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EECS 240 Analog Integrated Circuits Topic 10:

Folded Cascode OTA


Bernhard E. Boser, Ali M. Niknejad,S.Gambini Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Folded Cascode
Good general purpose single-stage OTA Analysis
Bias Gain Input capacitance Frequency response Feedback, stability Settling time Noise Common-Mode Feedback

Design
Specications Circuit parameters
EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode 2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad & S.Gambini

Schematic

Many more transistors, but overall characteristics very similar to common-source stage.
EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode 2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad & S.Gambini

Bias Subcircuit

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

DC Gain, Bias

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Bias Differential Inputs

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Low Frequency Gain, Adm


Gain / Output Range tradeoff
Adm=120 Vod = 4.3V Adm=200 Vod = 3.6V (nominal parameter)

Increasing Adm:
Moderate:
Increase L Affects V*, phase margin

Substantial:
Double Cascode Gain boosting Multi-stage amplier

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Increased Adm

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Output Resistance

Beware of imbalance between NMOS and PMOS current source


EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode 2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad & S.Gambini

Gm, Cod Test Circuit

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Transconductance

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Differential Output Capacitance

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Differential Input Capacitance


CGS1 = 2/3 Cox W L = 117 fF Miller effect signicantly increases Cid at low frequency Cascoding M1, M2 helps (at the expense of reduced input commonmode range)

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Frequency Response (Adm)


Bandwidth
Strong function of CL Increasing fu?

Feedback
Stability Phase margin Increasing m Increasing CL increases m in single-stage amplier (costly)
& S.Gambini

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

Common Mode Feedback (CMFB) (See G&M, Ch. 13)


Essential in all fully-differential amplifiers How to implement it? Main choices: Continuous-time CMFB Resistors (mostly academic) Triode Devices Double Differential Pair Discrete-time CMFB Switched capacitor CMFB Issues: Bandwidth, rejection

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Ideal CMFB
+cmc -+ vop
A

von

Issue: How do we sense the output common-mode without disturbing the amplifier? (See next)

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Resistive CMFB
Consider Folded Cascode Amplifier Gain=Gm Rout=70dB (~3000 V/V) Rout=2.5M Rsense> 2.5M to avoid gain degradation-impractical + vop cmc - + von Rsense Rsense

What about using transistors?

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Triode Device CMFB


vdd biasP von biasP vop
What about using transistors? Advantage:Simple Problem:one side shuts off for large signal-> this become DMFB (differential mode feedback)

Vref vss
EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

Vref

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Triode Device CMFB


vdd biasP von biasP vop
What about using transistors? Advantage:Simple Problem:one side shuts off for large signal-> this become DMFB (differential mode feedback) Similar version with double diff pair and same problems

Vref vss
EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

Vref

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Switched Capacitor CMFB


What about using capacitors? Problem:initialization vop + cmc - + von Csense Csense

Solution: Switched Capacitor (see next)

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini

Switched Capacitor CMFB


Solution: Switched Capacitor + vop cmc - + von 1 Csense 1 Csense 1 2 2 2 Vcmref Vbias Vcmref

EECS 240 Topic 10: Folded Cascode

2011 B. Boser,A. Niknejad

& S.Gambini