This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr. Mohammad Al-tahat Department of Industrial Engineering. University of Jordan. Lab. Of Manufacturing Processes. Course No: 906412, 0906412
1. Objective: The main objective of this experiment is to study the process of rolling of metals and to examine the deferent factors influence the process. 2. Background: For more information about the subject of the experiments, it is recommended for the student to review section 6.3 of chapter six of the text. 3. Theory It is the first process in converting a cast material (ingot) into a finished wrought product, rolling process can be defined as: the Bulk deformation process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross-section of a long work-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls (mills) similar to rolling dough with a rolling pin to reduce its thickness as demonstrated in figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Rolling process description.
Rolling accounts for about 90% of all metals produced by metal forming. The process first developed in the late 1500s the basic operation is flat rolling (simply) where the rolled products are flat plate and sheet. Plates: having greater than 6mm – 0.3 m thickness. Sheets: having less than 0.6 mm. A schematic outline of various flat and shape rolling process are shown in figure 5.2 the figure implies the sequence of operations needed to convert an ingot or a continues casting into a useful product like strip, plate, bar etc.
Page 1 of 12
or no slip point to the left of the neutral point. A greater volume of metal is formed by rolling than by any other metalworking process.3]: Schematic illustration of the flat rolling process.2 Schematic Outline Of various flat-and shape rolling processes 1. because Vr is constant along the roll gap. sliding occurs between the roll and the strip. roll moves faster than the workpiece. At the exit of the roll gap. and to right the workpiece moves faster than the roll. the velocity of the strip is Vf.Figure 5. Page 2 of 12 . Neutral point. Because of volume constancy.3]. It is known as neutral point. FIGURE [5. the velocity of the workpiece (strip) must increase as it moves through the roll gap. At a certain point a long the arc of contact strip velocity and roll velocity are the same. Mechanics of Rolling Strip Sliding. Schematic illustration for flat rolling is shown in figure [5.
Note the difference in the direction of frictional forces.6.5]: Stresses on an element in rolling: (a) entry zone and (b) exit zone. FIGURE [5. The arrows represent the frictional forces acting on the strip.5]. Forward slip. Using the slab method of analysis for plane strain. In rolling is defined in terms of the exit velocity of the strip Vf and the surface speed of the roll Vr as: Forward slip = (Vf –Vr)/Vr State of Stress in Rolling and Roll Pressure The calculation of forces and stress distribution in flat rolling is more involved than in upsetting because of the curved surface of contact. The stresses on an element in the entry and exit zones are shown in figure [5.FIGURE [5. the material at the exit is strain hardened.6]: Forces on the element. Figure [5.4]: Relative velocity distribution between rolls and strip surfaces. Page 3 of 12 . In addition. From the equilibrium of the horizontal forces on the element in figure 5. so the flow stress at the exit is higher than that at the entry.
Yf 3 (5.σ z )2 + ( σ z . Since we have plain strain state.2) (5.σ 2 )2 + ( σ 2 .5(σ x + σ y ) = 0 ⇒ σ z = 0.7 εx = [ ] According to the distortion-energy criterion for plane strain. we have ( σ1 .50 i. then we can write ε2=0.σ1 )2 = 2Y 2 ( σ x .3) (5. 1 [σ 1 − υ (σ 2 + σ 3 )] E 1 In general ε z = E [σ 2 − υ (σ 1 + σ 3 )] 1 ε y = [σ 3 − υ (σ 1 + σ 2 )] E The maximum value for v (or that value for which volume change is zero) is 0.1) i.e.(σ x + dσ x )(h + dh) w − (2 pRdφ sin φ ) w − σ x hw ± (2µpRdφ cos φ ) w = 0 (σ x + dσ x )(h + dh) − 2 pRdφ sin φ − σ x h ± 2µpRdφ cos φ = 0 σ x h + σ x dh + dσ x h + dσ x dh − σ x h = 2 pRdφ (sin φ m µ cos φ ) σ x dh + dσ x h = 2 pRdφ (sin φ m µ cos φ ) for unit width (w = 1) FIGURE [5. there we obtain 1 ε z = σ 2 − 0.5(σ x + σ y ) as seen in figure 5. (In the elastic range 0< ν < 0.σ 3 )2 + ( σ 3 .5(σ x + σ y ) E (5.σ y )2 + ( σ y . σ z = 0.σx = Yf = Yf ⇒ σx = p .σx = Or ' 2 Y =Y 3 ' ' 2 p .5 and there is a volume change).7]: Stresses on an element in plane-strain compression (Rolling) between two rolls.6) Page 4 of 12 .σ x )2 = 2Y σy .4) Assume the following equation H =2 ⎛ R ⎞ R tan −1 ⎜ φ⎟ ⎜ hf ⎟ hf ⎝ ⎠ (5.e.
8) FIGURE 5. at entry and exit. actual pressure distributions. At exit. The effect of reduction in thickness of the strip on the pressure distribution is shown in Fig 5. as determined experimentally. In the exit zone. Hence. the rolls slip and the neutral point shifts completely to the exit. Page 5 of 12 . have smoother curves with their peaks rounded off. ∴ p = Y f` R hf C= (5.7) ∴ p = Y f` h µH e hf (5. Without friction. which in turn increases the peak pressure. Note that. H = Hf = 0. in the entry zone.h m µH e R At entry. as friction increases. The neutral point shifts toward the entry. Also. As reduction increases. ø = 0. ø = α. H = Ho with ø replaced by α. ∴ p = CY f` C= R m µH i e hf h µ ( Ho −H ) e ho . p = Yf`.9.8 Pressure distribution in the roll gap as a function of the coefficient of friction. the length of contact in the roll gap increases. hence. The curves shown are theoretical. hence.
such 1.FIGURE 5.10 Pressure distribution as a function of front and back tension. and 4. The roll force F can be reduced by various means. 2. Front and Back Tension. Page 6 of 12 . Note the shifting of the neutral point and the reduction in the area under the curves with increasing tension. 3. A slower friction. Higher workpiece temperatures.9 Pressure distribution in the roll Gap as a function of reduction in thickness. Reduce the plain compressive yield stress of the material by applying longitudinal tension. Note the increase in the area under the curves with increasing reduction in thickness. Smaller reductions. thus increasing the roll-separating force. Smaller roll radii. FIGURE 5. 5.
10) multiplied by the strip width.dφ + ∫ w. Large Ratio. The roll torque T for each roll can be calculated analytically from the expression T= FL 2 (5.9) A simpler method of calculating the force is multiply the contact area with an average contact area with an average contact stress: F = L. L = 2 R. p. ∆h is the difference between the original and final thickness of the strip (draft).10) Where L is the arc of contact.11) R is the roll radius. p. Consequently.13) The power required per roll is Power = Tω Where ω = 2πN and N is the revolutions per minute of the roll. We can also express the power as Page 7 of 12 . 5. F.haverage ⎟.14) Where F is in Newton’s. is the roll force. Small L Ratio ⎪ ⎠ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ paverage Where Y ' is the average flow stress in plane strain of the material in the roll gap. The area under the pressure-contact length curves (figures 5. p average (5. L is in meters. 5.12) (5.9. Roll Torque and Power.∆h ∆h = h0 − h f (5.dφ 0 φn α φn (5. Higher frictional conditions. This force can be expressed as: F = ∫ ω . w.R. on the strip.Roll Forces. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L = ⎨ '⎛ ⎬ µ . h ⎫ ⎧Y ' .13.L ⎞ ⎟ h ⎪ ⎪Y ⎜1 + ⎪ ⎜ 2. and N is the rpm of the roll.R.8. it can be approximated as in the following expression. see figure 4. Low frictional conditions.w. the power per roll is Power = πFLN 60000 Kw (5.
The usual method of avoiding this problem is to grind the rolls so that their diameter at the center is slightly larger than at the edges. = 0. 5.8) = 1.Power = 2πFLN hp 33000 (5. If the roll radius is 12 in. paverage = 1.4: Power required in rolling A 9 in. The power needed for a set of two rolls is given by Eq.0 ⎞ ∆h = h0 − h f Y= ⇒ From tables K = 30000.11a.15) as: 2πFLN 2π (297000)(0.15 × 18500 = 21275 3 L = 2 R. This is known as camber. to 0.223) Y= = 18500 psi 1.0 − 0.2 Roll bending and flattening. n = 0.w. Example 6.80 in. Roll forces tend to bend the rolls.00 in.8 ⎠ ⎝ f⎠ n K (ε ) ⎛ 1. SOLUTION.(h0 − h f ) = 2 12. Page 8 of 12 .55in.2 30000(0.13 ft ε = ln⎜ o ⎟ = ln⎜ ⎟ = 0. (5.∆h . as shown in Fig.15) Where F is in lb and L is in ft. wide 6061-0 aluminum strips is rolled from a thickness of 1. ⎛h ⎞ L = 2 R. and the roll rpm are 100. with the result that the strip is thicker at its center than at its edges (crown). estimate the horsepower required for this operation.2 1+ n 0.223 ⎜h ⎟ ⎝ 0.55 × 9 × 21275 = 297000 Ib Power = paverage = Y ' = 21275psi Y' = 2 Y = 1.13)(100) hp = = 735hp 33000 33000 F = L.(1.
Shape Rolling.11 (a) Bending of straight cylindrical rolls because of the roll separating force. Page 9 of 12 . decreasing friction. This process also rolls various other structural sections. such as channels and I-beams. Forces also tend to flatten the rolls elastically. Thus the roll force F increases. Spreading of Rolled Metals the width increases considerably during rolling. Flattening of the rolls increases roll radius and hence yields a larger contact area for the same reduction in thickness. This process is used to produce straight structural by passing a bloom through a number of pairs of specially designed rollers as seen in figure 5. 2.12 Stages in shape rolling of an H section part. Miscellaneous Rolling Operations. This increase in width is known as spreading Spreading decreases with increasing width-to-thickness ratios of the entering material. that produce a sheet of uniform thickness during rolling. ground with camber.12. much like the flattening of tires on automobiles.FIGURE5. FIGURE 5. (b) Bending of rolls. and increasing ratios of roll radius-to-strip thickness.
one of which is driven and the other is idler as seen in figure 5.15: Thread and gear rolling operation Figure 5.13. the ring thickness is reduced by bringing the rolls closer as they rotate.13 Schematic illustration of a ring-rolling operation. Page 10 of 12 . A small-thick diameter for a ring is expanded into a larger one (thinner diameter). The ring to be expanded is placed between two rolls. Threaded Screws and threaded bolts are formed on round rods or work pieces by passing them between reciprocating or rotating dies as in the figure 5.Ring Rolling. Thickness reduction results in an increase in the part diameter.14 below: Figure 5. Thread and Gear Rolling. FIGURE 5.16: Required diameter s for both Machined and rolled thread.
(d) Alligatoring. (b) Zipper cracks in center of strip. The mandrel is held in place by the long rod. This is the principle of the Mannesmann mill for seamless tube making. FIGURE 5. Alligatoring is a complex phenomenon resulting from inhomogeneous deformation of the material during rolling or defects in the original cast ingot. roll marks. Page 11 of 12 .17 Cavity formation by secondary tensile stresses in a solid round bar and its utilization in the rotary tube piercing process.Rotary Tube Piercing. (c) Edge cracks. 3. scale. The diameter and the thickness of tubes and pipes can be reduced by tube rolling using shaped rolls.18 Schematic illustration of typical defects in flat rolling: (a) Wavy edges. as shown in figure 5. is a preconditioning process to remove scale from the surfaces of some hot rolled product. Some typical defects are shown in Fig. either with or without mandrels. 5. 5. such as piping. dirt. Tube Rolling. Surface defects may result from inclusions and impurities in the material. rust. and other causes related to the prior treatment and working of the material. The cracks shown in Fig. FIGURE 5. Torch (scarfing). Bending of the rolls causes wavy edges. Rotary tube piercing is used to make long and thick-walled continuous tubing.18. Surface Defects. Structural Defects. although techniques have been developed in which the mandrel remains in place without the rod. Defects in Rolling Defects may be on the surfaces of the rolled plates and sheets.18b and c are usually caused by low ductility and barreling.17. Also Residual stresses considered as a major defect. or they may be structural defects within the material.
4. Materials: Commercial pure lead (98%). Describe the rolling process illustrating with sketch. Vernier Caliper and measuring instruments. Find the reduction ratio (r) for the rolled sheet. tf= final sheet thickness after rolling. Repeat the rolling sequence fixed reduction ratio with different initial sheets thickness. Measure the width of the lead sheet before and after rolling. 6. Roll the lead sheet by setting the flat sheet between the two rollers. 6. Measure the thickness of the lead sheet before and after rol1ing. 8. 1) Discuss rolling methods and rolling defects? Page 12 of 12 . 4. 4. Measure the diameter of the rollers. Find the ratio of initial sheet width to thickness (W1/ t1). Equipments: Rolling Mill. 2. for plain strain condition where there is no or very slightly change in sheet width before and after rolling. Requirements: 1. where tl =initial sheet thickness before rolling. 9. Set the rolling mill for operation. 7. 10. 8. Make a line diagram showing the method of operation of the rolling mill. 7. Questions. 5. Procedures: 1. Adjust the gap between the two rolls. 3. Measure the length of the lead sheet before and after rolling. Set of flat lead sheets. r = [tl-tf)/ t1. 5. 3. Repeat the rolling sequence for different ratio of sheet width to thickness. 5. 2. Repeat the rolling sequence for different reduction with initial sheet thickness constant. Measure main rolling defects.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.