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13 Identifying the Problems of Specify Units and Develop a Plan of Action by Problem Solving Appr

13 Identifying the Problems of Specify Units and Develop a Plan of Action by Problem Solving Appr

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Published by Naveen Eldose RN

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Published by: Naveen Eldose RN on Apr 20, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Submitted by:IInd year MSc Nursing
Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the largerproblem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping.Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills. Problem solving occurs when an organism or an artificial intelligence system needs to move from a given state to a desired goal state.
A nurse manger’s most effective leadership skill is problem solving
ability. A problem is asituation for which an individual has no ready response in her or his behavioral repertoire. Anoptimist might see a problem as a poorly defined opportunity for improvement in a situation.Although a problem is a provocative situation for which a person has no ready response, the
 problem’s solution need not consist of wholly new knowledge, skills, or attitudes. Often, an
effective problem solution is merely a new combination of existing ideas and abilities.OrAt this point, one may be wondering about the relationship between decision-making andproblem-solving. The first step in decision-making was to identify the problem. But problem-solving can involve the making of several decisions. The best way to define the relationshipbetween the two is to define the steps of problem-solving.
Problem solving like other managerial activities is facilitated by proper organization. Inorganizing subordinates, problem-solving efforts, a manager should observe the followingprinciples:
To resolve problems affecting organizational efficiency, the manager should separatelarge problems from small ones, use policy to solve the smaller problems, and conservemanagerial time for solving major problems.
The manager should delegate smaller problems to subordinates and teach them to solvethese by applying existing agency rules.
In resolving operational problems, the manager should consult internal and externalexperts, so that solutions will be based on current knowledge.
Problem solutions are most effective when the manager approaches problems in relaxedfashion and refuses to solve problems under stress.
It is impossible to anticipate all eventualities or to expect 100 percent accuracy indiagnosing and resolving problems. Therefore, it is unwise to agonize over selecting asolution.To conserve time, a nurse manager should ensure that job descriptions and personnel-evaluation
forms specify employees’ re
sponsibilities for problem-solving. The manager should be explicitin assigning problem-solving responsibility to particular employees and prepare detailed agendasfor problem-solving meetings. The manager should show appreciation for unacceptable, as well
as acceptable, ideas generated during employees’ search for a problem solution. An official
format should be used in presenting and reviewing proposed solutions to ensure that all
employees’ proposals receive equal consideration.
 A manager can enhance sta
ff nurses’ problem solving by teaching them multiple problem
-solving techniques. Adults learn best through immediate application and experimentation withnewly acquired information. Therefore problem-solving instruction should include in-basketexercises, where nurses are given information about real-life nursing problems, which they mustsolve by using existing resources. When problem-solving instruction is given in groups,coworkers can serve as a reference source while the nurse learns new techniques; and theprimary work group can be strengthened for problem-solving in quality circles.Inaccurate problem definition is the principal cause for poor problem-solving. Teaching nurses tofollow a step-by-step problem-solving process will improve solution quality, even for employeesincapable of analytical or creative thought. To maximize the transfer of training, the manager-trainer should call attention to the type of solution that solves the problem in each in-basketvignette and discuss probable effects of using the same solution for a problem on the nursingunit.

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