floor-beams, machine elements such as levers, cranks,manipulator arms etc. Even members that predominantly carry torsional loading such astransmission shafts are susceptible to flexural deformations, and knowledge of their flexuralbehaviour is needed in calculating the
whirling speeds
(the speed at which the shaft has atendency to whirl) of shafts. Therefore, it is important to be able to calculate the internalactions in beams due to transverse loading.
Types of Induced Actions
 Let us consider a beam that is clamped at one end and unsupported at the other end as shownin Figure 9.11. This is called a cantilever beam. Let the beam be subject to an upward forceP (applied load) at distance ‘a’ from the clamp. A sketch of its deflected shape(exaggerated) is also shown.Figure 9.14.Deflected Shape(exaggerated)
a
PA BC Cantilever Beam
a
PA BC Flexural deformation Shearing & Flexureshorteningelongation
 
Lecture 9-10
7
The reactions at A may be calculated by considering the overall equilibrium. First let ussketch the overall free-body diagram.The free-body diagram in Figure 9.15 shows the appliedforce P and two induced reactions at A, the transverseforce R
A
and the reaction moment M
A
. The actual senseof the reactions will be known only after solvingequations of equilibrium. The directions shown werechosen arbitrarily. Summing the forces in transversedirection gives:
R
A
+ P =0R
A
= -P.This means that the actual sense of the reaction R
A
is opposite to the one shown in the free-body diagram. Similarly summing the moments about A gives:M
A
- P.a = 0 or-M
A
+ P.a = 0which yields M
A
= P.a.To find the internal actions in the beam, we need to apply the method of sections. Let usmake a transverse cut in the beam at distance x from A, so the cut lies between A and B andconsider one of the free-bodies shown in Figure 9.16:Clearly the above free-body diagrams are incomplete. The actions from one free-body ontothe other have to be inserted to complete these free-body diagrams. It can be seen that atransverse force and a moment will have to be inserted at the cut, to maintain the equilibriumof these free-bodies. The force induced acts in a direction (transverse) that is parallel to thecut and therefore it is referred to as a
shearing force
. The moment is associated with thebending of the beam and is therefore called a
bending moment 
.
Sign Convention for Shear Force and Bending Moment
At this stage we need to choose sign conventions for the shear force and the bendingmoment. If we show the shear force as acting in the downward direction on one of the free-bodies, by Newton’s third law, the shear force on the other free-body must be shown asacting in the upward direction. One possible convention is to show the shear force on theright-hand side of the left segment as acting in the upward direction as shown in Figure 9.17.To be consistent with Newton’s third law, we should then show the shear force acting on theleft-hand side of the right-hand side free-body in the downward direction. Similarly, if weR
A
Figure 9.15.Overall Free-body diagram
a
PA BC M
A
Figure 9.16
x
PA BC M
A
a-x
 
Lecture 9-10
8
show the moment on the right-hand side free-body in a clock-wise sense, the bendingmoment on the left-hand-side free-body should be shown in the anti-clockwise sense.Therefore Figure 9.17 shows one possible consistent set of sign conventions for the inducedactions. The shear force is denoted by S
AB
and the bending moment is denoted by M
AB
. Asin the case of axial force, the subscript ‘AB’ refers to the segment in which the internalactions act.
Applying Equilibrium Equations
:Now we can apply the equations of equilibrium to determine the unknown actions. First letus find the shear force. Summing the transverse forces acting on the right-hand side free-body we get:
- S
AB
+ P = 0.Therefore S
AB
= P.The same result could have been obtained by summing the forces in the downward direction,or by considering the equilibrium of the other free-body as shown below:Summing the forces in the downward direction gives
S
AB
- P = 0 which also gives the same result for the shear force.Alternatively, taking the left-hand side free-body gives
S
AB
+ R
A
=0 giving S
AB
= -R
A
;But we already have R
A
= -P. Therefore S
AB
= -(-P) = P. Once again we get the same result.To find the bending moment, we can sum the moments for one of the free-bodies. Let usconsider the right-hand side free-body and take moments in the clockwise direction about apoint through the cut. We get, M
AB
– P(a-x) = 0 giving M
AB
= P(a-x).Thus we have an expression for the bending moment. We could have taken moments aboutany other point, for example about B or C. There is however an advantage in takingmoments about a point on the cut-face. As the induced shear force passes through the cut, if moments were taken about any point that does not lie on the cut-face, the contribution fromthe moment due to the shear force also enters the equation. Since the shear force is also anunknown, any error in the calculation of the shear force would also introduce an error in thecalculation of the unknown bending moment.Having obtained the expressions for the shear force and bending moment in segment AB, wecan now move to segment BC. If we make a cut between B and C and consider the free-body right of the cut, there will be no applied force in that segment. Therefore, the bendingmoment and shear force in BC must be zeroFigure 9.17Completed free-body diagrams of two beam segments
x
PA BC M
A
a-x
M
AB
M
AB
S
AB
S
AB
R
A

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